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Full text of "Moralia, in fifteen volumes, with an English translation by Frank Cole Babbitt"

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LOEB CLASSICAL LIBRARY 



PLUTARCH 

MORALIA 

VOLUME XV 







Translated by 
F. H. SANDBACH 



iiigiimiiBifgjfaiaiiaiaiiBitBiiEUiBiEiimiiBiiaiBiiaiafBKBiEilii 



PLUTARCH (Plutarchus), ca. ad 4^-1 20, 
was born at Chaeronea in Boeotia in cen- 
tral Greece, studied philosophy at Athens, 
and, after coming to Rome as a teacher in 
philosophy, was given consular rank by the 
emperor Trajan and a procurator ship in 
Greece by Hadrian. He was married and 
the father of one daughter and four sons. 
He appears as a man of kindly character 
and independent thought, studious and 
learned. 

Plutarch wrote on many subjects. Most 
popular have always been the 46 Parallel 
Lives, biographies planned to be ethical ex- 
amples in pairs (in each pair, one Greek 
figure and one similar Roman) , though the 
last four lives are single. All are invaluable 
sources of our knowledge of the lives and 
characters of Greek and Roman statesmen, 
soldiers and orators. Plutarch's many other 
varied extant works, about 60 in number, 
are known as Moralia or Moral Essays. They 
are of high literary value, besides being of 
great use to people interested in philoso- 
phy, ethics and religion. 

The Loeb Classical Library edition of the 
Moralia is in fifteen volumes, volume XIII 
having two parts. 



kL{K- 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 
in 2013 



http://archive.org/details/moraliainfiftee15plut 



THE LOEB CLASSICAL LIBRARY 

FOUNDED BY JAMES LOEB, LL.D. 
EDITED BY 

G. P. GOOLD, ph.d. 

FORMER EDITORS 

tT. E. PAGE, c.h., litt.d. tE. CAPPS, ph.d., ll.d. 
t W. H. D. ROUSE, litt.d. t L. A. POST, l.h.d. 
tE. H. WARMINGTON, m.a., f.r.hist.soc. 



PLUTARCH'S 
MORALIA 

xv 



429 



PLUTARCH'S 

MORALIA 

IN SIXTEEN VOLUMES 
XV 

FRAGMENTS 

EDITED AND TRANSLATED BY 
F. H. SANDBACH 

TRINITY COLLEGE, CAMBRIDGE 




CAMBRIDGE, MASSACHUSETTS 

HARVARD UNIVERSITY PRESS 

LONDON 

WILLIAM HEINEMANN LTD 

MCMLXXXVII 



American 

ISBN 0-674-99473-6 



British 

ISBN 434 99429 4 



First published 1969 
Reprinted 1987 



) The President and Fellows of Harvard College 1969 



Printed in Great Britain by 
Thomson Litho Ltd, East Kilbride, Scotland 



CONTENTS OF VOLUME XV 

PAGE 

The Traditional Order of the Books of the 

Moralia vii 

Introduction xi 

Works by Plutarch : Ancient Lists — 

A. Photius 2 

B. Lamprias Catalogue 3 

Tyrwhitt's Fragments 31 

Fragments from Lost Lives — 

Epaminondas and Scipio 74 

Scipio Africanus 76 

Life of Nero 78 

Life of Heracles 78 

Life of Hesiod 80 

Life of Pindar 82 

Life of Crates 82 

Dai'phantus 82 

Aristomenes 84 

Fragments from other Named Works — 

AlTfcOU T(x)V l ApULTOV AlO(r'A///,ltoV .... 88 

El YJ TU)V jJLtWoVTiOV 7Tp6yVtoCriS d)<f>€\l.fJLOS . Q6 

V 



CONTENTS OF VOLUME XV 

PAGE 

Ets 5 E/A7re6WAea 102 

Ets t<x t Hcri68ov"Epya 104 

Et9 r<x NiKOLvSpOV Qr)pLai<d ..... 226 

Kara f)8ovqs 230 

KaT tcrxvos 236 

t OjjLrjpiKoX pekerai 238 

"On Kal yvvaiKa iro.i§evreov 242 

Uepl eputros 248 

TLepl evyeveias 260 

Uepl rjfxepcov . . . 264 

Tlepl rj(jv\tas 266 

Uepl kolXXovs 268 

Uepl pLavTiKqs 272 

Tlepl opyrjs 274 

Uepl ttXovtov 276 

Uepl tov Sca/SdWeiv 280 

Uepl twv ev IlAaTaiats Aru8aAo.>i' . . . 282 

Uepl <£iAias eiri<TTo\i) 298 

Uepl <f>vcre<DS /cat irovwv 306 

Uepl \pv\y\^ 306 

^TpojjjLarei^ 324 

Other Fragments . 341 

Appendices 403 

Index of Names 411 

Index of Subjects .417 



VI 






THE TRADITIONAL ORDER of the Books of 
the Moralia as they appear since the edition of 
Stephanus (1572), and their division into volumes 
in this edition. 

PAGE 

I. De liberis educandis (Ile/n -naihcDv dycoyijs) . 1a 

Quomodo adolescens poetas audire debeat 

(Ilais Set rov viov 7roLrj(jLdrojv olkov€w) . . 17d 

De recta ratione audiendi (Ilcpt rov aVouetv) . 37 b 

Quomodo adulator ab amico internoscatur 

(Ilai? O.V TLS 8l(LKpiv€L€ TOV KoXcLKCL TOV <j>l\ov) 48E 

Quomodo quis suos in virtute sentiat profectus 
(Ilais dv tls atadoLTO iavrov irpoKOTTTOVTOs in 
dperfj) ....... 75a 

II. De capienda ex inimicis utilitate (litis dv tls 

V7T* €xOp£>V <X)<f>€XoLTo) . . . . 86 B 

De amicorum multitudine (Hepi 7roAu<£tAt'as) . 93a 

De fortuna (Uepl rvxys) .... 97c 

De virtute et vitio (Ilepl dp€Tijs /cat /ca/ctas) . 100b 
Consolatio ad Apollonium (UapapLvd-qriKos npos 

' AitoXXwvlov) . . . . . . 10 If 

De tuenda sanitate praecepta ('Tytetvd nap- 

ayyeXfiara) . . . . . .122b 

Coniugalia praecepta (TafMLKa napayyiXfiaTa) . 138a 
Septem sapientium convivium {Tcbv eVra oo<f>a>v 

avpLTTocfLov) . . . . . 146 b 

De superstitione (He pi SctatSat/zoyta?) . 164e 
III. Regum et imperatorum apophthegmata ('A770- 

<f>64yfjLara pacnXecov /cat arpaT7)yd)v) . . 172a 
Apophthegmata Laconica (' ATTo^deyfiara Aa- 

KcovLKa) ....... 208a 

Instituta Laconica (Td 7raAatd tujv Aa/ceSat/Ltovtcdv 

cVtTT/Seu/xaTa) ...... 236 F 

vii 



TRADITIONAL ORDER OF THE- BOOKS 

Lacaenarum apophthegmata (Aa/catiw drro- 

<l>d4yixaTa) ...... 240c 

Mulierum virtutes (Twai/caV dperai) . . 242e 

IV. Quaestiones Romanae (Atrta 'Pa>/xat/ca) . 263d 

Quaestiones Graecae (Atrta 'EAAiyvt/ca) . . 29 Id 
Parallela Graeca et Romana (Lwaycoyr) loro- 

piuiv rrapaXX^Xajv 'FiXXrjviKOJV /cat f Pa>/Aat/ccoi>) . 305a 
De fortuna Romanorum (Ilept rijs 'Pcofialcov 

rvxys) ....... 316b 

De Alexandri magni fortuna aut virtute, li- 

bri ii (Ilept rijs 'AAe^dVSpou rvx^S rj dperijs, 

Xoyoi jS') ...... 326d 

Bellone an pace clariores fuerint Athenienses 

(Horepov 'Adrjvaloi /caret TroXefxov tj /caret oo(f>iav 

eVSo£orepot) ...... 345c 

V. De Iside et Osiride (Ilept "laih6s /cat 'Oeu'ptSos) 351c 

De E apud Delphos (Ilept rod EI rod eV AeA^ots) 384c 
De Pythiae oraculis (Ilept rod (jltj xp<*v e/x/xerpa 

vdv ri]v UvOlglv) ..... 394d 
De defectu oraculorum (Ilept rcov e'/cAeAot7rdra>v 

Xprjorr)pLcjv) ...... 409e 

VI. An virtus doceri possit (Et StSa/crcV rj dperrj) . 439a 

De virtute morali (Ilept rijs tj6lk7}s dperijs) . 440d 

De cohibenda ira (Ilept dopyrjoias) . . 452e 

De tranquillitate animi (Ilept evdvpLias) . . 464e 

De fraterno amore (Ilept <£tAaoeA</>tW) . . 478a 
De amore prolis (Ilept rijs els rd e/cyova <£tAo- 

oropyias) . . . . . .493a 

An vitiositas ad infelicitatem sumciat (Et 

avrdpKTjs f) /ca/ct'a irpds KaKoSaipLOvlav) . . 498a 
Animine an corporis affectiones sint peiores 

(Ilorepov rd rijs ^VXV S V TC * r °v oajpuaros Trddr) 

X^Lpova) ....... 500b 

De garrulitate (Ilept aooAea^taj) . . . 502b 

De curiositate (Ilept iroXvTrpayiLoovvqs) . . 515b 

VII. De cupiditate divitiarum (Ilept <j>iXo7rXovrlas) . 523c 

De vitioso pudore (Ilept bvowTrias) . . 528c 

De invidia et odio (Ilept <j>66vov /cat /zt'aous) . 536e 
De se ipsum citra invidiam laudando (Ilept rod 

iavrov i7ra1ve.lv dvem<t>66va)s) . . . 539a 
De sera numinis vindicta (Ilept rcov vtto rod 

Belov fipabeojs rt/io»pou/xeVa>v) . . . 548a 



Vlll 



TRADITIONAL ORDER OF THE BOOKS 

De fato (Ilept elfiapficvrjs) .... 568b 
De genio Socratis (Ilept rod HwKpdrovs haipioviov) 575a 
De exilio (Ilept <f>vyrjs) .... 599a 

Consolatio ad uxorem (Ilapa^tt^Tt/cos npos t-^v 

yvvaiKa) ...... 608a 

VIII. Quaestionum convivalium libri vi (Lvfiirocna- 

kwv 7Tpofi\r]fJidTcov jStjSAta <?') . . . 612c 

I, 612c ; II, 629b ; III, 644e ; IV, 659e ; V, 

672d ; VI, 686a 
IX. Quaestionum convivalium libri iii (Zvfnrooia- 

kcjv TTpopXrjpLdrajv jStjSAta y') . . . 697c 

VII, 697c ; VIII, 716d ; IX, 736c 
Amatorius ('Epom/cds) .... 748e 

X. Amatoriae narrationes ('Eporrt/cat ot^yqaets) . 77 1e 
Maxime cum principibus philosopho esse dis- 

serendum (Ilept rod on fidXiora rots rjyefjLOGL 

Set rov <f>i.\6(jo(f>ov StaAe'yecrflat) . . . 776a 

Ad principem ineruditum (IIpos i}ye/io'va a7rat- 

Sevrov) ....... 779c 

An seni respublica gerenda sit (Et 7Tp€ofivrepa> 

ttoXlt€vt€ov) ...... 783 a 

Praecepta gerendae reipublicae (IIoAtTt/ca 

TrapayyiXp.ara) . . . . .798a 

De unius in republica dominatione, populari 

statu, et paucorum imperio (Ilept fiovapxtas 

/cat SrjiMOKpaTLas /cat dAtyap^tas) . . .826a 

De vitando aere alieno (Ilept rod pr) Selv oavct- 

teadai) 827d 

Vitae decern oratorum (Ilept ra>v 8e'/ca prjro- 

pwv) . . . . . . . 832b 

Comparationis Aristophanis et Menandri com- 
pendium (HvyKpLG€cos ' ApLGTO(f)dvovs /cat Me»>- 

dvopov eVtro/Lt^) ..... 853a 

XI. De Herodoti malignitate (Ilept rrjs 'Hpooorov 

KaKOTjOetas) ...... 854e 

* De placitis philosophorum, libri v (Ilept r&v 

dpeoKovrcov tols <f>iXooo<f>ois, jStjSAta e') . . 874d 

Quaestiones naturales (AtVtat ^uat/cat) . . 911c 

XII. De facie quae in orbe lunae apparet (Ilept rod 

e lief) at vofxivov 7rpooa)7TOV ra> kvkXco rrjs oeXrj- 

v-qs) . . . . . 920a 

* This work, by Aetius, not Plutarch, is omitted in the current edition. 



TRADITIONAL ORDER OF THE BOOKS 

De primo frigido (Ileot tov TrptoTcos tpvxpov) . 945e 
Aquane an ignis sit utilior (Hepi tov noTtpov 

vbcop 7] nvp \pricniAU)T€pov) . . . . 955 D 

Terrestriane an aquatilia animalia sint callidi- 

ora (Uorepa tcov t,cocov cf>povt,LL(OT€pa tcl ^epaata 

rj tcl evvhpa) ..... 959a 

Bruta animalia ratione uti, sive Gryllus (Ilepl 

tov tcl dXoya Xoyco xPV°^ ai ) • • • 985d 

De esu carnium orationes ii (Ileoi oapKotfcaylas 

Xoyoifi') 993a 

XIII. Platonicae quaestiones (HXaTcovLKa f^-n^tara) 999c 
De animae procreatione in Timaeo (Ile/n tt\s eV 

TiLiatip ipvxoyovias) . . . . .1012 a 

Compendium libri de animae procreatione in 
Timaeo ('E^ito/at) tov irepl ttjs iv tco Tiliollco 
ipvxoyovias) ...... 1030d 

De Stoicorum repugnantiis (Hepl ^Ltcoikcov ivav- 

ticoii6.tlov) ...... 1033 a 

Compendium argumenti Stoicos absurdiora 
poetis dicere {IlvvoiJjis tov ort 7Tapa8o£oT€pa oi 
Etohkoi tcov 7TOirjTa>v Xiyovai) . . . 1057c 

De communibus notitiis ad versus Stoicos (Uepl 

TCOV KOIVCOV €VVOLCOV TTpOS TOVS TtTCOlKOVS) . 1058E 

XIV. Non posse suaviter vivi secundum Epicurum 

("Otl ov$€ lfr\v icrTLV f/hicos /car' ^iriKOvpov) . 1086c 
Adversus Colotem (iipos 1 KcoXcottjv virkp tcov 

dXXiov tj>iXo(j6<f>a)v) . . . . . 1107d 

An recte dictum sit latenter esse vivendum (Et 

kolXcos etprjTat, to XdOe jStojcra?) . . . 1128a 

De musica (He pi llovoiktjs) . . . .1131a 

XV. Fragments 
XVI. Index 



INTRODUCTION 

The surviving works of Plutarch, although they occupy 
25 volumes of the Loeb Classical Library, seem on the 
evidence of the so-called Lamprias Catalogue (p. 3) 
to represent less than half of his literary output. 
Some of his lost writings were known to authors and 
anthologists down to the sixth century a.d. ; but I 
know of no evidence that, when learning revived 
after the Greek Dark Ages, anyone had any know- 
ledge of any work that we do not now possess. Such 
scraps of information as occur in writers of the ninth 
and later centuries reached them at second hand. 

The first attempt to offer a complete collection of 
fragments of Plutarch is to be found in Wyttenbach's 
edition. A few additions were made by Duebner and 
others by Bernardakis. The following works deserve 
mention as dealing with a wide range of fragments, 
and are referred to by their authors' names. 

J.J. Hartman, De Plutarcko scriptore et pkilosopho, 
Leiden, 1916. 

H. Patzig, Quaestiones Plutarcheae, Berlin, 1876. 

N. Piccolos, " Sur une nouvelle edition des frag- 
ments de Plutarque," Revue archeologique, 1855. 

Except that the end of Quaestiones Naturales seems to 
have been lost after the early eleventh century, and Photius 
(see p. 2) had a few excerpts that have not been preserved. 

xi 



INTRODUCTION 

R. Volkmann, Plutarch von Ckaeronea, Leben und 
Schriften, Berlin, 1869- 

K. Ziegler, article " Plutarchos " in Pauly-Wissowa, 
Realencyklopadie, xxi (separately printed 1949). 

Wyttenbach appended a Latin translation to his 
edition. So far as fragments from Stobaeus were 
concerned, he amended that of Gesner. His version 
is too literal to throw much light on difficulties, but 
sometimes implies emendations that were not placed 
in the Greek text. Translations of some fragments 
preserved by Stobaeus are to be found at the end of 
the Life of Plutarch added by Sir Thomas North to 
the third edition (1603) of his Lives of the Noble Greeks 
and Romans ; North's original here was the French of 
Simon Goulart of Senlis, which had similarly been 
added to Amyot's Vies. 

A possible pitfall for the collector of fragments is 
the existence of another Plutarch, the Athenian neo- 
Platonist, son of Nestorius, who is often quoted in 
philosophical commentaries. Our Plutarch is some- 
times distinguished from him by the addition of the 
words 6 Xcu/owvcA. I hope, but cannot be sure, that 
I have left the son of Nestorius in possession of no 
material that should be claimed for the Chaeronean. 
The former is often to be identified by the neo- 
Platonic company he keeps — Atticus, Proclus, and 
Porphyry. On one topic, however, it is Plutarch of 
Chaeronea who is associated with Atticus. They both 
held the unorthodox view that in Plato's Timaeus the 
world had a beginning in time. The work that Plu- 
tarch specifically devoted to this (Lamprias 66) is lost. 
I have not, however, printed the numerous passages 
in which his opinion is recorded, since they give no 
details, only the bare fact that he held it. The sur- 



INTRODUCTION 

viving De Animae Procreatione not only informs us of 
this but also gives a summary of his reasons. 

Since the time of Maximus Planudes the " Collected 
Works of Plutarch " have always embraced a number 
of spurious writings. It may therefore be logical to 
include in a collection of fragments those which are 
in all probability falsely ascribed to him in our sources, 
but are not the work of any other identifiable author. 
I follow my predecessors in doing this, but in one 
respect depart from their practice : I have excluded, 
for reasons explained in Appendix B, a number of 
brief " fragmenta incerta " which are referred to 
Plutarch, but to no specific book, in certain late gno- 
mologia. I have also passed over several complete 
works that are generally recognized to be pseudepi- 
grapha, viz., De Vita et Poesi Homeri, De Metris, De 
Fluviis, De Proverbiis Alexandrinorum, and De Nobili- 
tate : on these, together with the Latin fragments of 
the so-called Institutio Trajani, see Appendix A. I 
have distinguished by an asterisk fragments of which 
the Plutarchean origin is impossible or doubtful ; the 
notes show to which category, impossibility or doubt, 
I should myself assign them. 

Of the " fragments " some are verbatim extracts 
from Plutarch, others reports or adaptations of what 
he wrote. Unfortunately it has been impracticable 
to make any typographical distinction between these 
kinds ; but there should be no difficulty in recognizing 
them, since the former are always introduced by some 
other author's words which make it plain that he is 
quoting literally, or nearly so. Where a fragment is 
an adaptation, it is often difficult to determine the 
extent of the Plutarchean material. Here again I 
have used an asterisk, to indicate sentences which in 



INTRODUCTION 

my view may not contain anything derived from 
Plutarch. 

To establish a text of these fragments is no easy 
task. Many come from the anthology of Stobaeus ° ; 
he or his predecessors, when excerpting, could make 
arbitrary changes or omissions, as appears when we 
still possess the work excerpted. Others, like those 
from the spurious Stromateis or from the Commentary 
on Hesiod's Works and Days, are the end-product of a 
process of free modification, which may unintention- 
ally have distorted the meaning of the original. In 
either case, although it may be suspected that some- 
thing has gone wrong, conjectural emendation would 

a Since Stobaeus is a frequent source of these fragments, 
it will be convenient to give here a brief summary of his 
manuscript tradition, which is not the same for the first two 
books and for the latter two. Few fragments, in fact, are 
derived from the first two. Here F(arnesianus), now Naples 
III D. 15, of the fourteenth century, is in general much more 
reliable than P(arisinus 2129), of the fifteenth. Remnants of 
a longer version are to be found in L(aurentianus 8. 22), of 
the fourteenth century. For the latter two books the tradition 
is divided into two branches. The best representative of the 
first is Vindobonensis phil. gr. 67 (S), of the eleventh century ; 
many other mss. belong to the same group, but the only one 
fully known is Marcianus 4. 29, the origin of Trincavelli's 
edition (Tr.). Tr. has been interpolated from other traditions 
and by conjecture. The second branch is headed by Escoria- 
lensis II. D. 14 (M), of the eleventh or twelfth century. Asso- 
ciated with this is Parisinus 1984 (A), of the fourteenth 
century, which has been affected by conjectures. " Maxi- 
mus " used for his anthology (see p. 409) a manuscript of 
this family, which was the source of other anthologies also : 
Macarius Ghrysocephalus (Mac), Parisinus 1168 (corp. Par.), 
Laur. 8. 22 (L), and Bruxellensis 11360 (Br.). Hense's con- 
clusion, in the introduction to vol. iii of the edition of Sto- 
baeus by Wachsmuth and Hense, is that S, though abbrevi- 
ated, has suffered less from other forms of alteration than the 
manuscripts of the second family. 
xiv 



INTRODUCTION 

be out of place. That must be restricted to the 
correction of copyists' accidental errors. Even this 
is exceptionally difficult where spurious fragments are 
concerned. The author being unknown, there is no 
norm for his style. An editor who is also a translator 
finds, however, that he must sometimes temper cau- 
tion with temerity. When error has resulted in patent 
nonsense, he can feel obliged to introduce sense by 
means of changes which at the best may not misrepre- 
sent the author's intentions, but are not likely to 
capture his exact wording. 

It is a pleasant duty to thank the authorities of the 
Bibliotheque Nationale in Paris, of the Biblioteca di 
S. Marco in Venice, and of the Abbadia de el Escorial 
for allowing me to consult, or obtain photographs of, 
manuscripts in their keeping. I am also obliged to 
the Institut de recherche et d'histoire des textes, by 
whose aid I obtained a microfilm. Of scholars who 
have helped me I must mention in particular Mr. R. T. 
Wallis, whom I consulted with profit on the second of 
Tyrwhitt's fragments, and above all my colleagues at 
Trinity College, Mr. H. J. Easterling and Dr. R. D. 
Dawe, who between them generously undertook the 
reading of the first proofs. To their care and acumen 
I owe the detection of many errors and inadequacies. 
For those that remain uncorrected the responsibility 
is mine. 

F. H. Sandbach 
Trinity College, Cambridge 
April 1965 



xv 



WORKS BY PLUTARCH 
ANCIENT LISTS 



A. PHOTIUS 

Photius, Bibliotheca, 161, p. 103 a Migne, records 
that he had met the 'E^Aoyat Atd<popoi of Sopatros 
(from Apamea, a pupil of Iamblichus) ; in vols. 8-11 
there were extracts from Plutarch, themselves taken 
from an anthology in a ms. that Sopatros called old. 
He gives 45 titles, of which eight belong or may 
belong to lost works. They are : 

Epaminondas (Lamprias 7) 

Pindar (Lamprias 36) 

Crates (Lamprias 37) 

Dai'phantus (Lamprias 38) 

He pi opyrjs (Lamprias 93, or De Cohibenda Ira) 

Uepl ttXovtov (perhaps Lamprias 211 ; but cf. frags. 

149-152) 
lie pi (jyvcreius kcu irovinv 0, (see frag. 172) 

and finally ' Av§pQ>v £v8o£wv drr o^Oky para ; since Re- 
gum et Imperatorum Apoptkegmata is separately men- 
tioned, this is perhaps to be associated with Lamprias 
168, Uepl eySo£wv dvopoji'. 

The title Tltpl irorapuw probably refers to the 
spurious work so called (see p. 404). 

° Biicheler, Rh.Mus. xxvii (1872), p. 523, rejects any possi- 
bility that this might be identical with the spurious Ilepi 
<i(7/o?(7€<os-, which survives only in a Syriac version, and of 
which he prints a German translation. 

2 



WORKS BY PLUTARCH 

B. THE LAMPRIAS CATALOGUE 

Editio princeps by D. Hoeschel, printed by J. Prae- 
torius at Augsburg in 1597, from a transcript made by 
Andreas Schottus from the ms. now Neapolitanus III 
B 29. Variant readings, taken from some other ms., 
are ascribed to Ful(vius) Urs(inus). A more complete 
version, from a " Venetus," identifiable as Marc. 248 
(now 328), was given by J. C. Siebenkies to G. C. 
Harles, who published it in his edition (1786) of 
Fabricius, Bibliotheca Graeca (vol. v, p. 187). The 
basic facts about the catalogue were established by 
M. Treu, Der sogenannte Lampriaskatalog der Plutarch- 
schriften, Progr. Waldenburg, 1873. 

Manuscripts 

Paris. 1678 (Plutarch, Lives, etc.), described by 
Nachstadt, p. vi of preface to vol. ii of Teubner 
Moralia, and by Ziegler, Rh. Mus. lxiii (1908), p. 239, 
has the catalogue on fol. 148 recto and verso, now 
only partially legible owing to wear and creeping of 
the ink. Through the kindness of the authorities of 
the Bibliotheque Nationale I have an ultra-violet 
photograph. Ziegler ascribes the hand to the twelfth 
century (one may compare Vat. gr. 504, De' Cavalieri 
and Lietzmann no. 28, dated a.d. 1105). This list is 
not the source of the other, later mss., since it omits 
several titles that they include. 

Neapolitanus III. B 29 (Diogenes Laertius), has 
the catalogue on fol. 246 verso and 247. A collation 
is given by C. Wachsmuth, Philologus, xix (1863), p. 
577, who ascribes it to the late fourteenth century. 
The last title is no. 222, 'Eowtik-cu 8u/y?yo-ets, Iv a\ki» 
irpbs tovs €/owvra9, but this is at the foot of fol. 247 

3 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

verso ; of fol. 248, which presumably contained the 
remainder of the list, only a narrow margin survives. 
From it are derived Vat. gr. 1347 and Paris. 1751. 

Marc. 481 (now 863), a miscellany written by 
Maximus Planudes in a.d. 1302, has on its last folio 
(123), still in his hand, a list without any heading. 
Not always easy to read, it gives the titles, first of the 
surviving Lives, then of those Moralia that he then 
possessed, and concludes with nearly all those items 
of the Lamprias Catalogue that had not occurred 
previously. The few omissions are probably due to 
accident. Derived from this are the lists in Marc. 
186 (now 601), Marc. 248 (now 328), which was written 
by John Rhosos, and Pal. Vat. 170. I call it Ven. 

In my apparatus I include significant variants only. 
When Ven. and Neap, alone are cited, I cannot read 
Par. 

Title 

The name Lamprias Catalogue has no manuscript 
authority. The list is preceded in the Neapolitanus 
by an anonymous introductory epistle as follows : 

I never forget our association in Asia nor your enthusiasm 
for education and regard for your friends, and now as soon as 
I received your letter I recognized the name and learned with 
the greatest pleasure that you were well and remembered 
me. In return I am glad to send my greetings, and I have 
dispatched to you the list you want of my father's writings. 
I hope that all goes well with you.° 

Whoever composed this may have intended what in 

° Ol5S' aAA(>T€ 7TOT€ T7J$ y€VOjJL€V7]S 7}fXLV cVt Trjs 'Acta? TTpOS 

aXhrjXovs ovvovaias €KAa96jjL€vos ovoe rrjs crrjs 7T€pl TraiSetav /cat 

7T€pt TOVS faAoVS GTTOvbrjS /Cat 7Tpo0vfJLLaS KCLL VVV €V0€a)S 0€^dfX€VOS 
GOV T7)V €7TlOToAr)V iyVUipiOO. TOVVOfJLd KOI ^SlCUTara OL€T€07)V ippCO- 
fX€VOV ZTTiyVOVS G€ KOL TjfJLOJV fX€fXV7JfJL€VOV t /Cat r)0€<X)S €V jLt€/)€t 7T<iXLV 

ao7ra£o/Liat ae /cat T17V ypac/>rjv ojv rjOeArjoas tcov rod 7rarp6s ^l^Xlwv 
eirepuftd aot* ipp6>odai evxofxai. 

4 



WORKS BY PLUTARCH 

the event happened, namely that the writer should 
be identified with a Lamprias mentioned by Suidas : 

Lamprias, son of Plutarch of Chaeronea. He wrote a 
list of his father's works on all Greek and Roman history. ° 

So far as is known, none of Plutarch's sons was called 
Lamprias. The epistle has some similarity to Pliny, 
Ep. iii. 5, which Ziegler believed to have served as a 
model for a forger of the xiii or xiv century. 6 

Another account of the list is given by a note of 
John Rhosos in Marcianus 248 : 

Besides all these titles, there were also found some time 
ago, as was recorded in an ancient book, summaries of the 
works listed below, but they have not survived to our times, 
except for their titles, since I have never yet met with them. 
But I have set out their titles for the benefit of scholars, so 
that they may know all the works composed by this sage 
of Chaeronea. c 

Rhosos was certainly mistaken about the existence 
of these summaries, and the origin of his mistake 
seems to lie in Marc. 186, which after giving a list of 
the surviving Lives and Moralia continues : 

All these have been found, and also the summaries of 
the works marked below with this sign, 6\ d 

There follows the remainder of the Lamprias Cata- 
logue, including nos. 65, 79? and 121, of which so- 

a AaniTpias, UXovrdpxov rod Xatpa>v€a>s vlos. iypaipe IltVa/ca 
<Lv 6 7rarr)p avrov eypaupe irtpl 7rdo7js 'IZXXrjviKrjs koll 'Paj/Ltat/ctJ? 
laroplas^ b Rh. Mus, lxxvi (1927), p. 20. 

* irapa irdvra hk ravra irpo \iiv rivcav \povoiv t ojs <ev rivi j3t'j3Aa> 
apxaiq- eveycypairro, /cat rcov vnoyeypa^fievcov Xoyoiv ovvoifieis 
rjvpicrKOVTO, els ^fias §€ ovk €<f>0aoav rj \x.6vov at avrwv erriypa^ai' 
ovhap.rj yap tto} avrwv ivervxofiev. rwv </>i\oA6ya)v ok x^P iV KaL 
<x)S av etSetev ooa 6 Xatpajvevs ovros oo<f>6s ovveypdifraro, rds 
avrajv £m,ypa<f>ds tvravOa i^€0€fi€0a. 

d ravra irdvra €vp€0rjoav (sic) Kal at ovvoifjeis r&v Karcjrepaj 
OTjucunOevrcov rwSc ra> GTjficlq) 0\ 

5 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

called summaries do survive. These and these only, 
are marked with a sign ; but it is a cross, and not that 
promised. 

Origin 

The list begins with " parallel " Lives, succeeded by 
other biographies, including the spurious Lives of the 
Ten Orators. The Moralia follow, the only principle 
of arrangement being that works in more than one 
book are enumerated before those in a single book ; 
there are, however, some small groups of works with 
similar subjects, e.g., four of the anti-Stoic writings are 
collected together (76-79) and three of those against 
Epicureans (80-82). Three titles are those of sur- 
viving spurious works , a while at least twelve surviving 
genuine works b and six spurious c are not included. 
About a dozen titles are of lost works of which the 
authenticity is supported by other evidence. It fol- 
lows that just as the presence of a title in the list is no 
guarantee of the work's genuineness, so its absence 
is no evidence of spuriousness. 

Treu concluded that the list originated as the in- 
ventory of some library. The presence of eight vo- 
lumes of Aristotle's Topica (56) is an indication that 
ancient libraries, like modern, could suffer by the 
replacement of a book on the wrong shelf. Since the 
parallel Lives are not arranged according to any prin- 

a Vit. X Orat., Plac. Phil., Parallela Minora. 

b T>e Amic. Mult., De Fortuna, De Virtute et Vitio, De 
Cohibenda Ira, De Amore Prolis, An Vitiositas, De Invidia 
et Odio, Quaest. Conv., Maxime cum Princ, Ad Princ. 
Inerud., De Monarchia, De Esu Carnium. 

c De Liberis Educandis, Cons, ad Apoll., De Musica, De 
Fluviis, De Vita et Poesi Homeri, Fragmentum Tyrwhittia- 
num ii. It is uncertain whether no. 58 refers to De Fato. 

6 



WORKS BY PLUTARCH 

ciple, the list is likely to be fairly early , a The dispo- 
sition by number of books suggests a library on rolls 
rather than in codices. Treu's guess that the list 
dates from the third or fourth century may well be 
right. 

° K. Ziegler, Die ffberlieferungsgeschichte der vergleichen- 
den Lebensbeschreibungen Plutarchs, pp. 33-36 ; he holds 
that the first ordered collection of Lives was made in the fifth 
century. 



TOY nAOTTAPXOT BIBAIA 

Surviving works of the Moralia have been distinguished by 
appending to their title a numeral in brackets ; this refers to 
the volume of the Loeb Classical Library in which the work is 

1. Qrjcrevs /cat 'Pcu/xuAos'. 

2. AvKOvpyos kcu NopL&s. 

3. ®€pLUJTOKArjs /cat KapxAAos". 

4. HoXtov /cat Ho7r\LKo\as . 

5. HeptKXrjs /cat OajStos" Md^tuos 1 . 

6. 'AA/ctj8taS^9 /cat Map/aos" KoptdAavos 1 . 

7. 'E7rap,eti>a>voas > /cat Hklttlcdv. 

8. <J>o)/cta)v /cat Kara)v. 

9. "Ayts* /cat KAeoucV^?. 

10. TtjSepto? /cat ratos 1 Tpa/c^ot. 

11. TifjLoAeajv /cat rtauAos' AtjLttAto?. 

12. E^p-eV^s 1 /cat Heprcopcos. 

13. 'AptaretS^? /cat Kara) v. 

14. ITeAoTrtSas' /cat Map/ccAAos*. 

15. AucravSpos' /cat ZvAAas". 

16. Tlvppos /cat Mapto?. 

17. OcXo7roLjJLrjv /cat TtVos'. 

18. Nt/ctas /cat Kpacrcro?. 

19. Ktpxov /cat A01J/C0AA09. 

20. Ata>v /cat Bpo^TO?. 

21. 'Ay^crtAaos" /cat no/XTr^tos". 
8 



THE WORKS OF PLUTARCH 

to be found. The Arabic numerals are those traditionally in 
use ; they do not coincide with the medieval numerations 
found in some later mss. 

1. Theseus and Romulus. 

2. Lycurgus and Numa. 

3. Themistocles and Camillus. 

4. Solon and Publicola. 

5. Pericles and Fabius Maximus. 

6. Alcibiades and Marcius Coriolanus. 

7. Epaminondas and Scipio. Frags. 1,2. 

8. Phocion and Cato. 

9- Agis and Cleomenes. 

10. Tiberius and Gaius Gracchus. 

11. Timoleon and Paullus Aemilius. 

12. Eumenes and Sertorius. 

13. Aristides and Cato. 

14. Pelopidas and Marcellus. 

15. Ly sander and Sulla. 

16. Pyrrhus and Marius. 

17. Philopoemen and Titus. 

18. Nicias and Crassus. 

19. Cimon and Lucullus. 

20. Dion and Brutus. 

21. Agesilaiis and Pompey. 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

22. ' AAe£av8 pos koX Kaicrap. 

23. ArUJLOG0€V7)S KOL ¥LlK€p(X)V. 

24. "Apa/ros kcll 'Apratjep^rjs. 

25. ArjfjLrjTpios /cat 'Avtcovios'. 

26. Auyouarou j8ios. 

27. Tijiepios. 

28. Zfamcov * K<f>piKavos . 

29. KAauStos. 

30. Neptovos jStos 1 . 

31. raio? Kcuaap. 
32a. TaAjgas-. 
32b. "O^wv. 1 

33. Btre'AAto?. 

34. 'Hpa/cAeous- jStos". 

35. HatoSou ftlos. 

36. YlcvSdpov j8to9. 

37. KpdrrjTos ^tos. 

38. Aai^avTos". 

39. 'ApLGTOfievrjs. 

40. "ApaTos*. 

41. Btot tcov Se/ca prjropcov. 

42. 'OjJLrjpiKcov fjieXercov )8tj8Aia S'. 

43. E19 'Ep,77eSo/cAea jStjSAta 1'. 

44. Ilept ttJs* 7T€fjL7TTfjs 2 ovaias jStjSAta e'. 

45. riept T^9 €tV €KOLT€pOV €7rt^€tp^(T€CUS' j8t/?Aia €\ 

46. Mu'flcoi/ jStjSAta /, 

47. ITept prjTOpLKrjs /JtjSAta y'. 

48. Ilepi ifjvxfjs elaayajyfjs j8tj8Ata y'. 

49. Ilcpi alodrjoecov jStjSAta y'. 

50. 'E/cAoy^ <f)i\oo6(j>cov, jStjSAta /?'. 

1 The titles are separated by Par. ydXpas koL oOwv Neap. 
2 Possibly Treinrrrjs should be omitted as a dittography. 

10 



WORKS BY PLUTARCH 

22. Alexander and Caesar. 

23. Demosthenes and Cicero. 

24. Aratus and Artaxerxes. 

25. Demetrius and Antony. 

26. Life of Augustus. 

27. Tiberius. ? Frag. 182. 

28. Scipio Africanus. ? Frags. 3, 4. 

29. Claudius. 

30. Life of Nero. Frag. 5. 

31. Gaius Caesar. 
32a. Galba. 

32b. Otho. 

33. Vitellius. 

34. Life of Heracles. Frags. 6-8. 

35. Life of Hesiod. 

36. Life of Pindar. Frag. 9- 

37. Life of Crates. Frag. 10. 

38. Dai'phantus. Frag. 11. 

39. Aristomenes. Frag. 12. 

40. Aratus. 

41. Lives of the Ten Orators, (x) 

42. Homeric Studies, 4 vols. Frags. 122-127. 

43. Notes on Empedocles, 10 vols. Frag. 24. 

44. On the Fifth Substance, 5 vols. a 

45. On Arguing both Sides of a Question, 5 vols. b 

46. Stories, 3 vols. 

47. On Rhetoric, 3 vols. 

48. An Introduction to Psychology, 3 vols. 

49. On the Senses, 3 vols. 

50. Selections from Philosophers, 2 vols. 

Since Plutarch does not show much interest in Aristotle, 
it is surprising to find him devoting five volumes to this sub- 
ject. See the critical note. 

b Perhaps referred to at Moralia, 1036 a. 

11 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

51. UoXeajv evepyeoiai, /StjSAta y . 

53. Hepl Qeo^pdarov rrpos tovs Kcupovs (52) 770- 
Xltlkcov j8tj8Ata jS'. 1 

54. Ilept 7rap€iixev7]s IcrTOpLas j3tj8Ata S'. 

55. Ylapoipuchv jSt/JAia j8'. 

56. Taw ' ApiGToreXovs to7tlkcov 2 jStjSAta 17'. 

57. Sokji/cAtJ?, j8tj3Ata /?'. 

58. riept €LfJLap{ievr]s j3if$Xia )8'. 

59. Ilept SiKaioavvrjs vrpos yLpvannrov j8tj8Aia y'. 

60. Ilepi TroirjTLKrjs. 

61. Ilept ra>v dpecKOvrcov <f)iXoo6<})ois <j>voiKr)S eirt- 
TOfjbfjs f}ij3Xla e'. 

62. HrpcofiareLS loropiKol kcll 3 7toltjtlkoI £/?'* eVtoi 

3^ £sr'. 4 

63. Ilept ro£ /uW eirat otto ro£> nAarcovos' 
'A/caS^/zetav. 

64. IIc/h t^? 8ia(f)opas tcx)v YivppcDvelcov /cat 
' AKa8r)iJLaCKtov . 

65. Ilept, r^? ev TipLCLitQ ifwxoyovids. 

66. He pi rov yeyovevai Kara HXdr cova rov ko- 

GfJLOV. 

1 The order in Par. Ven. is 50, 53, 51, 52, in Neap. 50, 51, 
52, 53. Treu suggested the amalgamation of titles. 

2 ro7TLKajv Par. Ven. ttoAitikcjv Neap. 

3 koX added by Ziegler. 

4 Par. may have a different numeral. 

Plutarch used this work of Theophrastus for his Praecepta 
Gerendae Reipublicae (no. 104) ; see Mittelhaus, De Plutarchi 
praeceptis gerendae reipublicae, pp. 29-55. 

h Probably included here by mistake, see p. 6. Since 
Plutarch shows no interest elsewhere in the Topics, it is un- 
likely that a commentary on that work is meant. 

c The existing pseudo-Plutarchean On Fate (L.C.L. vol. 
12 



WORKS BY PLUTARCH 

51. Benefactions by (or to) Cities, 3 vols. 
52-53. On Theophrastus' work Opportunist Statesman- 
ship, 2 vols. a 

54. On Neglected History, 4 vols. 

55. A Collection of Proverbs, 2 vols. 

56. Aristotle's Topics, 8 vols. 6 

57. Sosicles, 2 vols. 

58. On Fate, 2 vols. c 

59- On Justice, a Reply to Chrysippus, 3 vols/* 

60. On the Art of Poetry. 

61. On the Views held by Philosophers, a Summary 
of Scientific Theories, 5 vols, (xi) e 

62. A Patchwork of Extracts, historical and poetical, 
62 sections ; some make it 66/ 

63. On the Unity of the Academy since the time of 
Plato. 

64. On the Difference between the Pyrrhonians and 
the Academics. ° 

65. On the Generation of the Soul in the Timaeus. 
(xiii) 

66. On the Fact that in Plato's View the Universe 
had a Beginning. 71 

vii) is in one book, but promises a continuation. If that was 
ever written, an identification with this entry in the Lamprias 
Catalogue might be correct. 

d Mentioned, Be Stoic. Repugn. 1040 d, and probably used 
in chaps. 15-16 of that work, see Class. Quart, xxxiv (1940), 
p. 22. 

6 This spurious work is not currently (1965) included in 
vol. xi. 

f Possibly the work from which fragment 179 is taken, 
since it might be called historical ; or again, the title may be 
abbreviated and have once contained the word " philo- 
sophical." 

9 Cf. Sextus Empiricus, Outlines of Pyrrhonism, i. 220-235. 

h Mentioned, Moralia, 1013 e ; someof what follows there, 
down to 1023 b, will be drawn from this book. 

13 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

67. II ou eloiv at ISeac; 

68. IIw? rj vXrj rcov tSecov fJL€T€iXr)<f)€v ; on ra 
TTptoTa acofiara notel. 

69. II 6/01 TiOJKpOLTOVS SaijJLOVLOV. 

69a. 1 Ylpos 'AA/aSa/zavra. 

70. e T7re/o row IlAaToovos' ©eayous*. 

71. ITc/ot fjLavTiKrjs ore ocp^erai Kara tovs 'A/caS^- 
fiaiKOVs . 

72. Ile/06 ttJ? rjdiKrjg aperrjs. 

73. FU/oi tou iv rj] aeXrjvr) $aivop,£vov Trpoaojirov. 

74. Horepov 6 irepiaaos apidfjbos fj 6 aprios a/x€t- 

VO)V. 

75. El TTp€ofSvT€ptp 7ToXlT€VT€OV . 

76. Ilepi SrcotAccov evavrtco/xarcov. 

77. rie/H evvotoov 2 777)09 rous 1 Stou/cous. 

78. Ilepi avvrjOetas irpos tovs ^tcdlkovs* 

79. "On 7rapa8o^6r€pa oi Htcolkol tcov TroirjTtov 
Xeyovoc . 

80. IlpOS TTjV TOV ^TTLKOVpOV OLKpOaOLV 7T€pl 0€COV. 

81. IIpOS KcoAcUT^V V7T€p TCOV dXXcOV <f>lXoo6<f)Oi)V . 

82. "On o*3Se £771; ecrrtv rjSeajs /car' 'Em/coupon. 

83. ripos 1 Hidvvov 7T€pl (f>iXlas. 

1 Joined to 69 in Ven., omitted by Neap. Joined to 70 by 
Volkmann, made independent by Ziegler. 

2 The manuscripts of this book have, more correctly, nepl 

TCJV KOIVCOV €WOlO)V. 

a Plato, Timaeus, 53 c IF. 
14 



WORKS BY PLUTARCH 

67. Where are the Forms ? 

68. The Manner of the Participation of Matter in the 
Forms, namely that it constitutes the primary 
Bodies. 

69. On the Sign of Socrates, (vii) 
69a (?). To (or Against) Alcidamas. 5 

70. In Defence of (or About) Plato's Tkeages. c 

71. That the Academic Philosophy allows for the 
Reality of Prophecy. Cf. no. 131 . Frags. 21-23. 

72. On Moral Virtue, (vi) 

73. On the Face that appears in the Moon, (xii) 

74. Whether Odd or Even Number is the better. 

75. Whether an Old Man should engage in Public 
Affairs, (x) 

76. On Stoic Inconsistencies, (xiii) 

77. On Conceptions, against the Stoics, (xiii) 

78. On Common Usage, against the Stoics . d 

79- That the Stoics talk more paradoxically than 
the Poets, (xiii) 

80. A Reply to Epicurus' Lecture on the Gods. e 

81. Against Colotes in Defence of the other Philo- 
sophers, (xiv) 

82. That one cannot even live pleasantly by follow- 
ing Epicurus' Doctrine, (xiv) 

83. On Friendship, addressed to Bithynus. 

b United in the mss. to the previous title, but that work 
bears no such dedication. Volkmann suggested that the 
words belong with no. 70. Alcidamas is unknown. 

The authenticity of the Theages was disputed, and since 
Plutarch never quotes it as Plato's, Patzig thought this work 
spurious. 

d Cf. Stoic. Rep. 1036 c-e, S. V.F. ii. 109, Pohlenz, Die 
Stoa, i. 29. 

e Usener, Epicurea, p. 103, if the " lecture " is identical 
with what is elsewhere called a " book." But On the Gods 
ought perhaps to be a separate title. 

15 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

84. 'AfjLfJLWvios, 7} 7T€pl rod fMTj rjSecos rfj /ca/ct'a 
ovvelvai. 

85. rico? av ris iavrov eiraiveoeiev dveTTi^dovojs ; 

86. Et dperrj r) p-qropiKT). 

87. Titos av res aioQoiro iavrov TrpOKonrovros 
irpos dperrjv; 

88. Ylepl rcjv eKXeXonrorojv xp r ] (JT7 ]P^ a)V ' 

89. Titos StaKpivofiev rov AcoAa/ca rod (friXov; 1 

90. Ylepl rod it pilar ov ifivxpod. 

91. Ileot fSpaheais KoXa^opbevcov vtto rod Oeiov. 

92. Ile/ot dSoAeaxtas". 

93. Ileot dpyrjs. 

94. 'Tytetvd TrapayyeX\xara. 

95. Ileot evOvfjdas. 

96. Ile/n SvowiTLas . 

97. Ileot 7ToXvrrpayp,oavv7]s> 

98. Ilept <f>iXa8eX(f)ias . 

99. Ilept Kop,rjrtbv. 

100. Ile/Ot toji> rptcov ovopudrcov, ri KVpiov; 

101. Ileot <f)vyfjs. 

102. Ilept rou aKOveiv rcov <j>iXoo6(j>a)v . 

103. IIco? Set 7TOL7J fidr ojv aKoveiv; 

104. rioAtrt/cd 7rapayyeXfiara. 

105. Ileot plcQV ev dXXcp Se Ylepl rod rov fiiov 
eoucevai KvfSelq. 

106. ricDs 1 Set rots' cr^oAtKots' 2 yv\ivda[iaoi xpfjaOai; 

1 rov /cdAa/ca rov <f>l\ov Par. : tow <f>lXov rov /c<$Aa*a Neap. Ven. 
2 axoAiKofc Par. Ven. : axoAaoriKofr Neap. 

a Without adequate reason Usener, Jb. hi. Phil., 1889, 
p. 139, Kl. Schr. i. 344, identified this with An Vitiositas, 
Wilamowitz, Hermes, lxii (1927), p. 296, with De Virtute et 
Vitio. 

6 Probably an anti-Stoic essay, ef. Cicero, De Oratore, in. 

16 



WORKS BY PLUTARCH 

84. Ammonius, or On not finding Pleasure in In- 
volvement with Vice. a 

85. How to praise oneself without giving Offence, 
(vii) 

86. Is Rhetoric a Virtue ? b 

87. How to be aware of making Moral Progress, (i) 

88. On the Oracles that have come to an End. (v) 

89. How we distinguish a Flatterer from a Friend. 

(i) 

90. On the Principle of Cold, (xii) 

91. On Delays in Divine Retribution, (vii) 

92. On Talkativeness, (vi) 

93. On Anger. Frag. 148. 

94. Advice on Health, (ii) 

95. On Cheerfulness, (vi) 

96. On Compliancy, (vii) 

97. On Officiousness. (vi) 

98. On Brotherly Affection, (vi) 
99- On Comets. 

100. Which of a Man's three Names is his Proper 
Name ? c 

101. On Exile, (vii) 

102. On Listening to Philosophers' Lectures, (i) 

103. How one should study Poetry, (i) 

104. Precepts of Statecraft, (x) 

105. On Ways of Life. Another copy has the title 
On Life's being like a Game at Dice. d 

106. The proper Use of School Exercises. 6 

65, " (Stoici) soli ex omnibus eloquentiam uirtutem . . . esse 
dixerunt." 

c i.e., the Roman praenomen, nomen, and cognomen. Qf. 
Life of Marius, chap. 1. 

d De Tranquillitate Animi, 467 a, ascribes this comparison 
to Plato (cf. Rep. 604 c) ; see also Epictetus, ii. 5. 2-3* 

"In rhetoric. 

17 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

107. 'Epam/co?. 

108. ' A7ro(/>deyfiaTa r/yepLOVLKa, arpaTrjyiKd, rvpav- 

VLKOL, 

109. Hepl rov ISiov ato/xaro?. 1 

110. YtVfJLTTOCFLOV TtOV €7TTa GO<j>tbv . 

111. TlapafjLvdrjTiKos Trpos y AaKA7)7nd8r)v. 

112. YlapaixvdrjTiKog Trpos rrjv ywat/ca. 

113. Hepl (friXoKoapLids . 

114. TirdevTixos. 

115. Ta/xt/ca TrapayyeXfiara. 

116. Ilcpt rou /xt) XP^ v ^ v ep>p>€Tpa rrjv WvQiav, 

117. Hepl rod E rou €V AeA<f>OLS. 

118. Ile/H rou /car' T Iotv Xoyov /cat Salami/. 

119. Altlcu t&v 'Apdrov /^loarjjjLeLcov. 

120. Ets* ra Nt/cdVSpov QiqpiaKa. 

121. ' Api(iTO<f>dvovs /cat MevdVSpou cniyKpiais. 

122. Ilcot 7-77S 'HpoSoTou KaKorjOetas. 

123. Ileot rou xP^ vov T y$ 'IAtaSo?. 

124. IT cos Kpivovp,€v 2 rrjv dArjdrj laropiav; 

125. 'ATTOfJLvrjiJLoveviAaTa. 

126. rWat/ccov dperai' iv aAAco Se Ilept rou 77009 
Set £77 v yuvat/ca 777009 aVSpa. 

127. Ilept £cotov aXoyajVy ttoit^tikos . 

1 Ilepi la\vos aa>fjLaros Patzig. 
2 Kpivovfiev Ven. Neap. Kplvofxev Volkmann. 

At Coniugalia Praecepta, 145 a Plutarch's wife Timoxena 
is said to have written on this subject. Wilamowitz, Kl. Schr. 
iv. 655, suggested that her authorship was a fiction and 
Plutarch himself the true writer. 

6 Possibly a metaphorical title ; but Volkmann refers to Au- 
lus Gellius, xii. 1, which records Favorinus' advice to wealthy 
mothers to feed their babies themselves, and not to employ 
wetnurses. 

18 



WORKS BY PLUTARCH 

107. A Dialogue on Love, (ix) 

1 08 . Sayings of Rulers , Generals , and Monarchs . (iii) 

109. On My Own Body. 

110. Dinner of the Seven Sages, (ii) 

1 1 1 . A Letter of Consolation addressed to Asclepiades . 

112. A Letter of Consolation to his Wife, (vii) 

113. On Love of Self-adornment .° 

114. The Wetnurse.* 

115. Advice on Marriage, (ii) 

116. On the Fact that the Priestess at Delphi no 
longer gives Oracles in Verse, (v) 

117. On the E at Delphi, (v) 

118. On the Meaning of the Story of Isis and Sa- 
rapis. c (v) 

119. Explanations of Aratus* Weatherlore. Frags. 13- 
20. 

120. Notes on Nicander's Theriaca. Frags. 113-115. 

121. A Comparison of Aristophanes and Menander. 

00 

122. On the Malice of Herodotus, (xi) 

123. On the Date of the Iliad. 

124. How to judge True History. Cf. no. 225. 

125. Recollections . d 

126. Brave Deeds by Women (iii) ; in another copy, 
On the correct Relation of a Woman to her 
Husband/ 

127. On Irrational Animals, a poetic work/ 

c The mss. of the work give it the title On Isis and Osiris, 
but it identifies Osiris with Sarapis, 362 b. 

d Nachstadt identifies this, without much probability, with 
no. 108. e Compare the note on no. 222. 

f Ziegler would identify this with Bruta Ratione Uti (xii), 
understanding " a work of fiction." A. Gercke, Rh. Mus. 
xli (1886), p. 470, demolishes a house of cards built by O. 
Crusius, ibid, xxxix (1884), pp. 580-606. 

19 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

128. Air)yr)G€LS rrapdAArjAoc, 'EAAtjvikclI koll 'Pco- 
jjuatKaL 

129. Hepl tG)v ^TTLKovpetcov ivavTicoixdrcov . 

130. Hcos dv res air* 1 eydp&v <h<f>eAolro; 

131. He pi rod firj pud^od ai rfj fxavTiKrj rov 'A/ca- 
SrjfiaLKOv Aoyov. 

132. ^TnaroArj irpos QaftojpZvov irepl ^tAcas" Iv d'A- 
Aw 8e Hepl <f)iAcx)v xprjaecos. 

133. Hepl rod €</>' rjfjuv 7rpos 'Em/coupon. 

134. S^oAat 'A/caS^ae-TccH. 

135. Et Aoyov <Ly€i Ta £a>a. 

136. nAarcovt/cd ^rtjfjiara. 

137. Ilou? aV ri9 ev rrpdypbaoi ^lAoTrpdypiovos 2 ho^av 
hia<f>vyoi; 

138. Alriai 'Pcu/xalVcai. 

139. Alriai fiapftapLKal. 

140. Ilept tou K€arov rr\s firjrpos rwv detbv. 

141. ripcuTaydpof nepl rcbv 7rpd)rcov. 

142. Ilept rwv Trap* 'AAe^avSpevoi TTapotpaajv . 

143. "On napaSo^orepa ol E7TiKOVpeioi ra>v 77-0177- 
rtov Aiyovoi. 

144. Ti to ovvievai; 

145. ITept ro£ Sev 3 /cat fxr]8ev. 

146. "On ouSev eon ovviivai. 

147. IloT€0a toji/ t.ipojv rd ^epoala c^povLpbcorepa rj 

\ it o 

ra evvopa; 

1 d^' Bernardakis : wr' Ven. Neap. 

2 <j>i\o7rpdyiJLovos Ziegler : <f>i\o7rpayn6va)v Par. Ven. (-d>v) 
Neap. 

3 8e*> Patzig : ouSev Ven. Neap. 

a Treu suggested that this was really a different work, 
identical with De Amicorum Multitudine^ which is otherwise 
absent from the list. Cf. the note on no. 222. 

20 



WORKS BY PLUTARCH 

128. Parallel Stories, Greek and Roman, (iv) 

129. On Epicurean Inconsistencies. 

130. How to profit by one's Enemies, (ii) 

131. On the Fact that there is no Conflict between 
the Principles of the Academy and the Art of 
Prophecy. Cf.no. 71. 

132. A letter to Favorinus about Friendship . Another 
copy has the title, On the Use to be made of 
Friends. 01 Frags. 159-171. 

133. A Reply to Epicurus on the subject of Free- 
Will. 

134. Academic Lectures. 

135. Can Animals think ? 

136. Platonic Problems, (xiii) 

137. How might a Man active in Affairs escape the 
Reputation of being a Busybody ? 

138. Roman Customs Explained, (iv) 

139. Foreign Customs Explained. 

140. On the Cestos of the Mother of the Gods. 

141. Protagoras' On the First Things. b 

142. On the Proverbs in Use among the Alexan- 
drians. See p. 404. 

143. That the Epicureans talk more paradoxically 
than the Poets. 

144. What is Understanding ? 

145. On " Hing " and " Nothing/' c 

146. That Understanding is impossible. 

147. Whether Land-animals or Water-animals are the 
more intelligent, (xii) 

6 It would be surprising if an otherwise unknown work of 
Protagoras had survived late enough to be included by error 
in this list, cf. no. 56. Perhaps there are two Plutarchean 
works, On Protagoras and On First Principles. 

c So we may represent Democritus' jesting division of 
prjSdv as ^17 hdv ; see Adversus Colotem, 1109 a. 

21 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

148. 2toh/co>v /cat 'Em/co^pet'cov e/cAoyat /cat 
eAey^ot. 

149. A mat tcjv 7T€pL<f>€poiJ,€va)v Utojik&v. 1 

150. Hepl rjfAepcjv. 

151. Ilept Trepiepyias. 

152. IT€/H TOU 7Tpii)TOV £7TO/J,€VOV 7rpOS XpVGL7T7TOV. 

153. 'YiroderiKos rj irepl ap^r}?. 

154. Ilepi tou €</>' rjfjuv rrpos tovs Htcdlkovs. 

155. Hepl oetaiSai/zovias' irpos 'Em/coupon. 

156. Ei Tract, avvrjyoprjTeov. 

157. II/009 B^or/ai/ 2 rrapafjLvOrjTiKos . 

158. Ilepi raw riuppcop'os' oe/ca Tpoirodv? 

159. Ile/H j8lO>V 77/00? > E7Tl/COL>pOV'. 

160. AtTiat /cat TOTTOL. 

161. Atrial dAAaycoy. 

162. LUpt rauroAoy tas. 

163. Ilept fjLovdScov. 

164. Et 8a)G€i yvco/Jirjv 6 noAiTrjs* 7Tpo€i8ws on 5 ov 

7T€l<7€l. 

165. Ilepi So£a>v rcov /ca#' eavrov. 

1 Srcot/ccuv] ? laropicov. 

2 B^artai' Ziegler : <&r)(jTiav. 

3 rpoTTwv [so in Christ-Schmid-Stahlin, Griech. Litt, ii, p. 
511] : T07rcm>. 

4 TroAtn;?] ? ttoXltlkos Pohlenz. 

5 ov 7rovrjG€L after ort deleted by Hoeschel. 

Conceivably an alternative title for no. 97. 

6 The subject is likely to have been logical rather than 
political, although Pohlenz, Moralia, vol. v, Praef. vi, adopts 
the latter view. 

22 



WORKS BY PLUTARCH 

148. Extracts from, and Refutations of, Stoic and 
Epicurean Authors. 

149. Explanations of Current Stoic Doctrines. 

150. On Dates. Cf. no. 200. Frag. 142. 

151. On Curiosity (or Officiousness, or Unnecessary 
Elaboration). 

152. A Reply to Chrysippus on the First Consequent. 

153. A Discourse on Hypothesis, or On the Starting- 
point for Deduction. 6 

154. On What lies in our Power — a Reply to the 
Stoics. 

155. A Reply to Epicurus on the subject of Super- 
stition , d 

156. Should one act as Advocate for any and all ? 

157. A Letter of Consolation addressed to Bestia. 

158. On Pyrrho's Ten Methods of Procedure/ 

159. A Reply to Epicurus on the subject of Ways of 
Life. 

160. Explanations and Topics (?) 

161. Explanations of Exchanges (?) 

162. On Tautology. 

163. On Monads. 

164. Should a Citizen give his Advice, knowing it will 
be rejected ? 

165. On Contemporary Opinions. 

c For the controversies concerning the concept of to i<f> y 
17/uv see S.V.F. ii. 974, 979-984, 988, 1001, 1007. 

d De Superstitione (ii) does not reply to Epicurus. Ziegler 
suggests that " A Reply to Epicurus," if not a mere mistake, 
is the title of a separate work. 

• The classification of 10 " tropes," or methods of pro- 
cedure, in scepticism was made by Aenesidemus (Sextus Em- 
piricus, Adversus Mathematicos, vii. 345), but expounded 
in his Outline Introductory to Pyrrhonism. See Diogenes 
Laertius, ix. 79-88, Sextus Empiricus, Outlines of Pyrrhonism, 
i. 36-163. 

23 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

166. Atrtat c EAA^vo>v. 

167. Atrial 1 yvvaiK&vr 

168. Ilept €v86£o)v dvSpcov. 

169. 9 A7TO<f>04yiJ,aTa AaKcovcKa. 

170. 'Airoptajv Aucret9. 

171. XprjcrfAcov ovvaycxyyy], 

172. Ilept aAuTTtas". 

173. Ilept yvfjbvaafjudrajv. 

174. Ilept €TTidvp,ias. 

175. riept rrjs 'PcofJbOLLoov rvxrjs. 

176. Uepl rfjs 'AAe^dVSpou rvxr]S* 

177. Uepl rod yvcodt aavrov /cat et dOdvaros rj 
xfjvxq. 

178. Uepl rod Xd0€ jStco eras'. 

179. Ilept drapa^las . 

180. Ilept dperfjs, et SlSolktov 2 r) aperr). 

181. Ilept 7-779 ets* Tpo<f)a)vLov /caTa/Jaaea)?. 

182. 'I/ce'T^?. 

183. Ol>CH/a] €7TLTOfJLrj. 

184. Ilept tcov 7Tpd)TO)v (f>LXoao(f)rjGdvrcov KCU TCOV 
077' aurcov. 

185. Ilept uAt^s". 

186. Ilept rfjs 'AAe£dVSpot> dperfjs. 

187. 'A^iAAea)? 7ratSeta. 

188. Ilept Kt^vat/ccov. 3 

189. 'A7roAoyta U7rep YtcoKpdrovs. 

190. Ilept ttJ? YiOJKpdrovs Karai/jrj^laeajs . 

191. Ilept yea)(f)dyu)v . 

192. AiaAe^ts' Trept rcov Se'/ca Karrjyopicbv. 

193. Ilept 7Tpo^XrjiMdrcov. 

1 AtVtat] ? a/ocrat Nachstadt. 
24 



WORKS BY PLUTARCH 

166. Greek Customs Explained, (iv) 

167. Explanations concerning Women. a 

168. On Famous Men. 

169. Spartan Sayings, (iii) 

170. Solutions of Problems. 

171. A Collection of Oracles. 

172. On Freedom from Pain. 

173. On Exercises. 6 

174. On Desire. 

175. On the Luck of the Romans, (iv) 

176. On Alexander's Luck, (iv) 

177. On the Saying " Know Thyself " and the Pro- 
blem of Immortality. 

178. On the Saying " Live in Obscurity." (xiv) 

179. On Mental Calm. 

180. On Virtue, whether it can be taught, (vi) 

181. On the Descent into the Cave of Trophonius. 

182. The Suppliant. 

183. An Epitome of Natural Science. 

184. On the First Philosophers and their Successors 

185. On Matter. 

186. On Alexander's Virtue, (iv) 

187. The Education of Achilles. 

188. On the Cyrenaic Philosophers. 
189- A Defence of Socrates. 

190. On the Condemnation of Socrates. 

191. On Earth-eaters. 

192. Lecture on the Ten Categories. 

193. On Problems. 

a Nachstadt suggests that this title is corrupt and should 
be identical with no. 126. 

6 Perhaps rhetorical exercises. 

2 hiSaKTov Bernardakis : SiScwctc'ov Ven. Neap. 
3 Kvp7]vaiKa>v Bernardakis : KvpTjvatwv. 

25 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

194. Hepl x a P aKT VP cov ' 

195. TIoAgojv KTiaeis. 

196. <$>vaiKO)v apeoKovrcov. 

197. Kara tl €v8o£ol 'Ad-qvaZot; 

198. Hepl rcbv ovvrjyopovvT(x>v. 

199. Tis dpcarog filos; 

200. Yiepl rjfJLepcjv. 
200a. 1 MeAeroov <f>vaiKa>v /cat TravrjyvpiKcov. 

201. Ilcpt tcjv iv HAaraicus AatSaAcov. 

202. QiAoAoycov TrapaaKevcov, 2 

203. Ile/oi €vyev€Las. 

204. '0 7rpos Alcova piqOels iv 'OAv/xma. 

205. Ile/ot rou ri eho^ev f Hpa/cAeiTa>. 

206. ndrepov xP r J GL l Jb( ^ T€ P 0V ^P V vSa>/>. 

207. n/3orpe7rTt/c69 vrpos 3 viov ttAovgiov. 

208. rioT€poi> ra fox^s ^ acofjuarog iradrj ^etpova. 

209. rie/ot ifsvxys- 

210. El CLTTpCLKTOS 6 776/01 TxdvTOJV €7T€^COV. 

211. Tleyot <j>iAo7rAovTias. 

212. Ile/H G€LGfJLCOV. 

213. rid)? Set Aa/ccova jita^ca^at; 

214. nporpeTrrt/co? efc 'AaKArjTTidSrjv 4 Ylepyafjarj- 



1 Title separated from the preceding by Wyttenbach. 
2 Par. Ven. : 7T€pi <£iAoAdyaji>, 7rept tr/ceuoiv. Neap. 
3 irpos Neap. : els Ven. 
4 ' A<jK\T]7nd&T)v Ziegler : 'AcrKXTjmov Ven. Neap. 

a Perhaps not to be identified with no. 61, Placita Philoso- 
phorum, since that work is in five books, and this should by 
its place in the list be contained in a single one. 

b There is some error in the mss., for which a possible 
remedy is to divide, as above, what they give as a single title. 
But there is still a strange combination in no. 200a. 

c Cf. no. 227. Perhaps Dio of Prusa. 

26 



WORKS BY PLUTARCH 

194. On Characters (or Styles). 

195. City Foundations. 

196. A Collection of Scientific Opinions. 

197. What was the Basis of the Athenians' Renown ? 
(iv) 

198. On Advocates. 

199. What is the best Way of Life ? 

200. On Dates.* Cf. no. 150. 

200a. A Collection of Scientific Lectures and Public 
Addresses. 

201. On the Festival of Wooden Images at Plataea. 
Frags. 157-158. 

202. A Collection of Introductions to Literary Pro- 
blems. 

203. On Nobility of Birth. Frags. 139-141. 

204. The Reply to Dio delivered at Olympiad 

205. On the Question of Heraclitus' Beliefs. 

206. Whether Fire or Water is the more useful, (xii) 

207. An Exhortation to Philosophy, addressed to a 
Rich Young Man. d 

208. Whether the Affections of the Soul or the Body 
are the worse, (vi) 

209. On the Soul. Frags. 173-178. 

210. Whether Reserving Judgement on Everything 
involves Inaction. 

211. On Love of Wealth, (vii) 

212. On Earthquakes. 

213. How a Spartan should fight. 

214. An Exhortation to Philosophy, addressed to 
Asclepiades of Pergamum. e 

d Identified by Wegehaupt (Berl. phil. Woch. xxxiii (1913), 
p. 1316) with Menemachus, to whom Praecepta Gerendae 
Reipublicae and perhaps De Exilio are addressed. 

* Probably the Asclepiades of no. Ill, but otherwise un- 
known. 

27 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

215. Ylepl rod /jltj Selv havei^eodai. 

216. Ylepl KvvrjyeTLKfjs. 

217. Ylpos tovs e^airardv 7T€Lpco[JL€vovs. 

218. Klriai <f>voiKai. 

219. TlpOS TOVS St(Z TO p7]TOp€V€LV [XTJ <f>l\oGO<f)OVV- 
TOLS. 

220. Ylepl TToaqnaTCDV , tls rj avTcov eTTifieAeia; 

221. Ti to 1 /cara YIAoltcovcl TeXos; 

222. 'Epam/cai 8c7]yrjo€iS' iv dXXcp 2 Ylpos tovs 

iptOVTCLS. 

223. <Y>i\oo6(j)a)v TTapaoKevcov. 

224. Ylepl YLvpiirLhov. 

225. Ylcos Kpivovfjiev 3 ttjv aArjdeiav; 

226. "Otl a<f)dapTos rj i/w^ry. 

227. lS.iaAe^is rrpos Ateova. 

1 ri to Ven. : rl Neap. 

2 Ven. omits ipajriKal . . . aAAo>. 

3 Kpwovtiev Ven. : Kplvoficv Volkmann. 

Some think that this is referred to in De Soil. Anim. 
959 b-d, where they believe the anonymous author of " an 



WORKS BY PLUTARCH 

215. On the Disadvantages of Borrowing, (x) 

216. On Hunting." 

217. A Reply to those who attempt Deception. 

218. Explanations of Natural Phenomena, (xi) 
219- An Attack on those who do not engage in 

Philosophy because they practise Rhetoric. 

220. What Attention is to be paid to Poetry ? 

221. What in Plato's view is the End of Life ? 

222. Love Stories (x) ; in another copy, To (or 
Against) Men in Love. b 

223. A Book of Exercises introductory to Philosophy. 

224. On Euripides. 

225. How shall we determine Truth ? c 

226. That the Soul is Imperishable. 

227. A Discourse in Reply to Dio. d 

encomium on hunting" to be Plutarch himself; see Helm- 
bold's note ad loc. I side with those who find this incredible, 
since Autobulus speaks of this person as a dangerous influ- 
ence, but at 964 d holds up Plutarch's teaching as a safe 
guide to follow in the treatment of animals. 

5 This is impossible as an alternative title and may really 
be that of another book, possibly that from which frags. 134- 
138 are derived. 

c Cf. no. 124. d Cf. no. 204. 



29 



TYRWHITT'S FRAGMENTS 



DESIRE AND GRIEF — PSYCHICAL OR 
BODILY PHENOMENA ? 

(DE LIBIDINE ET AEGRITUDINE) 

THE AFFECTIVE ELEMENT IN MAN- 
IS IT A PART OR A FACULTY 
OF HIS SOUL ? 

(UTRUM PARS AN FACULTAS ANIMI 
AFFECTIBUS SUBIECTA SIT) 

These two works, both incomplete, are sometimes 
known as Tyrwhitt's Fragments, since they were 
first published in 1773 by Thomas Tyrwhitt, a who 
had discovered them in a ms. in London, Harleianus 
5612. Tyrwhitt had heard that they were also in a 
Laurentianus, which Duebner later identified as Laur 
56. 4 ; another Laurentianus, 80. 28, contains De 
Libidine et Aegritudine. All three mss. are of the 
fifteenth century, and exhibit closely similar texts b ; 
all three contain in addition only items from the 
Moralia as known to Planudes. The fact that the 
Harleianus prefixes to the title of the first fragment 
the words ILXovrdpxov <£iA.oo-o</>of was used by Volk- 
mann, i. 105, and Treu (Zur Geschichte d. Vberlieferung 

a Fragmenta duo Plutarchi, London, 1773. 

6 I have collated Harl. 5612 (h), and finding Pohlenz's 
record in the Teubner edition trustworthy, have relied on him 
for knowledge of Laur. 56. 4 (i) and 80. 28 (k). 

32 



TYRWHITT'S FRAGMENTS 

von Plutarchs Moralia, iii. 32) as an argument that 
they were by Plutarch the son of Nestorius, the neo- 
Platonist. a The argument is worthless, since the 
very next item to follow them in the manuscript, De 
Sera Numinis Vindicta, is similarly headed YlXovrapyov 
cf)iXocr6if)OV. 

Nevertheless there is general agreement to-day 
that neither work can be by Plutarch of Chaeronea. 
Ziegler in Pauly-Wissowa, Realencyclopadie, xxi. 751, 
put in a plea for the genuineness of the first, which 
he thought to be an unfinished sketch, but later 
withdrew it. & I have shown that neither has the 
metrical clausulae characteristic of Plutarch's authen- 
tic works. Pohlenz d assigned the first to c. a.d. 400, 
on the authority of Wilamowitz, who claimed that it 
exhibited accentual clausulae, following Meyer's law. 
Meyer's " law," although historically important, is now 
recognized to be of little use in its original formu- 
lation, according to which there was, from the fourth 
century a.d., a tendency in some authors to write 
clausulae such that at least two unaccented syllables 
intervened between the ultimate and penultimate 
accents (which by then indicated stress). It has been 
shown that chance will secure a large majority (80%) 
of clausulae of this sort : samples from Poly bius and 
Plutarch have even yielded 85%. To prove an 
author to have used accentual clausulae he must be 
shown either to have a very high percentage that 

° Against this view see Zeller, Phil. d. Griechen, iii. 2. 808 3 . 

6 Studi in onore L. Castiglioni, p. 1135 (1960). 

c Class. Quart, xxxiii (1939), p. 197. This argument 
would be weakened if there were any reason for accepting 
Wehrli's assertion (Die Schule des Aristoteles, Herakleides, 
p. 83) that the first work has been abbreviated. 

d Fleckeisens Jahrbuch, Suppl. xxiv, p. 593 3 . 

S3 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

accord with Meyer's " law," or to seek or avoid 
particular accentual forms. For example, many By- 
zantine authors avoid juxtaposition of accents, or an 
interval of an odd number of unaccented syllables, 
and in others more individual predilections have been 
discovered. The fragment under consideration is so 
short that it barely allows of useful statistical treat- 
ment, especially as there is some uncertainty about 
what words, when stress had been introduced, carried 
a written accent without having a stressed syllable. 
Nevertheless a count, necessarily making some arbi- 
trary decisions, did not reveal a tendency to any of 
the recognized accentual patterns ; about 80% of 
the clausulae conform to Meyer's " law," and that 
is merely the average figure for post-Hellenistic pre- 
accentual prose (C. Litzica, Das Meyersche Gesetz, p. 
12). Hence there is no reason for supposing the frag- 
ment to be written with any regard to accents. 

The two works differ in character. The second is a 
competent and methodical academic exercise, whose 
author makes no attempt to render palatable the 
severity of his logic. Nothing in Plutarch's surviving 
works remotely resembles it. It clearly belongs to 
the time of revived Aristotelianism, and I should 
guess to the third or fourth century a.d. 5 But I can 
find nothing to rule out an earlier date. The other 
work is more of a sophistical nature, using various 
devices of rhetoric to adorn a superficial treatment of 
its subject. The author appears to be showing off to 
an audience of no great learning. His language is 

a A good account of the principles to be followed in in- 
vestigating accentual prose is to be found in S. Skimina, fitat 
actuel des etudes sur le rythme de la prose grecque, ii, Eus 
Suppl. 1 1 (Lw6w, 1930). 

b Cf. M. Pohlenz, Die Stoa, ii. 175. 

34 



TYRWHITTS FRAGMENTS 

heavily coloured by Stoicism, but he does not reveal 
his own position, at least in what survives. There is 
a terminus post quern in the mention of Posidonius, 
and of Diodotus, if he is one of two philosophers who 
bore that name in the first century B.C. I see no 
reason why the work should not have been composed 
in the first century a.d., while suspecting it may be 
later. It is notable that there are many parallels 
with the genuine Plutarch : the report about Demo- 
critus and Theophrastus (chap. 2), the unfamiliar 
story of the dismemberment of Horus (chap. 6), a 
simile (chap. 7), a verse quotation (chap. 8), and much 
in chap. 9- These similarities are too striking to be 
due to chance, and some may think that, in spite of 
the differences from Plutarch's usual style and man- 
ner, they make it probable that he was in fact the 
author. Certainly the case is much stronger than 
that for Aquane an ignis (see L.C.L., vol. xii, p. 288). 
Another possibility is that the work was written by 
someone closely associated with him, perhaps a mem- 
ber of the group of friends and younger men with 
whom he pursued his philosophical studies. 

The first fragment is easily summarized. The ques- 
tion whether body or soul is responsible for the affec- 
tions of desire, grief, a pleasure, and fear [the cardinal 
" passions " of the Stoics] is an old and important 
one (chaps. 1-3). Strato assigned them to the soul 
(chap. 4), Heraclides (?) to the body ; Posidonius 
ascribed some to the soul, some to the body, but 
thought that others belonged to one but involved the 
other ; Diodotus also tried to divide them, but body 

No English word adequately translates \vttt), which 
covers sorrow, pity, envy, remorse, depression, and annoy- 
ance. 

35 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

and soul are not easily distinguished (chaps. 5-6). 
Other philosophers [Peripatetics] said that affection 
belonged to the whole man (chap. 7) ; but this dodges 
the issue, which is, does the whole man make use of 
his body or of his soul when he suffers an affection ? 
(chap. 8). To come to grips with the subject, there 
are good arguments for finding a bodily origin for the 
affections. [No more is preserved, if it ever existed.] 
The second fragment is more technical. The ques- 
tion is whether the affective aspect of the soul, i.e., 
that which experiences fear, desire, etc. is to be re- 
garded as a specific irrational part of the soul, or as a 
faculty of the whole soul (chap. l). a Both alternatives 
appear to have absurd consequences. The first im- 
plies that irrational animals have something less than 
soul, and therefore as not possessing soul are not 
alive [a purely verbal and sophistical argument] ; 
the latter that opposites (reason and unreason) can 
co-exist. But perhaps opposites can co-exist if they 
are opposite potentialities : unreason in animals is 
always actualized, in man it sometimes remains a 
potentiality (chap . 2) . Yet the concept of potentiality 

° In De Anima Aristotle speaks indifferently of " parts " 
(which he usually calls /zo'/na, not pcpr), the word frequently 
used by Plato) or of " faculties " of the soul, and at Juv. 467 b 
17 he writes rr\s iftvx'fjs r/ fiopia r) Swdfjuecs, onoTCpcos irork Set 
xaXtlv. The Aristotelian commentators incline to the word 
Swards, and Galen, Hipp, et Plat. 493 (p. 476 M tiller), 
promises to show against Aristotle and Posidonius that the 
soul has parts, not merely faculties. Whether one should 
speak of parts or faculties is a topic mentioned by Themis- 
tius, De Anima, p. 117. 1 Heinze. Further references to the 
controversy are preserved from Porphyry (Stobaeus, i. 49. 25, 
p. 351 Wachsmuth) and Iamblichus (ibid. i. 49. 33, p. 369 
Wachsmuth), passages translated with a commentary by 
Festugiere, La Revelation d' Hermes Trismegiste, iii, pp. 190- 
193. 
36 



TYRWHITT'S FRAGMENTS 

brings difficulties. The soul becomes a mere sub- 
stratum for its potentialities and so will not in itself 
have life. Indeed even if regarded as substratum plus 
potentiality, it is only potentially alive (chap. 3). But 
if this potentiality is a state, it may be a state of life, 
which can be actualized as a different sort of life, that 
of the reason. If we thus explain the soul's life it 
follows that soul is not a composite thing : there is 
no substratum for the potentiality (chap. 4). If soul 
is defined as a vital potentiality, the affections that 
hinder its actualization cannot belong to it, in the 
sense of arising from it, although they involve it. 
They must arise from the body (chap. 5). But if affec- 
tions involve the soul, there must be something in it 
that can be affected. We cannot explain this being- 
affected simply as a cessation of rational activity, 
because when a human animal suffers an affection 
arising in the body and involving the soul, sometimes 
the extent of the affection is limited by the action of 
reason (chap. 6). Yet the affection and the activity of 
the reason are not simultaneous : reason follows the 
affection, to give it shape. What is affected in the 
soul is identical with the rational soul : its affection 
is the intermittency of its activity in contemplating 
the truth, and when it ceases to contemplate the 
truth it falls into delusion (chap. 7). 



37 



IIOTEPON 1 TYXHS H SQMATOS 
EIII0YMIA KAI AYIIH 

1. f H [lev TrpoOeais irepl €7Ti9vp,ias yeyove KOI 

\V7T7JS, TTOTepOV GCO/JLCLTOS TTOiOoS €OTLV Tj €7TL CTCO/XaTt 

ipvxfjs* /cat yap et rrjv avTOTTadtiav aTroXvoerai to 
acojita tovtojv, ov hia<j)ev^erai ttjv alrtav, aAAd Sid 
crco/xaros' TraOr) <f>atv€Tai, /cat av iXeyx'QTat 2 nepl 
ipvxrfv. rj 8e kolvottjs rod Xoyov /cat to. Xolttol iraQt] 
Trj z tflTTjoei ovvvTrofidXXei, 41 <f>6fiov 5 /cat rjSovrjv, <Lv 

TO fJL€V XV7T7) TO S' €7Tl9vp,La OV/XTT€(/>VK€V, €L y€ TT&S 

avdpojiros <x)v fiev XvTreiTai irapovTiov , Se'Ste pbeXXov- 
tojv, 6 Sv S' opeyeTCLi 7 p/rj wapovTcov * TJSeTai SeSo- 
p,evois? tov p,ev yap Koopuov oi <J>volkol Xeyovaiv 
€K T€TTapojv vajpuaTcov iTpojTiov /cat pbeyLOTCOV avv- 
r)pp,6adai, 10 KaT avTideow /cat avTiTai*tv aAAr^Aot? 
dVa> /cat koltcj <f>vo€i penoPTCov, ttjv 8e /ca/ctav /cat 
a/cocr/xtav ttjv ev rjpuv Teaaapa rrdOr) tol rrptoTa 

1 UXovrdpxov <t>i\oo6<j)ov rrorepov h. 

2 F. H. S. : /cat air^Xiyx^TaL tt. ifs. hk. /cat it. iff. iXdy^qrai !• 
kov 7r. ift. aTreXiyxqTai Pohlenz. 

3 rfj added by Wyttenbach (^ret i). 

4 Wyttenbach : owairoBaXXei. 5 Tyrwhitt : <j>Q6vov. 

6 Se'8t€ fieXXovrcov F. H. S. j aV8e StaftcAAoVTow. <Lv 8c 8c8i€ 
/LtcAAoVraw Wyttenbach. 

7 /cat deleted after opc'yerat by Pohlenz. 

8 ok 8c deleted after rrapovrajv by F. H. S. 

9 Pohlenz : 8€o/u,e>ots. y€vop,€vois Tyrwhitt. 

38 



DESIRE AND GRIEF—PSYCHICAL OR 
BODILY PHENOMENA? 

1. The subject before us is whether desire and grief 
are an affection of the body or an affection of the soul, 
occasioned by the body ; for even if the body shows 
that it is innocent of experiencing these affections 
itself, it will not be acquitted of responsibility for 
them ; they are affections that clearly arise through 
the body, even should they be proved to belong to 
the soul. The other affections, too, namely fear and 
pleasure, have a similarity of definition which requires 
them to be treated in this discussion along with 
desire and grief. Fear is cognate with grief, and 
pleasure with desire, if it is true that every human 
being feels fear at the prospect of those things 
whose presence causes him grief, whereas he feels 
pleasure on obtaining the things that he desires when 
he is without them. Scientists tell us that the world 
is a harmonious combination of four primary principal 
bodies, which have natural inclinations upwards and 
downwards in antithesis or opposition to one another. 
But the four basic affections give rise to the bad- 

a That fire and air move upwards, water and earth down- 
wards (i.e., towards the centre of the universe) is common 
ground to Stoics and Peripatetics. 

10 Pohlenz (c/. Mor. 943 f) : owriprjadai. avvrfpTTJodai Tyr- 
whitt. 

39 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

KiV€L KOLl 8ia(f)€p€i TTpOS TOVVdVTlOV aTOLKTCOS /Cat 

dXoyais rrjv ifjvxtfv, 1 avoj puev rjSovrj /cat kolto) Xvttt], 
TTpoooj S' eiridvpLia /cat oVtcra> (fro/Sos, 2 cooTrep ££ op- 
fjLtov dcrupLpberpajv fJueraax'rjI^CLTL^opbevrjv. 3 eirapois 
yap avrrjs rjSovrj* ovoroXr) Se 5 Xvtttj* retverai 6 S' 
els €7ndvp,iav, <f>evyei 8' o Se'otev. o ye pbrjv dvpuos, 
ecre rfjs eTTidvjxias earlv etSos kovt ope^iv dvri- 

Xv7Trj<J€(JL>S V<f>LOT<i[JL€VOS €LT€ €T€pOV TL /Cat 8ld(/)OpOV 

7toXXolkls 8e /cat \xayp\L€vov irpos liriQv\iiav irddos, 
(bs virevoei HXdrajv, ovk dSrjXov otl /cat avros 
irape^ei ^TjTrjGiv, etre rrjs ifjvxtfs avrrjs Kivovpbevrjs 7 
etre rod ad) pharos eKpc7nt,6pLevos 8 ^et/xa^et rov dv- 
Qpixmov. 

2. "Eot/ce 7raAata tls avrrj rco adS/xart StaSt/caata 
7rpo9 rrjv ifjvxvjv Trepl tcov 7rada>v etvat. /cat A77/ZO- 

KpiTOS pb€V €7TL TTjV l/jVX^JV dva(/)€pOJV TTjV /Ca/Co8at- 

fjboviav 9 <f>7]alv, el rov awpuaros avrfj 10 Siktjv Xaxdvros 
irapd iravra rov fiiov a>v (hhvvqrai /cat 11 KaKtos 
ireirovdev avros yevoiro rov eyKXrjpbaTOS hiKaorrjS , 12 
rjSeoJS av Karaiprj^laaaOai rrjs ifjvxfjs, €</>' ots rd 
puev aTrd)Xeoe lz rov ad)fJbaros rat? apueXeiais /cat e£- 
eXvae rats fiedacs, rd Se Kare^deipe /cat hieoiraae 

1 rrjv ^vxqv added here by F. H. S., after /tieTaaxTj/uaTifo/zcVty 
by Pohlenz (/LtcTaa^/xaTtfo/icVTys rrjs tpvxfjs Ziegler). 

2 Tyrwhitt : <f>66vos. 

8 F. H. S., cf. S. V.F, hi. 462, ^voiktjv ra>v opfxcov cvfjL^Tptav 
vTreppalvcLV : i£ opydvcov dfierpcov (davfJLfidrpwv Pohlenz) /Ltcra- 

4 Tyrwhitt : rjbovrjs. 5 8e omitted by hk. 

6 t€iv€tcli i in margin : yLyvtru. £kt€ivzt<u Wyttenbach. 

7 cere ... KivovfjL€vr)s added by Pohlenz. 

8 Hartman : iKpiirrov^vos, 

9 ttjv KaKohaipboviav Patzig : KaKohatficov. ttjv tov KaKtoaai 8v- 
vafxtv Pohlenz. 

10 €t . . . avrfj Wyttenbach : 17 . . . avrr), 

40 



TYRWHITT'S FRAGMENTS 

ness and disorderliness in us, as they drive the soul 
chaotically and irrationally in opposite directions, to 
rise in pleasure and to sink in pain, to advance in 
desire, and to draw back in fear, being given its suc- 
cessive shapes so to speak in consequence of dispro- 
portionate impulses a ; for its swelling is pleasure, and 
its contraction grief, it stretches out towards its de- 
sire and retreats from what it fears. Anger, more- 
over, whether a species of desire, its essence being a 
longing to inflict pain in reprisal, 6 or something 
different and distinct, an affection that, as Plato sup- 
posed, often positively conflicts with desire, will 
obviously also provide a subject for inquiry : {is it 
by a disturbance of soul) or of body that anger is 
fanned to fire and drives the man in its tempest ? 

2. This claim and counterclaim in the suit of body 
versus soul over the affections is, it seems, of long 
standing. Democritus, ascribing unhappiness to the 
soul's account, says that if the body were to bring an 
action against the soul for all the torment and ill- 
treatment it had suffered throughout its life, and if 
he were a member of the jury trying the charge, he 
would be glad to cast his vote against the soul, for the 
reason that it had destroyed some parts of the body 
by neglect, or weakened them by drunken carousals, 
while others it had ruined and ravaged in its pur- 

a According to the Stoics a passion is an " excessive 
impulse " ; it oversteps ** the natural proportion of the im- 
pulses/' i.e., is a reaction disproportionate to the stimulus. 
But " impulses " are introduced into the text only by an 
uncertain emendation. 

6 Aristotle, De Anima, 403 a 30, so defines opyij. 

c Republic, 440 a. 

11 koX added by Tyrwhitt. 12 Tyrwhitt : 8t and lacuna. 
13 Wyttenbach : airiXvae. 

41 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

TOLLS CplXrjSovlatS , 0)07T€p OpyaVOV TWOS Tj OK€VOVS 

kclkcjs exovTos top xp(x)iA€vov a<f>€i8ajs aiTiaoaiievos . 
®€o<f>paoTOS Se ToivavTiov e^ry tco otbp,aTi noXXov 1 
ttjv ifjvx'rjv evoiKelv, oXiyov xP° vov jSapet? p,io6ovs 
vnoTeXovaav, Tas Xviras tovs <f>6f$ovs tols eTnOvfiias 
Tas ^rjXoTVTrlas, cus avfJL(f>€pojjL€vr) irepl to otop,a 

SlKOUOT€pOV Siv aVTtp 2 Sl/Ca£oiTO 7r7JpOJG€C0S COV €7Tt- 

XeXrjoTai, /cat fiialcov itfS ols /care^eTat, /cat vfipetos 3 

COV d8o^€L KCU Xoi8op€LTCU TCOV ZK€WOV KCLKOJV dva- 

Sexofjuevrj tcls curias' ov TrpoarjKovTcos. 

3. s AyojvcoTeov ovv virkp ttjs dXrjdeias. kolXos 
yap 6 dytov, /cat ttj ifwxfj* o Xoyos TrdvTtos XPV~ 

GL/JbOS, €t [JL€V OVK CLVTTJS T(X Trddrj cf)aW€TaL, 7TpOS 

diroXoyiav, ei S' avTrjs, rrpos aVaAAayr/v coot rj 
(f>vXd£aodai to £kovolov t} firj XoiSopeZoOai to dX- 
XoTpcov. 

4. "ESet p,ev tovs SoypLCLTLKOVS /cat KaTaXrj7TTi- 
kovs etvat <f>t,Xoao<f)ovs cpdoKOVTas et /jltj 7repl dXXo 
tl ttjv ye tcov iradcov eWpyeiav 5 6/JboXoyew dXXtfXois 
/cat ovfjufiepeodau- 7roXvs 8' avTcov 6 TrapdXoyos 
ioTW. oi fjuev yap diravTa avXX'q^Srjv ratrra ttj 
ifrvxfj cf>epovT€S dvedeoav, cooirep UtTpaTCov 6 <f>voi- 
kos, ov jjbovov Tas iTridvjjLias dXXd /cat Tas Xvnas, 

1 Tyrwhitt : 7roAAa>. 2 Wyttenbach : avrov. 

8 Ziegler : vfipcoov. 4 Tyrwhitt : rijs «A^^s. 

5 ivdpyciav Pohlenz. 

a Diels-Kranz, Frag. d. Vorsokratiker, 68 b 159 ; more 
briefly cited, De Tuenda Sanitate, 135 e. 

6 Porphyry, De Abstinentia, iv. 20, p. 266 Nauck, 7toXv to 
cvoiKiov, ws (f>7}GL nov (d€o<j>paoTos t biSovoTjs rrjs tpvx'rjs, De Tuenda 
Sanitate, loc. cit. 

e Strato, frag. Ill Wehrli, cf. frag. 110 (De Plac. Phil. iv. 
42 



TYRWHITTS FRAGMENTS 

suit of pleasure ; he might be laying the blame for 
the bad condition of some tool or utensil on the person 
who had used it without care. a Theophrastus, on the 
contrary, said that the soul's lodging in the body was 
an expensive one 6 ; that for a short tenancy it paid 
a heavy price in its pains and fears, desires and 
jealousies ; and that its involvement with these 
emotions in the body gave it a better case to take to 
court, since it could accuse the body of mayhem for 
all it had been caused to forget, of forcible seizure for 
its detention, and of outrage for the ill-fame and vitu- 
peration it suffers through being undeservedly held 
responsible for the evils that befall the body. 

3. We must enter the lists then as champions of 
the truth. The contest is an honourable one, and the 
soul will in any event profit by the discussion. If the 
affections prove not to belong to it, that answers the 
charge ; if they are found to belong, it will be helped 
to be rid of them. The result will be either that it is 
on its guard against voluntary misdeeds, or that it is 
not reproached for another's acts. 

4. Whatever else they may disagree about, it 
might be expected of philosophers who have a posi- 
tive creed and claim to apprehend reality, that they 
would at least concur and agree with one another on 
the action of the affections. They are, however, far 
from meeting our expectations. Some have ascribed 
all affections indiscriminately to the soul, like the 
scientist Strato, c who declared that not only our 
desires but also our griefs, not only our fears and 

23). Wehrli, like W. Capelle, R.E. 2. Reihe, iv. 303, c/. 
310, thinks it unlikely that Strato used the Stoic term ijyc- 
fioviKov, " centre of command," since he appears to have held 
a unitary view of the soul. But he localized thought and 
sensation between the eyebrows (see below). 

43 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

ovSe rovs (f>6f$ovs /cat tovs (frdovovs /cat rag eVt- 
Xatpe/ca/ctas" dAAd /cat ttovovs /cat rjSovas /cat dXyrj- 
Sovas /cat oXcus iraoav atoOrjoLV iv rfj iftvxfj ovviora- 
adai <^d/xevo9 /cat rfjs ^VX1 S T( * roiavra ttolvt 

€LVOU, flTJ TOP TToSa 7TOVOVVTOJV rjpLCOV OTGLV TTpOO" 

Kpovacofiev fir^Se ttjv K€<f>aXr]v otclv /card^aj/xev psq- 
Se 1 tov SolktvXov otclv €/cT€/xa>/>tev * dvaioQryra ydp 
ra XoittcL ttXtjv tov rjyepiovLKov , npos o ttjs 7rXr]yrjs 
6^€<jos ava<f>€pofjL€vr]s rrjv alodr)oiv dXyqhova /caAou- 
p,ev. cos Se rrjv (frcovrjv rots oxjIv avrols ivrjxovGav 
e£a) SoKovfjbev elvcu to o\tt6 rfjs dpxfjs ^ 7TL T ° v\y*-~ 
jjlovlkov 8idarr]fMa rfj aiodrjoei 7TpoaXoyt^6pL€Voi, 
TTapaTrXrjoLoos tov e/c rod rpavfiaros ttovov ov% ottov 
rrjv aiaOrjocv €iXr]<f>€V dXX oOev ecr^e rrjv clpxty 
elvai SoKovfjuev, iXKOfjbevrjs €tt* eVetvo rfjs ^VXV S ^4^ 

OV 7T€7TOvd€. 8l6 /Cat TrpOOKOlfjCLVTZS CLVTLKCL TOLS 

6<f)pvs avv^ydyofiev, 2 ra> 7rXr)y€VTi pbopio) rod rjye- 
jxovlkov rrjv aiodr)oiv otjecos a7To8i86vros , /cat rrap- 
ey/ca77TOjLt€v 3 eod* ore to 7rv€vp,a, kolv to\ f^eprj Sea- 
fjLols SiaXafjL^dvrjTai, avaiadrjra ylyvzTai to. d/cpa- 
Tpavfjia Se AajSoVres rat? 4 X € P aL cr^oSpa 77-te'£o/zev, 
ivLGTafjuevoi 5 irpos ttjv StdSoatv tov irddovs /cat ttjv 
7TXrjyrjv iv tols dvaiodrjTois 6XlJ3ovt€s* tva pLiq Tip 1 

1 Bernardakis : /xt). 

2 Bernardakis : awryyayov iv. avvdyo^v Duebner. 

3 Madvig : irapey 'kottto^v. 

4 avaiod-qra . . . a/cpa added by Pohlenz, rpavfia . . . rats 
by F. H. S. after Pohlenz. 

5 Bernardakis : tVra/Licvoi. 

6 anoOXlpovTcs Pohlenz. 7t\iJttovt€s hk. 
44 



TYRWHITTS FRAGMENTS 

envies and malicious pleasures at others* misfortune 
but also our physical hurts and pleasures and pains 
and in general all sensations come about in the soul. 
According to him, everything of this sort is a psychical 
event ; we do not have a pain in the foot when we 
stub our toe, nor in the head when we crack it, nor 
in the finger when we gash it. Nothing has any 
sensation except the soul's centre of command ; any 
blow is quickly relayed to this centre , a and its sensa- 
tion is what we call pain. One may compare the way 
we think that a noise which in fact sounds in our ears 
is outside us ; we add to the sensation an estimate of 
the distance between the origin of the noise and the 
centre of command. 5 Similarly we think that the 
pain resulting from a wound is, not where it is sensed, 
but where it originated, as the soul is drawn towards 
the source that has affected it. Hence, when we 
bump into something, we often instantly contract 
our eyebrows, and sometimes catch our breath, 
while the centre of command rapidly refers the sen- 
sation to the part which received the knock. Again, 
if our limbs are secured by bonds {there is no feeling 
in our extremities, and if we are wounded,) we press 
hard with our hands, resisting the transmission of 
the injury and squeezing the blow to keep it in the 
parts that have no feeling, so that it does not become 

° Plotinus, iv. 7. 7 and 2. 2, polemizes against a similar, 
Stoic, view of transmission. 

6 H. Poppelreuter, Zur Psychologie des Aristoteles, Theo- 
phrastos, Straton, p. 51, thinks that the distance involved is 
really that from source of noise to the ear : but on Strato's 
theory the perceiving centre has to add to that the distance 
from the ear to itself. Cf. [Arist.], And. 801 a 23. 

c The hegemonikon is situated either in the head or in the 
chest. 

7 ra> added by Pohlenz. 

45 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

owdipai irpds to tf>povovv dX'/7)8chv yevqrai. tclvtol 
p,€v ovv 6 Hrpdrcov irrl ttoXXols cos €lkos tolovtois. 

5. "Evtot 8' dvnKpvs kcu 86£av Kal 8iaXoyiopiov 
els to ocofia KarareivovoiVy ov8* etvai ovoiav to 1 
napdirav fax^S XeyovTes aAAa rfj rod ocopiaTOS Sia- 
cf>opa /cat 7roL6rrjTL kcu oWa/xet ovvreXelodai rd 
roiavra. to puev yap Uepl tcov iv "AtSou fiifSXiov 
irnypacfyofievov, iv co rrjv xjjvxty rfj ovoia Trapvirdp- 
X€tv d7ro(f>aLV€TaL 2 6 Xoyos, oi fxkv ov8* elvai 3 to 
napdirav 'Hpai<X€i8ov vofil^ovoLV oi Se 77/009 dvTi- 
Trapetjaycoyrjv ovvT€Tax6ai* tcov elprjfjiivcov €T€pots 
Trepl ovoias iffvx?js' otco S' ovv 5 yeypafjLfJbevov avTi- 
Kpvs dvacpel ttjv ovoiav avTrjs, cos tov ocopuaTos 
€xovtos iv avTco 6 ra? elprjpbevas Svvdfiets rrdoas. 

Ot S' coorrep hid puioov tcov X6ya>v lTrzx <ei P y ) aav 
d<f>opl£,€iv ttjs i/jvxfjs 18 ta ndOrj Kal 7 tov ocofiaTOS, 
iv KOLvep Kal rrXaTOS ovk k\ovTi c^epofxevoi tottco 
awexvdrjoav . (6.) 6 ye tol IlooetScbvios Ta p,ev 

1 ovoiav Pohlenz : air Lav. ro added by Bernardakis. 

2 Wyttenbach : avro (or avros) (fralvercu. 

3 Wyttenbach : o$v htwol. 

4 Wyttenbach : rcrdxOcu. 

6 oto) 8* odv Pohlenz : ovrco. 6 Ziegler : avrw. 

7 ra deleted before rod by F. H. S. : koX tSta tov Ziegler. 

a Strato connected sensation and thought, arguing that 
there was no sensation without mental attention, cf. De Soil. 
Anim. 961 a-b. 

b And hence also, a fortiori, the affections. 

c Heraclides " Ponticus " (c. 390-310), a member of Plato's 
Academy from Heraclea on the Black Sea ; frag. 72 Wehrli. 
Nowhere else is the suggestion made that the book was not 
by Heraclides, and Plutarch, Adv. Colotem, 1115 a, refers to 
it as if it were genuine. The account given here is puzzling ; 
since Heraclides believed the soul to be constituted of light 
or something similar and to have had an existence before 

46 



TYRWHITT'S FRAGMENTS 

a pain by making contact with the part of us that has 
understanding. This is the explanation given by 
Strato for many similar cases, as might be expected. 

5. Some, however, go so far as to restrict even 
opinion and calculation b to the body. They deny the 
very existence of a substantive soul, and say that such 
mental activities are the result of bodily differences, 
qualities, or properties. It is true that the book en- 
titled On the Underworld, the argument of which is 
that the soul exists as a concomitant of what is sub- 
stantial, is thought by some not to be by Heraclides 
at all, while others say that it was composed as a 
controversial attack on what other authors had written 
about the substance of soul. But whoever the writer 
may have been, it completely does away with the 
substantial existence of soul, by maintaining that the 
body has in itself all the aforesaid capacities. 

As for those who, mediating as it were between 
these two positions, have tried to draw a line between 
the affections proper to the soul and those that belong 
to the body, they have landed in confusion as they 
wander in a no-man's-land too narrow to divide. 6. 
Posidonius, for instance, divided affections into those 

and after its incorporation (frags. 97-100 Wehrli), he cannot 
have thought it to have no substantial existence. Wehrli 
suggests that this view may have been advanced by a char- 
acter in a dialogue (if the work was a dialogue), and mistaken 
for Heraclides' own ; since the book was directed against 
Democritus' ridicule of the idea that the soul survives death, 
this would be a strange mistake. If there is any profit in 
speculation, Heraclides may have reverted to the primitive 
psychology which divorced the principle of life (</w;r?) from 
consciousness ; if he did this, and maintained that sensation, 
thought, and feeling were functions of the body, a later critic 
might argue that by robbing iftvxfi (animal life) of those activi- 
ties that distinguish it, in the Stoic view, from <f>vats (vegeta- 
tive life) Heraclides had robbed it of its being. 

47 



PLUTARCITS MORALIA 

etvai ifrvxiKa t<x Se oojpLaTLKd, /cat tol pbev ov fox^S 

7T€pl ifjVX^jV <>€ GCD/JbaTLKa, TCL S' OV GcbflCLTOS 7T6/H 

aat/xa 8e ifrux^Ka <f>r)oi,' i/o^t/ca /xev 1 a7rAa)9 Aeycov 2 
rd ev /c/Hcreat 3 /cat VTroArji/jeoiv, otov eTTidvp,Las (f>6- 
fiovs opyds, acofiartKa S' carAtis rrvperovs 7repiipv- 

£et9 7TVKVU)G€IS dpaiU)OeiS , 7T€pl ifjVX^ Se GlDfAGLTlKa* 

Arjddpyovs p,eAayxoALas SrjypLovs <f>avraoias Sta- 
Xoaeis, avdiraAiv he irepl atofjua ipvx^d rpofjiovs /cat 
<l)Xpi>doeis /cat fAerafioAds rov elSovs Kara <f>6f$ov t) 
Avtttjv. AtoSoro? 5 rrdAtv tSta p,ev riva rod AoyiKov 
</>r)OL 6 rrjs ifjvxfjs irddrj tSta Se rov ovjx<f)vovs /cat 
dAoyov etvai, ptTrra^opievos eirl irdvra /cat t/rryAa- 
<f>a>vri irpooeoiKCJS rds Sia<f>opds. ottov yap eVt tcjv 
dyyelojv epyov earl Sta/cptrat, Trore rfj irepl avrd 
/ca/cta to iyK€XVjJb€vov 7 Sie^OapKe, /cat rrdAiv wore 
tcov vyptov vocrrjodvTajv* StajSe/Jparrat, 9 tjttov ye 10 
rrjs ifjvx^J9 dva/jLepbiyfjbevrjg els to oa>p,a /cat Kara 

OVyKpOLGW 11 eVOJTlKTJV OV[JL7Te<f)VKVLaS 12 evnopov eOTLV 

eKKadapai rrjv 8ia<f)opdv; opovs fax^S /cat oa>- 

1 acjfiariKa, tol 8* . . . ^u^t/ca and iftvxiKa fi€v added by 
Wyttenbach, fact, by Ziegler. 

2 Acycov transferred here by F. H. S. from before </>6povs. 

3 Wyttenbach : to eVcoiocot (or to Kpio€oi). ? to, em icploeai, 
cf. S. V.F. i. 209. 

4 Tyrwhitt : coj/xaTi/cas or aajfiaTiKal. 

6 Tyrwhitt : 8t' oSoVtos. 6 Tyrwhitt : </>rjp.i. 

7 Wyttenbach : €KK€xvfi€vov. 

8 Wyttenbach : voarjaav. 

9 K€Kpv7TTai deleted after hiafitfSpayrai, by Duebner. 

10 Wyttenbach : re. u Duebner : kclt lyKpa.rr\oiv. 

12 Wyttenbach : av/j,7T€(f>vKVLav. 

° K. Reinhardt, Poseidonios, p. 313 1 , thinks this was a 
provisional distinction in orthodox language, preparatory to 
a fully psychosomatic account. 

6 Bidxvais is a species of 1780W7, being dvdXvois aperijs, S. V.F. 
48 



TYRWHITT'S FRAGMENTS 

(a) of the soul, (6) of the body, (c) of the body and 
manifested in, although not proceeding from, the soul, 
(d) of the soul and manifested in, although not 
proceeding from, the body. Of the soul without 
qualifications are those connected with judgements 
and suppositions, e.g., desires, fears, angers ; of the 
body without qualification are fevers, chills, contrac- 
tions and expansions ; of the body but manifested 
in the soul are lethargies, atrabilious derangements 
of mind, reactions to hurts, sense-presentations, and 
feelings of relaxation a ; of the soul, on the other 
hand, but manifested in the body, are tremors, pallors, 
and other changes of appearance related to fear or 
grief. 6 Diodotus, c again, says that some of the soul's 
affections are peculiar to the rational element of the 
soul, and others peculiar to the conjunct irrational 
element ; he blunders about among them all and 
guesses which is which, as if playing blind man's 
buff.** In the case of jars or other vessels it is hard 
to determine when it is through some fault of their 
own that they have spoiled their contents, and when 
on the other hand they have been eaten away because 
the liquids in them became unhealthy. That being 
so, can we suppose that, when the soul has been 
intermingled with the body and integrated with it 
in a unifying blend, it is a simple matter to make the 
distinction between them clear-cut ? You are looking 

iii. 400. h-qyixos is a natural involuntary experience at a 
painful stimulus, S. V.F. iii. 439 ; Cicero, Tusc. Disp. iii. 83. 

c Perhaps the brother of Boethus of Sidon, who was 
Strabo's fellow-pupil in Aristotelianism ; less probably 
Cicero's Stoic house-philosopher. The author appears not 
to observe that the doctrine he ascribes to Diodotus is not 
relevant to his present topic, the distribution of the affections, 
some to the body, some to the soul. 

4 Cf. Plato, Phaedo, 99 b. 

49 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

fiaros eiritjirels, ovs rj <f>vots dvtlXev £k Svolv /xt'av 
ova lav 1 yeveoO ai oofa^ofAevr) , /cat ra> Xoyco rrapev- 
Swat 2 yAt^o/xevos 3 StacrreAAets' 4 KOivojviav ovoevl 

XvTTJV* OtfSe ^(X>pLGTY]V Tj fJ,6v(A) OaVOLTO), €K€LVOS 0€ 

ret irpos aXX-qXa crvfnrXaKevTa* oiaKoifjas 1 77 oltto- 
Kpivas ddrepov iijeXeytjec tt)v eKarepov <f>vaiv ooov 
elx^v aXXoTpiov p>€XP l °* TOVTOV TO OVyK€KpajJ,€VOV 
7) Koivcovia heiKvvoiv apvovpuevr] e/c 8 ovolv ctrat /cat 
diTOKpvTTTOVoa tcls dp,(f>OLV ets KOivojviav 9 dpxas /cat 
dvaTripunXaoa darepov Odrepov, ojs fxrjre iffvxfjs etvat 
Trad os o act) fiaros ov KadaTrreraL, fMrjre oojp,aTOS 
/xerajSoA^v 77 10 Sta foxy? ov KexojprjKe. KivSvvevo- 

fM€V O/ZOtdV TL 7TOL€LV rfj 7T€pl TOV QpOV 11 VTT* AlyV~ 

tttiojv p,vdoXoyovp,€vr] Siavofjufj, SiKaoavTos twos 
tojv TraXatorepcov deojv, inel 12 rep Tvarpl Tipucopcov 
aTT€KT€ive ttjv fjcrjTepa, /cat to at/za avrov /cat TOV 
[xveXov KaTaXi7T€tv, TrepieXzlv 8e ttjv 7rtp,€Xr)v /cat 
tcls odpKas, ojs tovtojv iv Tjj /JLTJTpl TTJV ovoTaoiv 

XafioVTOJV, €K€LVOJV S' OLTTO TOV TTaTpOS KaTCL™ TTJV 

1 ovalav added by F. H. S. 

2 Wyttenbach : rrapevhovvcu. 

3 Pohlenz : dpx6fi€vos. 

4 Wyttenbach : StaarcAAet. 

5 Tyrwhitt : ovh* ivl avrrjv or ovB* eviavrrfv. 

6 avfi7rXaK€VTa added by F. H. S. (awScfleVra Wyttenbach, 
ovfi7ray€VTa Pohlenz, ovyKpadivra Ziegler) to fill a lacuna in 

MSS. 

7 Wyttenbach : Koipas. 8 Tyrwhitt : dpvovfjLevrjv cV. 
9 Pohlenz : koivcjv. 10 Wyttenbach : o. 

11 Tyrwhitt : opov. u Tyrwhitt : em. 

18 Kara added by Tyrwhitt. 

a Osiris having been killed by his own brother Set, Horus 
overthrew his usurping uncle and restored his father to life. 
An unusual story (Roeder, R.E. viii. 2449, T. Hopfner, Plu- 
tarch uber Isis und Osiris, i. 123, 139) represents Horus as 

50 



TYRWHITTS FRAGMENTS 

for boundary marks between body and soul ; but 
nature has removed them, using all her skill to make 
one substance out of two. When you crave to in- 
troduce a theoretical division between them you are 
trying to break up a partnership to which only 
death can bring dissolution or divorce. Death, 
indeed, when it severs or disentangles these things 
that are there intertwined one with the other, will 
prove how much there was in the very being of each 
that was not its own. But until that time, the part- 
nership exhibits a complete blending ; it refuses to 
admit that it has two constituents, it conceals the 
original contribution of the pair to the common stock, 
and so impregnates each with the other, that there 
is no affection of the soul that does not attack the 
body, and no change in the body that does not per- 
meate the soul. We are in danger of trying to 
effect something like the division of Horus in Egyp- 
tian mythology a : when he had killed his mother to 
avenge his father, one of the older gods gave as his 
judgement that they should remove his fat and flesh 
but leave his blood and his marrow, because the two 
former had been formed in his mother, while the latter 
had passed into him from his father at his begetting. 6 

having beheaded his mother Isis because she protected Set ; 
she was then given a cow's head by Thoth. Plutarch has a 
milder version of the story, Be Iside, 358 d, in which Isis 
loses her headdress, not her head ; but at 358 e he mentions 
that he has suppressed the worst features, " the dismember- 
ment of Horus and decapitation of Isis." The tale of the 
dismemberment of Horus has recently been found for the 
first time in an Egyptian source (Pap. Jumilhac), which 
differs in its details from what is said here ; see J. Hani, 
Revue des iStudes Grecques, lxxvi (1963), p. 111. 

b Cf. De Animae Procr. 1026 c, where breath " replaces 
44 marrow." 

51 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

yeveaiv pvevTcov avra). KaOdnep yap ovtoi tqjv 
gtt epfjidr ojv rrjv 1 dvojQev Kara <f>vcriv Kpaoiv d^c6/)t- 

OTOV €TnX€ipOVVT€S 8t,(Llp€LV a^pt X6yOV fJLV0d)8oVS 

/cat dnLGTOv Trpoepxovrac, 2 tov avrov rpoirov rjfJLeis* 

GtbfJLCLTOS /Cat ifjVXfjS €V0VS €V TTpOJTT) KCLTafioAfj OVy- 

XvdevTOJV 7rddrj otaAajSety /cat x a) P^ (iaL tpr^rovvres 
dicpifiovs a</>68pa Xoyov KaOdirep opydvov Xctttov 
7rpos rrjv oiaipeoiv SeofxeOa. 

7. Ot oe 4 ravrrjv diroyvovres* (f>iX6ao(f)OL <j>aoi 
fjbrjre acofiarog elvai ri firjre ipvxfjs toiov irdOos aAAa 
tov kolvov' tov yap avOpojirov r)8eodai /cat Au77"et- 
a#at /cat cjyofieiodai, tov 6 dvdpojTrov, ou^t rrjv i/jvxtjv, 
a>G7T€p ye irdXiv ov to crojjLta jSaAAetv /cat opx^loOai 
/cat TTepnrarelv , dXXd tov avdpojirov d^orepois 
Xpcbjxevov, a)G7T€p i£ dp,<f)OLV avveoTrjKe. /cat ovk 
dv OavfJbdaaLpLL, el 1 tovtols fidXtard ttojs 8 to dXrjdes 
crufx^eperaL, Kpiois yap rj Xvttt) /ca/cou twos avrto 
Trapovros €(/>' to 9 ovoreXXeodat /ca^/cet, /cat 6 <f)6fios 
/ca/cou 10 [JbeXXovTOS d</S ov (fyevyeiv /ca^/cet /cat dva- 
Xojpeiv wore rov XvTTOvpLevov avrov avra) Xeyecv 
otl fJboi KaKov Trdpeoriy /cat rov (fropovfjuevov ofjuotajs 
ore />tot KaKov carat. 11 " iyeb " S' ovk €t/xt r) ipvx^j 
dAA' 6 dvdpojrros, /cat to /ca/cov ovk eon rr)s ifjvx^js 
dXXd rov dvdpamov, irevla vooos doo^t'a OdvaTOS. 
Slo ttjv T€ Xv7Trjv 12 /cat tov <j)6fiov dvayKaiov etvat, 
Trddrj tov dvOpwirov /cat ovx} Trjs ipvxfjs. 

1 Wyttenbach : ovtoi woircp rwv. Post suggests omitting 
ojenrcp. 

2 Wyttenbach : irpoeppvovrau 3 Tyrwhitt : ripXv. 
4 ot Be added by Duebner. 5 Tyrwhitt : avoiyovrts* 

6 Wyttenbach : tlvcl. Ziegler keeps nva and omits avOptoirov. 

7 6t added by Wyttenbach. 8 Wyttenbach : ojs. 
9 Pohlenz : o$. 10 Tyrwhitt : /cat ov. 

52 



TYRWHITTS FRAGMENTS 

The Egyptians go so far as to invent an incredible 
fairy-tale in their attempt to divide the insepar- 
able natural blend of inherited elements. In the 
same way when we seek to distinguish and separate 
the affections of soul and body, which were immedi- 
ately confused at their first nativity, we stand in 
need of a delicate tool, in the shape of an extremely 
accurate formula, to effect the division. 6 

7. The philosophers who despair of such a division 
say that an affection belongs peculiarly neither to 
the body nor to the soul, but to the combination of 
the two : it is the man who feels pleasure and grief 
and fear, the man not the soul, c and this exactly 
corresponds to the fact that it is not the body that 
throws or dances or walks about, but the man, who 
uses both body and soul together, just as he is com- 
posed of both. I should not be surprised if the truth 
perhaps most closely coincides with this view. For 
grief is a judgement of the presence of some harm, 
on account of which it is proper to become depressed, 
and fear is a judgement of impending harm from 
which it is proper to take flight and retreat. There- 
fore one who feels grief says to himself, " Harm is 
upon me," and similarly one who feels fear says, 
" There is harm coming to me." " I," however, am 
not the soul, but the man ; and the harm is harm, not 
of the soul, but of the man — poverty, disease, dis- 
grace, or death. It follows that grief and fear must 
be affections of the man, not of the soul. 

° Text uncertain. 

6 Cf, Life of Phocion, chap. 3, coorc X^tttov irdvv Xoyov bet- 
odcu Kadatrtp opydvov npos hiaKpioiv. 
e Cf Aristotle, Be Anima, 408 b 13. 

11 Tyrwhitt : ianv or iartv. 12 Tyrwhitt : reAcvr^v. 

53 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

Kat yap aXXcos opfirj 1 fiev rrXeovd^ovaa 2 to irados, 
rw dXoyco to* o<f>o8pov e-^ovaa /cat drreides' opfia 
8e to t^coov, ox>x ^ { l* v X 1 l> iTpos T ° K€Lpaadai rrpos to 
OTrXivaodai rrpos to XovaaoOai /cat 4 /caTa/cAi^rar 
raura yap eort 5 tu> dvdpwrrcp rrpaKTa, ttj iftvxfj S* 
dovpmTOJTa. ols /cat inOavov op/JL&v tov avOpumov, 
ovxl ttjv ifjvxrfv el S' 6pp,av, /cat opeyeoOar ovkovv 
/cat dXoyojs dpeyeodai, tovt€otw €7ridvp,€LV 6 ' el o* 
€7n0vfi€LV, 7 /cat T)hea9ar el S' rjSeoOai, /cat XvireloOai 
/cat <f>of$eiodar TavTa ydp e/cetVots 8 i£ dvdyKrjs eire- 
aOai 9 crvpLfiefSrjKev ojot€ pLrjSev 10 etvai i/jvxfjs lSlov, 
dAAd /cat ^at/oetv 11 /cat axQeodai /cat opeyeodat /cat 
<f>ofleZod ai tov dvdpojrrov. 

8. TauTa S' ccrrtv ov Xvovtojv ttjv drroplav dAA' 
aTToStSpaoKovTOJv. /cat yap €t ra /idAtora ^at'77 Tt? 
etrat rou dv0pa)7rov TavTa rrddr], puevei to dnopeLV 
tlvl /cat /caTa rt Taura rrdox^t, noTepov /cara r^y 
*l n) xh v V Karo ^ T o cra>jLta. /cat yap 12 dp^€trat d avdpco- 
7tos dAAd rats' X € P at > Ka ^ Aa/cTt£et d avdpojiros dAAd 
rot? GKeXeai, /cat fiXeTrei /caTa r^v di/rtv, /cat a /covet 
/card rd cSra* /cat oAoj? to /xev epyov eort kolvov 

TOV €K TOVTOJV™ TTaVTOJV OVVeOTWTOS , TtyJ/ 8' atTtW 

T7js" avfirrpd^ecos exei to puepos <L Trpoaxpwpievos 
evepyei d 14 avdpamos. ' dAAd to jLtep' TrActo^ 77oAudt- 
/co? iroX£p,oiOy" (/)7)olv 'A^AAeus*, " x € W € $ ejitat St- 

1 Wyttenbach : op/Li«. 2 Pohlenz : 7rpoor7rAeova£ouoa. 

3 to added by Duebner. 4 /cat added by Duebner. 

5 Tyrwhitt : hrl. 6 hnJBvpktv added by Tyrwhitt. 

7 Duebner : iiridv^l or €7n6vfia>. 

8 Tyrwhitt : eWvoi or exeom. 

9 Tyrwhitt : £oco0cu. 10 Tyrwhitt : /^8\ 

11 Tyrwhitt : dWpeu'. 12 yap added by Ziegler. 

18 Pohlenz : rod or ra>v. 14 o added by Pohlenz. 

54 






TYRWHITTS FRAGMENTS 

There is also another line of argument. An affec- 
tion is an excessive impulse towards something, and 
one that gets its violent and disobedient nature from 
the irrational element in the soul. a Now it is the 
living being and not the soul that has an impulse to 
get its hair cut or to arm itself or to take a bath and 
go to bed ; for these are actions that the man per- 
forms, not things that happen to the soul. These 
instances make it plausible that it is always the man, 
not the soul, that has impulses. But if impulse is his, 
he also has appetency, including irrational appetency, 
i.e., desire. 6 But if he has desire, he also feels plea- 
sure, and if pleasure, grief and fear too, since they 
necessarily go with pleasure and desire. So there is 
no affection peculiar to the soul, but it is the man 
who is glad and sorry and appetent and fearful. 

8. But to argue thus is to run away from the diffi- 
culty, not to solve it. However much one may agree 
that these affections are affections of the man, the 
question remains by what means and in what respect 
he is affected ; is it in respect of his soul or of his 
body ? It is the man that dances ; yes, but by using 
his arms. It is the man that kicks ; yes, but by 
using his legs. Again, he sees by means of his organs 
of sight, and hears by means of his ears. To put it 
generally, the act is shared by that which is composed 
of all these bodily parts, but the responsibility for 
this joint action lies with the part utilized by the 
whole man in his activity. 

But in tumultuous war the greater part 
My hands perform,* 

a Arnim, Stoicorum Veterum Fragmenta, iii. 468, to dXoyov 
ko0' o <j>aoi ylyvtoBai to ndOos a<f>oBpor€pov. Cf. ibid. 386, 459, 
475. b This is a Stoic definition of desire, S. V.F. iii. 463. 

c Iliad, i. 165. 

55 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

enovcnv," ovk airoorepcbv eavrov tcjv rroAefUKcbv 
epytov 6'rt rat? x € P aLV ^Treypoufje ttjv olltlclv, dXXa 
StjAovoti 1 Tat? p>€V X € P aL KOvreipyd^tTO tovs 7roAe- 
jjbiovs /cat rep £L<t>€i y avros fJievroL rjv 6 8i€pya£,6- 
p,evos. /cat 6 Aeyojv 

8eiVOS KoAaGTTJS TTtAeKVS avxevos TO/JL€VS 2 

ov to o KOAaL,€i etprjKev aAA a> KoAa^ovoiv. 

OVTO)S OVV 6 TTJV Av7T7)V /Cat 6 TT\V imdvfliaV iTTL^rjT&V 

rrorepov tov acofiarog ioriv fj rrjs xjjv xtfs ovk dyvoel 

OTL TO Av7TOVjJL€VOV KCLL €7Tl0VpLOVV dvOpOJTTOS €OTL, 
ITOTtpOV Se ? TTj iftVxfj 7TpOOXp(**lJl,€VOS Tj Tip GcbpLCLTL 

/cat /cam ttjv ifjvxty rf /cara, to acopua tovto 7racr^et, 9 
ScrjTToprjKev. louts tcls 7Tpo<j>do€is edoavTes difjw- 
pueda tov Aoyov /cara 10 ttjv ^rjTrjGcv r}8r). 

9. "OcTOt TOLVVV TTJV l/ar^V 11 OVK CL(f)9apTOV OuS' 

dddvcLTov puovov aAAa /cat drraOrj ireipcovTai Sta- 
(f>vAoLTT€LV, pcop,rjv TLvd TTjv dirdOeiav ttj dcfrdapoiq 1 
7Tpo^aXA6pu€VOL /cat to Trdoxov dpiwayeTrcos 1 * rjSr) 
(f)dopas dvaSex^crdai rrelpav olopuevot, Ta 8e 7rddrj 
irdvTCL /cat ras* dodeveias tooTTtp €/c pi^rjg ttjs cap- 
/cos" dvafSAaoTaveiv irrl tov dvOpconov, tcjv 8ia<f>opcov 
npaJTOv e£ovTac tcjv nepl Ta crdJ/xara (fraivopuevcov 

1 Post : SrjXov otl. StjXcov on Bernardakis. 

2 TOfievs F. H. S. from 813 f : rcficlv or rpe^iv. 

3 ov to Tyrwhitt : avro. 

4 o KoXd^ei Nauck : KoXat, €t o. 5 Tyrwhitt : a>s". 

6 r-qv Xvnrjv Kal added by Wyttenbach. 

7 8e added by Tyrwhitt. 

8 Kara ttjv «/fu^v y added by Pohlenz, after Hartman. 

9 Tyrwhitt : iraoxeiv. 

10 /cat before /cara deleted by F. H. S. ; Wyttenbach added 
Tpa7Ta>iJL€da 9 Ziegler yevdjfxeda, after rj8r). 

11 Tyrwhitt : rrjs */tvxfjs. 
56 



TYRWHITT'S FRAGMENTS 

says Achilles ; but does not mean thereby to rob 
himself of his deeds in war by ascribing the responsi- 
bility to his hands ; obviously, although it was by 
employing his hands and his sword that he used to 
kill the enemy, it was he himself who took their lives." 
The character who speaks of 

The dread chastising axe, that cleaves the neck b 

denotes the instrument of punishment, not the agent. 
Similarly the man who inquires whether grief and 
desire belong to the body or to the soul knows quite 
well that it is the man that feels grief and desire ; 
his problem is whether in this experience the man is 
using his soul or his body, and whether his soul or his 
body is affected. So let us dismiss these shifts, and 
lose no time in getting to grips with the argument as 
the question requires. 

9. Well then, there are those who try to maintain 
that the soul is not only indestructible and immortal 
but also impassive, putting forward its impassivity as 
a line of defence to strengthen its indestructibility, 6 
and supposing that anything that is affected in any 
way whatsoever thereby undergoes an experience of 
destruction, and that all affections and weaknesses 
are rooted, as it were, in the flesh, and grow out of 
it to extend to the man. d These thinkers will seize 
in the first place on the noticeable physical differences 
which are related to various times of life, natural 

Cf. Be Genio Socratis, 582 c. 

6 Nauck, Frag. Trag. Graec, Adespota 412, quoted again 
at Moralia, 813 f. e Cf. Plotinus, iii. 6. 

d Cf. De Virtute Morali, 450 f— 451 a, to which all that 
follows has a close likeness. 

12 Hartman : rf} aTradeLa ttjv a<f>Qapoiav. 
13 Tyrwhitt : dAA' <hs yi ttcos. 

57 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

Kara xpovovs /cat <f>vaeis /cat /X€Ta/?oAas\ olov 
evdvs iv veois d/c/xa£et to iTndvfJL'qTiKov, iv 7rp€(Tj3u- 
racs to irepiXviTOV toZs /xev yap af/xa re Oep/juov 
ey/ce/c/oarat 1 /cat wcuxta paySaiov em ras rrpd^eis, 
7rap€OT7)K€ Se 2 /cat to aoj/xa rot? opydvois KaQapols 
/cat aKpai<f>veoiv e/x/xeAes act, /cat to 3 7roAvo<f)VKTOv 4 
avaKivel /cat avappnri^ei tols en-t^u/xta? (Lonep i£ vArjs 
veapas avaTiTo\iivas tov €7TK£e/>o/xeVoi> 5 at/xaros 1 , c£ 

C&V 6 fJL€Ta^aXX6fJi€VOV €7Tt TToXXd TOLS 6pfJ,aiS TOV V€OV 

optopbev. 7 6 Se 8 rrpiofivs tov t€ 9 OepfMov TTpoXnrovTos 
rjSrj, cS to iTriOvfiriTiKov dve^ajTrvpelTO, 10 /cat tco 
TTvevfjiaTi ^aAcov /cat /caTaTeT/CH/x/xeVo? tco aoj/xaTi 
7T€/)t Tct9 ^Sovas 1 , a/xj8Au Tats* €mOvp,iais /cat Sucr- 

KLV7JTOV * * 

1 Wyttenbach : at/xa to Oepfialvov KCKparcu. 

2 8€ added by F. H. S. 

3 to added by F. H. S. 

4 Bernardakis : 7ToXva<f>aKrov, 

5 tou €7ri<l>€poiA€vov Post : 7r€pi<l>€p€iv. iT€pi<f>opq. Wyttenbach 
7r€pio(j€vovTos (or 7r€ pi^eovros) </>v<J€t. tov Pohlenz. None of these 



5S 



TYRWHITT'S FRAGMENTS 

characters, and psychological changes. To take an 
immediate example, desire is at its height in the 
young, dejection in old men. The reason is that the 
former have a hot composition of their blood, and a 
tempestuous spirit for their actions, and a body, too, 
to serve them that is always in tune, with organs un- 
blemished and uncontaminated ; their strong pulse 
excites and fans their desires, which take fire from 
the flow of blood as it were from fresh fuel. As a re- 
sult we see the young man subject to many a change 
in his impulses. The old man, however, now aban- 
doned by the heat that formerly re-kindled his power 
of desire, relaxed in spirit, his body worn out in 
pleasures, {his pulse) sluggish and slow to be moved 
by desires . . . 

suggestions is convincing. Post notes that his own involves 
an unusual hiatus. 

8 cf cov Wyttenbach : 4( 6v. 

7 6pa>fji€v added by Wyttenbach. 

8 8e added by Bernardakis. 

9 rov re Tyrwhitt : tovto. 

10 Tyrwhitt : ware CTndvixrjTov dva^wTrvpel to. 

11 ex€L to a<f>vy/j,a would complete the sense, h leaves half a 
line blank. 



59 



EI MEPOS TO IIA0HTIKON TH2 
AN0PftnOY TYXHS H ATNAMI2 

1. Tlepl rf\s iradrjTLKrjs /cat dXoyov ^wfjs, Trorepa 

JJL€pOS €OTL TTJS dvOptOTTOV l/wXTJS V 8vvap,lS , €7TL- 
GK€7TT€OV. ioLKCLGl yap KCU TLOV apXCLlOJV Ol fJL€V 
OVTOJS OL S' €K€LV(DS 0i7TO<f)r]vdfJL€VOl 7T€pl aVTTJS . 

d^iov ovv /cat 7]jJLas diroprioavTas /cat iiri ^rrjaiv 
TparropLevovs ravrrj 8o£doai, fjirep 1 8rj 2 /cat tyrovoi 

(f)aV€LTCLl 7TldaV(x)T€pOV. 

2. "Oaoi jjbev ovv fiepos dirohihoaoiv avrrjv, 86- 
£ater dv ovk etvat 3 Xeyeiv €fjapv)(a rd dXoya rcov 
Clomp ov8e ipvx^jv k\ovTa y dXXd tl \Lopiov fax^s, 
€t ye tols dXoyois rj TraOrjTLKrj puev iortv, rj Aoyt/07 
S' ovSapuZs*' oaoi o' av b 8vvapiiVy Trptorov fiev 
droTTOV on rep tottlo 8iaxLOpL£,ovoiv drro rrjs dvri- 
ScacpovfJievrjs avrfj Svvd/juecos, rrjs XoyiKrjs* ov yap 
8iaipovvrai air* dXXrjXcov at StW/zet?, 6'aat rod 
avrov Tvyxdvovoiv ovoac eVetra 6 /cat ovwrrdpxeiv 
TTOiovot rdvavria /cara tolvto- at yap Swdfieis 
roiavraiy loots €Kaorrjv, /cav OTrooaiovv cool, irepl 

1 Tyrwhitt : elirep. 2 Bernardakis : dv. 

3 ovk tlvai Wyttenbach : €K€ivcu or cKelva. 

4 €i ye (8e h) . . . oi58a/xa>? transposed here by Wytten- 
bach from before €7T€tra below (i omits entirely). 

5 Wyttenbach : dv. 6 cireira on Ziegler. 

° That is, they do so if they follow Aristotle in suspecting 
60 



THE AFFECTIVE ELEMENT IN MAN- 
IS IT A PART OR A FACULTY 
OF HIS SOUL ? 

1. It is necessary to examine whether affective and 
irrational life is a part or a faculty of the human soul, 
since it appears that even among the earlier philo- 
sophers there was a division of opinion. It is proper, 
therefore, that we too should pose the question and 
turn to its investigation. We shall then adopt which- 
ever view in fact appears the more probable in the 
course of that inquiry. 

2. Those who regard it as a part might be thought 
to maintain that irrational animals are inanimate 
and not possessed of soul, but of some fraction of 
soul ; this follows if they have affective life but abso- 
lutely no rational life. As for those who regard it as 
a faculty, there is in the first place the absurdity that 
they separate it spatially from the contrasted faculty, 
that of reason." This is absurd because faculties that 
are faculties of the same thing are not so separated. 
In the second place they actually make opposites co- 
exist with respect to the same thing. For it is a 
characteristic of faculties that, however many there 
may be of them, each and every one is to be regarded 

that vovs is spatially separable from the rest of soul, De 
Anima, 413 b 14-27. The writer also holds that the soul's 
reason can exist outside the body (chap. 5). 

61 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

SXoV 1 6€0>p€L(jdai TO V7TOK€LjJb€VOV. TO 8e XoyiKOV 

/cat to dXoyov oi>x ovtco nepl i\ruyy) v ° airoTefiveaOai 
yap So/cet ttjs oXrjs /cat rroielv rrepl 2 avTrjv to puev 
aAAo to o aAAo. /cat tovt €lkotcos* cvavTta yap, 
ra o evavTia /cat/ tvos /cara to avTo ovvvirapxeiv 
(a8vvaTOV, . . .) 5 aXrjdes, ov8ev yap icrcos KcoXvei 
/cat rdvavria crvwrrdp^ai tov elprjfjLevov Tpoirov, iav 
8vvdp,€is cScrt /cat fjbrj ivepy eiai Xap,fSava)VTai . 6 Aoyt- 
£ecr#at fjuev yap /cat dAoytor€ti> 77 vyid^ecv /cat KaKovv 
a/x' 7 djji<f>a) dSvvaTOV rj fievToi 8vvap,is tov vyid^eiv 
/cat rov 8 /ca/couv a/xa 77€Ot to auTO, 17 T€ to£ Aoyt- 
^eadaL /cat tou 9 dAoytoreti' 7T€ot T17V *pvXV v ajua, °v 
jjievTOi /cat at /cam TavTas ivepy eiai. /cat irXeico 
8rj to avTo 8vvaodai ovdev kcoXvcl, olov to dXrj- 
Qevecv tov T€ €7naTrjfAova /cat tov StaAe/cTt/coV 
ovtco 8r) /cat aAoytoretv ttjv t€ tcov dAdyaw £ojojv 
ifruxty KaL T V V dvdpcorrov, dAAa ttjv fiev tcov dXoycov 
iv tco etvac avTrjs to aXoytOTGLV €X€iv (816 /cat del 
aXoyiOTel /cat ox>x 6t€ p,kv tovto 6t€ 8e to ivavTtov), 
Tv\v 8e tov avdptoTTov to jikv dXoyiOTeiv ovk iv tco 
vac ex^iv avTrjs (ov yap av /cat €Aoyt4€Toj, to 
8vvaadai puevToi dXoyioTtlv /cat to 8vvao0ai Aoyt- 
£€a0at. evepyel 8e /caT* d/x<£ar /caTa Aoyoi> p,€V, 
OTTflVLK OV PXei/jJ) 7700? TTJV iavTrjs ovacav, aVTT] 8* 

1 oXov Tyrwhitt : oXtjv, 

2 7T€pl added by Ziegler. ? iroietv avrcov. 

3 ivos i : €v h. 4 Pohlenz : #cal. 

6 dbwarov vofii^ertu* dXXa, tovto emoKtirriov €t iorw Wytten- 
bach. 

6 Tyrwhitt : Aa/ujSavovrcu. 

7 dfi added by Duebner. 

8 vyid&w /cat tov added by Wyttenbach. 

9 tc . . . tov added by Pohlenz, after Wyttenbach. 

62 



TYRWHITTS FRAGMENTS 

as belonging to the whole underlying substance. 
This is not the relation of the rational and irrational 
to the soul. They are considered to be sections of 
the whole and to have different activities. 

And reasonably so, since they are opposites and {it 
is believed to be impossible that) opposites should 
co-exist in a single thing in the same respect. {But 
we must examine whether this is) true. There is no 
reason, perhaps, why opposites should not co-exist 
in the said manner, if they are potentialities and are 
not understood as being actualities. It is impossible 
simultaneously to exercise reason and show unreason, 
or to heal and to harm ; but the potentiality of heal- 
ing and that of harming may simultaneously belong 
to the same thing, and similarly the potentiality of 
exercising reason and of showing unreason may be- 
long simultaneously to the soul. The corresponding 
actualities, however, cannot occur together. Again 
there is no reason why several things should not have 
the same potentiality, e.g., both exact sciences and 
dialectical reasoning are potentially able to yield 
the truth. Similarly, then, both the soul of irrational 
animals and that of man are potentially able to show 
unreason. But whereas the soul of irrational animals 
has the exercise of unreason as part of its being, so 
that it always shows unreason, without any alterna- 
tion with the opposite, the soul of a man has as part 
of its being, not the exercise of unreason — for in that 
case it would not also exercise reason — but the poten- 
tiality for exercising unreason and the potentiality for 
exercising reason ; and the activity of a human soul 
is an activity in both respects, in respect of reason 
whenever it looks to its own essential being, which is 

10 Tyrwhitt : avrrjv. 

63 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

ioTiv 6 iv avrfj vovs, /card Se rrjv dXoyiav, oirorav 
vzvcTQ irpos ra e^co avrfjs, ravra 8' iarl rd alad-qrd. 
dXXo ovv to iv avQpdmco dXoyov /cat aAAo to iv toIs 
^cools' to [lev ydp iv tovtols fax 7 !* T ° ^ * v dvdpoj- 
tto) SvvapLLS' Kal tovt dv eirj ttjs tov XoyL^eoOai 
Svvdjxeojs a^dypiOTOV. opOtbs dpa /cat 'Aptorore'Ary?, 
ttjv dv6pd)7Tov i/wx^jv Svvapuv ovvairoKaXcov on 
7TOT6 p,ev Aoyi^eTai ttotz o ov. 

3. "Orav ovv firj Aoyt^r/rai, aAAo tl 77 dAoytaret; 
dp* ovv rj /caret to Aoyt£ea#at Svvapus /cat at/To to 1 
Xoyt^eodai ifsvxfjs ioTi, fax 7 ) &' °^X» woirep to 
ypd(f>€LV rrepl yd? TT i v £0"7"t 2 /cat iv xdpTjj, xdpTiqs 8' 
ov; dAA' el tovto, ere'pa carat avTijs ovoia Trapd 
to epyov /cat ttjv rrpos tovto Svvapuv, /cat e£et rt 3 
V7roK€L[Jb€VOV irepi o OecoprjOrjcreTaL rj Svvafus avTrjs, 
/cat earat to ovopua tovto " fax 7 ) " to vrroKelpievov 
jj(,€Ta tcov Trepl avTO dea) povpbivajv Svvdpbewv /cat 
^ajrjv €^et ov Std Trdorjs iavTrjs' /card yap to vtto- 
K€ipu€vov d^ooos earat, rd^a Si /cat TravTairaoiv . 
ovSepuia yap avTrjs iv Tjj (frvoei eVe'pyeta ^ojtiktj, 
dAAd irdvTa Svvapus. Swdpuei ovv earat £d>aa. 

4. ,X H TO 8wd[M€L TO /Ca#' i£iV p7JT€OV, LVa 77609* 

p,iv exjj ^ojtjv nobs* 8' ou/c ^77; Suo yap £a>at, 7} 
^tei> a>? e£t? 7] 8' a>9 to ivepyovv /cat r} ju,ey cos eft? 
fax 7 !* V &' w $ TO ivzpyovv 6 vovs. et o5v 7} oSs 
e^ts £>cor) rj fax 7 !' °-?rA7] Q* v ^V X^P^S vnoKeLpiivov. 

1 to Wyttenbach : tfi i, omitted by h. 

2 *P V XV • • • € '°"™ added by F. H. S. 

3 Pohlenz : to. 4 Duebner : 7tojs. 

a De Anima, 412 a 22-27, may be intended. 
64 



TYRWHITTS FRAGMENTS 

the mind that is in it, and in respect of unreason 
whenever it inclines towards the exterior world, that 
is towards sensible things. The upshot is that the 
irrational in man is not the same as that in animals ; 
in animals it constitutes the soul, in man a potentiality 
of the soul, and thus something inseparable from the 
potentiality of exercising reason. It seems then that 
Aristotle was right in including " potentiality " among 
the words he applies to the human soul, because it 
exercises reason intermittently . a 

3. Now when the soul is not using reason, must it 
not be actively unreasoning ? Then are not the poten- 
tialities concerned with reasoning and the actual act 
of reasoning functions of soul (but not soul itself, just 
as writing is concerned with paper) and on paper, 
but is not paper ? But if this is true, the substance of 
soul will be something other than its function and its 
potentiality to perform that function, and it will have 
a substrate in relation to which its potentiality will 
be considered. And the word " soul " will mean the 
substrate together with the potentialities that are 
considered in relation to that substrate. And it will 
not have life throughout itself, but will be lifeless so 
far as its substrate is concerned — perhaps it will even 
be completely lifeless ; for there is no actuality of 
life in its nature : it is all potentiality. So it will be 
only potentially living. 

4. Or should we interpret this word " potentially " 
as referring to the potentiality that belongs to a 
state of being, so that in one sense the soul will have 
life, in another not. since there are two senses of life, 
life as a state, and life as an activity ? Life as a state 
is soul, life as an activity is mind. Now if soul is life 
as a state, it follows that it is a simple thing without 

65 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

roiovrov yap n rrjv i/svx'rjv v7roXap^fSdvop,ev , o ttjv 
^ojtjv e^et oxjp.<f>VTOV /cat ov trap* dXXov dXXd Trap" 
avrfjs. 1 acofidrcov yap to Trap* dXXov ttjv ^ojtjv 
/xeraXayxdveiv . el S* r\v tl oxjv0€tov rj i/jvxrj, e£ 
VTTOKeifievov /cat etSovs ovyKeipuevrj, ovk av ea^e 
Trap* avrr)s dXXd nap* dXXov rrjv l^atrjv irapa yap 
tov €l8ovs, tboTT€p /cat rep TTVpl to 2 deppbtp etvai rrapa 
rrjs OepfJLOTrjTOS /cat ox) wapd rrjs xiXrjs. €7T€tra /cav 
otbp,a rjv to yap i£ VTroKeipuevov /cat eihovs ovv- 
eoTrjKos crcD/xa. 

5. Awa/Ltt? OVV ^OJTLKTj Tj ipVX^ , OXJVafJLLS S' rj d)S 

€^ls. Sta tovto /cat iXevdepa /cat 77/30? ra? ivepy eias 
a/caS Autos, k'xovoa yap ^ojtjv, puaXXov S* ovoa £0*77, 
/ctvetrat /ca#' iavTr)v 6tt6t€ /JouAerat. tovto 8e 
Kepi TTjs €^a> owfiaTtov ^fV)(r\s V7toXt]ttt€ov' r) yap 
KpaTTjOeloa craJ/^art /cat rot? €/c toxjtov TrdOeaiv 
diroXXvoi to iXevdepov, /cat ox>x ottotc jSouAcrat 
Kivelodai carat, dXXd SeSovXajpLevrj rrerravTai tt)s 
ivepyeias, /cat el tls irrl i/svx'rjs oXedpos etrj, ovtos 3 
av €L7]' olov yap arroAAurat opevvvpLevrjs lv avTjj 
Trjs /caTa vovv ivepyeias. a ok So/cet ivepyeiav 
a7TOOTp€<f)€iv / TavTa Tradr^aTa av etrj fxaXXov, ovk 
ivepyqfiaTa, /cat ovk avTrjs ratrra, dXXd tov £><pov, 
/car' avTrjv puevTot. to yap Aoyt£ea0at /cat deojpelv 
[movov airrrjs, /cat tov& r) Kvpiws ive py eia, ra 8e 
rrapa tovto tov £,<pov rrdvTa, /cat rrdOrj pu&XXov, ovk 
ivepy ecat. 

6. AAAa ttojs, et /car avTrjv 7raa^€t Ta £a>a, 

1 avrijs Ziegler : avrrjs. clvtov Pohlenz. 
2 Wyttenbach : rat. s Wyttenbach : ovrws. 

66 



TYRWHITT'S FRAGMENTS 

substrate. For we suppose the soul to be a thing that 
has an inherent life, derived from the soul itself and 
not from any other source. It is only bodies that 
acquire life from some source outside themselves. 
But if the soul were something composite, being com- 
pounded of substrate and form, it would not derive 
its life from itself but from something else, namely 
its form, just as fire is essentially hot from its heat 
and not from its material. Secondly, the soul would 
in fact be a body, as any combination of substrate 
and form constitutes a body. 

5. Soul is, then, a vital potentiality, but a potenti- 
ality in the form of a state of being. For this reason 
it is also free and unimpeded in its activities, since 
having life, or rather being life, it moves of itself 
whenever it wishes. But we must be understood to 
be speaking now of soul outside bodies. Soul that is 
mastered by a body and the affections that come from 
the body loses its freedom and is not allowed to move 
whenever it wishes, but is enslaved and made to 
cease its activity ; if there were any kind of destruc- 
tion that affected soul, this is what it would be. For 
it is in a sense destroyed when the activity of the 
mind in it is extinguished. But the things that are 
recognized as distracting it from this activity will be 
affections rather than activities and, although they 
involve it, not its own affections but the affections of 
the living animal. Reason and contemplation alone 
belong to soul and constitute its proper activity ; all 
other functions belong to the living animal, and are 
affections rather than activities. 

6. Yet if the affections of living beings involve the 



* Wyttenbach : £v€py€iv airoorpifei.. 
s Duebner : auro. Pohlenz deleted €v after this word. 



67 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

ovk avTTj 7radrjTLKij ; Traoytiv yap Kara rrjv rradrj- 
tlktjv evAoyov ifjv)(qv ajorrep kcll v<f>aiveiv Kara ttjv 
v(f>avTLK'qv. 77 tovto p,ev dArjdes Kal SiSovcu XPV> 

a7TOp7)T€OV 8c 7T€pl TTJS KaAoVpLeVT]? TTadrjTLKrjS Kdl 
7T€pl TOV TTCLU^eiV oAo>S 77X0? yLV€TOLL, TTOTepa TW 1 

fjLT] ivepyelv ttjv ^xty Kara Aoyov rj aAAcas; el 
yap tw 2 p/r) ivepyelv, ovdev iari irados irraiveTov . 
<f>aiv€Tat S' €7raiv€ra z Trdvra oirooa /xerpetrat vtto 
tov Aoyov, x/oryattxa ovra (dperas ydp avrd KaAov- 
fjb€v 7ToAiTiKas Kal iiraLVOvp^ev tov k'xovTa auras) • 
pberpeloOai S' ovk dv rjSvvaro purj i(/>opa>VTOS avrd 
vov Kal ivScSovTos avTols a<f>* avrov puerpov Kal 
opov, tovto S' ovdev dAA' rj ivepyovvTOS irepl aura. 
ivepyel re 4 ovv dfjua 6 Aoyos Kal Trdoy^ 1 T ° £><$ ov > 
Kal Tip avTtp 5 Kal Aoyit,6p,eQa a/xa Kal Trdoxopbev 
ev yap eloos *X €l > ovvap,ecs o rjoav irAeiovs, rj re 
tov ivepyelv Kal pur], pbdAAov 8e piia 8vvapus m to yap 
purj ivepyelv dSwaputas dv eurj, Kad* o Kal dAoyioTelv 
eAeyeTO to l^coov. 

7. 'AAAa ttj T€ viToQeoei TavTrj <f>aiveTai rrAeia) 
rd erropLeva aTOira, Kal dAXajs dnoSovvai Ta irddr) 
toIs avdpamois ovk evrropov. imoKeTTTeov S' eTi y 
77x09 e<f>apLev ivepyelv Te a/xa tov Aoyov Kal irdox^v 
to t.coov 1 Kal elvai ra rrddrj irepl to ovvap*$OTepov . 

1 Wyttenbach : to. 

2 Apelt, after Patzig : cit€ yap to. 

3 cVatvcrd added by Pohlenz. 

4 Wyttenbach i ivcpyeiTai. 

5 Wyttenbach : to axno. 6 Duebner : 17877. 

7 Kal iraoytiv to ^coov added by Wyttenbach. 

a Plato, Phaedoy 82 a, Republic, 430 c ; they are based 
on training, not knowledge ; but the author seems to have 
also in mind the Aristotelian definition of moral virtue. 

68 



TYRWHITT'S FRAGMENTS 

soul, why is it not itself affective ? It seems logical 
that to be affected should involve an affective aspect 
of the soul, just as to weave involves the knowledge 
of weaving in the soul. Yet, even if this is true and 
must be granted, is not the nature of the so-called 
affective aspect still a problem, as indeed is the very 
causation of affection ? Does it come about by the 
mere absence of rational activity on the part of the 
soul or in some other way ? If it is the result of the 
absence of such activity, no affection is praiseworthy. 
But it is clear that praise is due to all affections to 
which due measure is given by reason, since they are 
useful. We give them the name of social virtues a 
and praise their possessor. But they could not be 
given due measure if mind did not supervise them 
and afford them a measure and limit of its own deter- 
mination, and what is this but to display an activity 
concerning them ? So the activity of reason and the 
affection of the living being are simultaneous, and 
it is the same instrument by which we simultane- 
ously reason and are affected. It has one form, but 
its potentialities turn out to be more than one, namely 
the potentiality of activity, and that of non-activity. 
Or rather there is only one potentiality ; for non-acti- 
vity would seem to belong to a lack of potentiality, 
in respect of which the living being was also said 
to show a failure to reason. 

7. Now it is clear that there are a number of odd 
consequences of this hypothesis ; at the same time it 
is not easy to explain men's affections in any other 
way. We have also still to consider in what sense we 
said that there is simultaneous activity of the reason 
and presence of the affections in the compound of 
body and soul, the animal. It is clear that activity 

69 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

<f>alv€Tcu yap ovx dp,a ravra ytvofieva djj,<f>a), aAAa 1 
jjLeivdarjs jxev dpyrjs rr\s Stavot'a? iTreioeXOovra rd 
TrdOrj TT€pl to GvvapL<j>6T€pov , y€vofM€va>v Se rcov 
wadajv napeXdcbv avflts' 6 Xoyos /cat ota/cocr/A^aa? 
avrd. ns ovv rj xaXov/JLevrj 7ra0r]nK7j foxy; rj 
avrrj y7T€p /cat Xoyiarucq. irddos yap n airrfjs to 
firj aTravGTOJS ivepyelv, /cat 7ra9rjnKrj on Oewpeiv 
del T€ /cat ovv^x^S dSvvaros. orav ovv jjutj Oecopfj, 
irpos to acjjxa ineoTpaTTTai /cat aTTOOTpo<f>6s ion 
tov vov* rod vov 2 S' ovaa a7Toorpo(f>os dvor)raiV€iv 
€ikotu)s Xiyoir* dv /cat ovdev vytks jSAeVetv ov8e 
Kpiveiv opddjs, dXXd 8o^d^€iv z rd re firj ay add d)S 
ovra dyada 4, /cat rovvavriov, c/c 8e rrjs Toiavrrjs 
S6£r]s /cat Kpiozuis drroreXelodai rd irddr] 7T€pl to 
ovvderov, ovvderov S' 5 e/c re tov aco/xaros 1 /cat rr\s 
ev avTcp {,0)7]$, rfv evoioajoiv rj ipv^rj. evoLOojot yap 
arraoa owa/uV nva dc/S avrfjs diroppoiav ra>* 

1 aAAd added by Bernardakis. 

2 tov vov added by Tyrwhitt. 
3 Wyttenbach : Sofafei. 

4 ojs ovra dyada added by Wyttenbach. 



70 



TYRWHITTS FRAGMENTS 

and affection do not arise simultaneously ; when 
thought stops and is inactive, the affections enter the 
compound, and when they have come into being in 
it, reason subsequently comes forward to bring them 
into order. What then is the so-called affective soul ? 
It is the same soul as has the power of reasoning. It 
is an affection of the reasoning soul not to be in cease- 
less activity and it is affective because it is unable to 
contemplate reality permanently and continuously. 
Now when it is not contemplating reality it is directed 
towards the body and averted from the intuitive 
mind ; and being averted it may properly be said to 
be devoid of intelligence and unsound of vision and 
to judge nothing correctly, but to deem what is not 
good to be good and vice versa ; upon this way of 
thinking and judging there follows the completion 
of the affections in the composite thing that is com- 
pounded of the body and the life in the body, life 
afforded it by the soul. For every potentiality pro- 
vides a kind of emanation from itself . . . 

6 Duebner : tc. 
6 h leaves a page and a half blank. 



71 



FRAGMENTS FROM 
LOST LIVES 



EIIAMEINQNAAS KAI SKIIIIQN 

Besides the parallel Lives Epaminondas and Scipio Plu- 
tarch wrote a single Life of Scipio Africanus (Lamprias 28). 
It is disputed whether it was the elder or the younger Scipio 
Africanus who was paired with Epaminondas, since both 
have clear points of resemblance. The elder is favoured by 
L. Peper, De Plutarchi Epaminonda (1912), and Ziegler in 
R.E. xcci. 895-896, as the victor over his country* s hereditary 
enemy, the younger by Wilamowitz, Reden und Vortrage, ii. 
269, and K. Herbert, A.J.P. Ixxviii (1957), p. 83, as a type 
of the scholar-statesman. An argument that supports the 
elder Scipio is that Plutarch himself compares his prosecution 
to that of Epaminondas (Mor. 540 d 541 a), a comparison also 
made in more detail by Appian, Bell. Syr. 40-41 ; a passage 
which Hirzel, Plutarch, p. 77, guesses to be based on Epami- 
nondas and Scipio. Epaminondas and the elder Scipio are 
paired also by Cicero, Tusc. v. 49, and Gregory Nazianzenus, 
Migne, xxxv. 593 a. Plutarch himself uses the simple 
" Scipio " and " Scipio Africanus " indifferently for either 
man. The words h> rots trtpl ZkittIcdvos refer to his Life of 
the elder (Pyrrh. 8), but iv ra> Hki7tlwvos fttcp (Gracch. 21) 
refers to that of the younger. I adopt the view of Peper and 
Ziegler, while recognizing that it may be wrong. 

A careful attempt to reconstruct the Life of Epaminondas 
is made by L. Peper, op. cit. Its outline is to be found, as was 

1 

Plutarch, Life of Agesilails, c. 28. 

YloXXwv 8e arjfieliov fJLOxOrjpciv yevofxevcuv, <hs iv 
rep wept *J£7rati€iva>v8ov yiypaTTrai, koX TlpoOoov 
74 



EPAMINONDAS AND SCIPIO 

(Lamprias Catalogue 7) 

noted by Wilamowitz, Hermes, viii (1874), p. 439 2 and 
Comm. gram. t. 11, in Pausanias, viii and ioc. Peper regards 
viii. 11. 7-9 and 10 in part, and ix. 13-15 as of Plutarchean 
origin ; he would add a few sentences from other places, 
viz. : viii. 8. 10, Mavnvcas . . . Aevicrpois, 27. 8, awwKiadrj 
. . . ardhiov, and perhaps the references to Arcadians in 
viii. 6. 2 aud 52. 4. Many of the anecdotes collected in 
Reg. et Imp. Apophthegm. 192 c — 194 c and scattered 
about the Moralia and Life of Pelopidas probably had a 
place in Epaminondas. To reprint all this material here 
would take too much space, and I confine myself to a single 
sentence which specifically mentions the Life. 

P. L. Courier, in a letter dated 20 Sept. 1810 ((Euvres 
completes [1851], p. 371), alleges that in 1806 he and a M. 
Akerblad saw in the library of the abbey at Florence, among 
other 9th- and 10th-century mss., one which seemed to contain 
the Life of Epaminondas ; that it was, along with others, 
improperly sold before it could be transferred to the Lauren- 
tian library, and that the same authorities who hounded him 
for spreading ink on a ms. of Longus took no steps to recover 
their lost property. Courier may have mistaken a Life of 
Pelopidas for that of Epaminondas (? Laur. conv. soppr. 
206 ; so R. Schdll, Hermes, v (1871), p. 114). 



1 

Many evil omens occurred, as I have recorded in 
the Life of Epaminondas, and the Spartan Prothoiis 

75 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

rod Aolkwvos ivavriovpievov 7Tpos ttjv arparetav, 
ovk dvfJKev 6 ' AyrjotAaos aAA* iijeirpatje tov ttoAz- 

[AOV. 

2 

Plutarch, Life of Pyrrhus, c. 8. 

'Awifias 8e ovpmdvTcov aVe^atve tcov OTpaTrjycov 
irpcoTov [lev €/X7retpta /cat Seivorrjri Hvppov, 2/ct- 
irlcova Se Sevrepov, iavrov Se rplrov, cos iv rots 
7T€pl Hklttlcovos yeypCLTTTCU. 

SKiniQN AOPIKAN02 



Plutarch, Life of Tiberius Gracchus, c. 21. 

YiKlTTLCOV 6 ' A<f)plKOLv6s , OU 80KOVOL 'PoJ^atOt /XTJ- 

SeVa StKCLiorepov fjbrjbe /jl&XAov dyanrjoai, rrapd 

fJLLKpOV rjAdeV €K7T€G€IV KCLl OT€p€O0OLL TTJS TTpOS TOV 

Srjpbov evvoias, on npcoTOV fiev iv No/xavrt'a tt^v 
reAeuTT^ ro£> TifSepiov nvdofievos dve<f)covr)0€V €/c 

TCOV 'OfMTJpLKCOV 

COS CLTToXoLTO KCU dXXoS O TIS TOLCLVTa y€ pd^Ol' 

enetra rcov irepl Tdiov /cat OouAjStov avrov St' e/c- 
KXrjGtas 7rvvdavop,evcov rl <f>povoirj rrepl rrjs Ttj8e/Hov 
TeXevrrjs ovk dpeGKOfievrjv rols vtt* £k€lvov 7T€7toAi- 
T€VfJL€vots drroKpiGiv eScoKev. e/c tovtov yap 6 /xev 
Srjfjbos dvT€KpovG€V avrco Xeyovri, /x^SeVaj tovto 
TTorfGas Trporepov, avros Se tov 8tj[jlov threw kclkcos 
npo^x^ 7 )' frepl fiev ovv tovtcov iv rep YiKiiricovos 
filcp ra Kad* e/caora yeyparrrat. 
76 



FRAGMENTS : LOST LIVES 

opposed the expedition ; nevertheless Agesilaus did 
not desist, but prosecuted the war. 

Hannibal used to declare that of all generals 
Pyrrhus was the first in experience and cleverness, 
Scipio second, and himself third, as I have recorded 
in the Life of Scipio. 

SCIPIO AFRICANUS 

(? Lamprias Catalogue 28) 



Scipio Africanus, whom the Romans are thought 
to have loved with more and with better cause than 
any other man, very nearly fell out of favour and lost 
the goodwill of the people. The first reason of this 
was that when he heard at Numantia of the death of 
Tiberius Gracchus, he exclaimed in the words of 
Homer 

So perish any man who does the like. b 

Then when C. Gracchus and Fulvius asked him at an 
assembly of the people what he thought of Tiberius' 
death, he returned an answer that showed his dis- 
approval of the dead man's politics. After this the 
people heckled him when he was speaking, a thing 
they had never done before, and he was himself 
moved to use hard words of them. The details I 
have recorded in the Life of Scipio. 

° It is possible that frag. 2 belongs to Scipio Africanus 
and frags. 3 and 4 to Epaminondas and Scipio ; see the note 
preceding frag. 1. b Odyssey, i. 47. 

77 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 



Plutarch, Life of Gains Gracchus, c. 10. 

Kat OT€ YiKLTTLCOV 6 *A<f>pLKCLvds i£ Ov8€VOS aiTlOV 

7rpo<f>avovs ireXevrrjae /cat cqfjLeld riva ra> V€Kpto 
7rXrjyojv /cat j8tas €7nSpafi€lv eSo^ev, cog iv rots' nepl 

€K€LVOV yeypOLTTTCU, TO JJL€V 7rAetOTOV €7Tt TOV OovA- 

fSiov r}X0€ tt)S Sta/JoArj?, iftOpov ovra /cat rrjv rjfiepav 

€K€iv7jV €7Tt TOV PtfjJLCLTOS TO) 2/Ct7TtOJl>t AcAotSo/)^- 

fievov, TJiftaro 8e /cat rod Tatou rj virovoia. 

NEPftNOS BIOS 
5 

Plutarch, Life of Galba, c. 2. 

Nv[M(f)i8ios yap SajStvos tbv enapxos, ojottco elprj- 
Tat, fjuera TtyeAAtVov r^s avXfjs . . . 

HPAKAE0Y2 BIOS 
6 

Plutarch, Z*/* 0/ Theseus, c. 29. 

"OTt 8* 'Hpa/cAr}? TTpcoros aW§a>/c€ veKpovs rols 
rroXejJLLois iv toZs 7T€pl ' H pa/cA^ot;? yiypairrai. 



Aulus Gellius, i. 1. 

Plutarchus in libro quern de Herculis, quantum 1 
inter homines fuit, 2 animi corporisque ingenio et 

1 quamdiu Klotz, quali j3 (cod. Buslidianus). a fuerit p. 

78 



FRAGMENTS : LOST LIVES 

4* 

And when Scipio Africanus died with no obvious 
cause of death, and it was thought that his corpse was 
covered with bruises and other signs of violence, as is 
recorded in my work about him, accusations were 
mainly directed at Fuivius, who was his enemy and 
had that very day made him the target of invective 
from the rostra ; but some suspicion attached to C. 
Gracchus too. 

LIFE OF NERO 

(Lamprias Catalogue 30) 



Nymphidius Sabinus, being (as I have said) prefect 
of the Praetorians along with Tigellinus . . 

LIFE OF HERACLES 

(Lamprias Catalogue 34) 
6 

It has been recorded in my work on Heracles that 
he was the first man to surrender the corpses of the 
slain to the enemy. 6 



In the book which he wrote on the mental and 
physical endowments and achievements of Heracles 

° It is possible that frag. 2 belongs to Scipio Africanus 
and frags. 3 and 4 to Epaminondas and Scipio ; see the note 
preceding frag. 1. 

* Jacoby, F.Gr.Hist. iii b 328, F 112, regards this, without 
reason given, as interpolated, 

79 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

virtutibus conscripsit scite subtiliterque ratiocinatum 
Pythagoram philosophum dicit in reperienda modu- 
landaque status longitudinisque eius praestantia. 
nam cum fere constaret curriculum stadii quod est 
Pisis apud Iovem Olympium Herculem pedibus suis 
metatum idque fecisse longum pedes sescentos, cetera 
quoque stadia in terra Graecia ab aliis postea instituta 
pedum quidem esse numero sescentum sed tamen 
esse aliquantulum breviora, facile intellexit modum 
spatiumque plantae Herculis, ratione proportionis 
habita, tanto fuisse quam aliorum procerius quanto 
Olympicum stadium longius esset quam cetera, com- 
prehensa autem mensura Herculani pedis, 1 secundum 
naturalem membrorum omnium inter se competen- 
tiam modificatus est atque ita id collegit quod erat 
consequens, tanto fuisse Herculem corpore excelsi- 
orem quam alios quanto Olympicum stadium ceteris 
pari numero factis anteiret. 

8 

Arnobius, Contra Gentes, iv, p. 144. 

Chaeroneus Plutarchus nostrarum esse partium 
comprobatur, qui in Oetaeis verticibus Herculem post 
morborum comitialium ruinas dissolutum in cinerem 
prodidit. 

HZIOAOY BIOS 

1 After p*dh p adds quanta lonffinquitas corporis ex men- 
sura* conveniret. 

° The length (192-27 m.) makes Heracles' foot 32-1 cm., 
compared with the English foot of 30-5 cm., and the most 
usual Greek foot of 29-6 cm. : but the Athenians used a foot 
of 32-8 cm. 
80 



FRAGMENTS : LOST LIVES 

during his life on earth Plutarch says that the philo- 
sopher Pythagoras made a clever and acute calcula- 
tion to determine the extent by which that hero 
exceeded normal human height and stature. There 
was general agreement that Heracles had measured 
out the running- track at Pisa that adjoins the temple 
of Olympian Zeus, making its length 600 of his own 
feet. a It was also agreed that the other tracks in 
Greece, laid out later by other men, were 600 feet 
long but somewhat shorter than that at Pisa. From 
these data he had no difficulty in concluding by atten- 
tion to proportionality, that Heracles' foot was larger 
than that of other men in the same ratio as the course 
at Olympia was longer than the rest. Having thus 
ascertained the size of Heracles ' foot, he calculated 
what would, following the natural relation of the 
parts of the body to one another, be the bodily height 
appropriate to that size, and so arrived at the conse- 
quence that Heracles was taller than other men by 
the same factor as that by which the running track at 
Olympia exceeded all the others that had been laid 
out to have the same number of feet. 

8 

Plutarch of Chaeronea is acknowledged to be on 
our side ; he reported that Heracles was reduced to 
ashes on the summit of Mt. Oeta after collapsing in 
epileptic fits. 

LIFE OF HESIOD 

(Lamprias Catalogue 35) 

(Material to be found in Moralia, 153 f, 162 d, 674 r, 
969 e, may have been used in the Life.) 

81 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 



niNAAPOY BIOS 

It is probable that material from this has entered the 
anonymous biographies of the poet and also Eustathius' 
Prooemium ; it is also likely that Pausanias, ix. 23. 2-4, is 



Eustathius, Prooemium Commentariorum Pindaricorum, 
c. 25. 

'ETTl/ZCjUeA^TCU VTTO TCOV TTaAcLLCOV KCU €LS y€VOVS 

avaypacfrrjv ttjv Kara re UXovrapxov kcll irepovs, 
nap oh <f>€p€T(LL on Koypjt] Qrjpaiajv oi KvvooKe- 
<j>a\oi} 

KPATHTOS BIOS 

10 

Julian, Orat. vii, p. 200 b. 

'Ei/Tt^ojv Se rep Xaipcovel HAovrdpxip tov Koa- 
tt)tos dvaypdtpavrt jStov ovSev €K -rrapepyov 2 p,av- 
ddveiv Setfar) tov avSpa. 

AAIOANT02 
ll 

Plutarch, Mulierum Virtutes, 244 b. 

To 8e tlov QcoklScov iv86£ov fiev ov t€tvx^]K€ 
ovyypacfreajs, ovSevos Se rcov yvvaiKeicov eXarrov 

1 KWOK€<f>a\oi MS. 

2 tov after irapepyov deleted by Cobet. 
82 



FRAGMENTS : LOST LIVES 
LIFE OF PINDAR 

(Lamprias Catalogue 36) 

based on Plutarch (Wilamowitz, Pindaros, p. 58). In Plu- 
tarch's own work stories told at Moralia, 347 f, 536 b, 557 p> 
717 a, may have found a place in the Life also. 



The old authors have taken care to make a record 
also of his origins, a record they found in Plutarch and 
others, who report that his birthplace was a Theban 
village called Cynoscephali. 

LIFE OF CRATES « 

(Lamprias Catalogue 37) 
10 

If you get hold of the biography of Crates by Plu- 
tarch of Chaeronea, you will not have any need to 
make a cursory study of the man. 

DAIPHANTUS 

(Lamprias Catalogue 38) 
11 

The deed of the women of Phocis has found no 
famous authority to record it, but is the equal for 
bravery of anything ever done by women. It is 

° The follower of Diogenes the Cynic. His Boeotian ori- 
gin, as a native of Thebes, will account for Plutarch's interest. 
Compare the General Index. 

83 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

els aperrjv eon, pbaprvpovpuevov Upols re pbeydAots, 

a SptOOl <S>0)K€lS €TL VVV 7T€pl 'YdfJLTToXiV, Kdl 86y~ 

jjlolgl rraXaioZsy (Lv to puev Kad* €kclgtov rrjs irpd^eojs 
ev tcq AatcfrdvTOV j8ioj yiypamrai. to Se toji> yvvai- 

KCJV TOLOVTOV loTIV . 



APISTOMENHS 

*12 

Stephanus of Byzantium, s.v. 'AvSavta. 

'Eac ravrrjs 'ApiGTOfAevrjs iyevero eTTi^aveararos 
arparrjyos. rovrov oi AafceScu/xoViot TroAXaKts 
avrovs vtKrjcravTa davpudaavres, d)S pboAis eKpdrrj- 
aav iv rots M.€aar)VLaKois , dvarepLovrzs iaKorrovv 

€L TTapd TOVS AoLTTOVS €GTL TV KClX €VpOV OirAdyyVOV 

itjrjAAaypLevov koli ttjv Kaphiav 8aa€tav, ws 'HooSo- 
tos kclI HAovrapxos kcu 'Piavos. 

a Aristomenes, a Messenian hero, is usually regarded by 
writers in antiquity, following Callisthenes, as a figure of the 
Second Messenian War in the earlier half of the 7th century 
b.c. : but the Alexandrian Rhianus (iii B.C.), in an epic poem, 
dated him to a war c. 490 b.c, and this is accepted as probable 
by G. L. Huxley, Early Sparta, pp. 56, 88, 92. F. Jacoby, 
however, F. Gr. Hist, iii a, pp. 120-190, is sceptical about all the 
evidence, and is tempted to see in him an imaginary figure of 
propaganda of the time of Epaminondas ; see also L. Pear- 
son, " The Pseudo-History of Messenia," Historia, xi (1962), 
p. 409. Theban interest in him may account for Plutarch's 
interest. 

6 In N.E. Messenia. 

c Cf. Dio Chrys. xxxv. 3, Pliny, N.H. xi. 70, " pectus dis- 
secuere viventi, hirsutumque cor repertum est." The Greek 
is ambiguous and might possibly mean " an organ out of the 

84 



FRAGMENTS : LOST LIVES 

attested by important sacrifices, still performed by 
the Phocians at Hyampolis, and by ancient decrees. 
What these decrees say of the details of the action is 
recorded in my Life of Daiphantus, but the women's 
part in it is as follows. 



LIFE OF ARISTOMENES" 

(Lamprias Catalogue 39) 
*12 

From this town of Andania b came Aristomenes, a 
most eminent general. He defeated the Spartans on 
many occasions to their great wonder, and so when 
they had with difficulty overcome him in the Messenian 
wars, they cut him open to discover whether there 
was anything abnormal about him. They discovered 
that there was an organ displaced and that the heart 
was hairy, c as is recorded by Herodotus, Plutarch, 
and Rhianus. d 

Ascribed to the Life of Aristomenes by Wyttenbach, but 
see note d. 

ordinary, namely that the heart was hairy." One may com- 
pare the hairy heart of Leonidas, Parallela Minora, 306 d. 
Such stories may have been suggested by the Homeric Xdatov 

KTJp. 

d Collectanea Alexandrina, frag. 53; Jacoby, F.Gr.Hist. 
iii a 265, F 46. In his note Jacoby points out that Rhia- 
nus made Aristomenes die in Rhodes ; he considers the whole 
passage interpolated into Stephanus, and that the reference 
to Plutarch is to Be Herod. Malignitate, 856 f, where 
Herodotus is, as here, falsely quoted as an authority for the 
capture of Aristomenes by the Spartans. No mention is 
made there, however, of the hairy heart, and Plutarch might 
have repeated the false citation of Herodotus in his Life of 
Aristomenes. 

85 



FRAGMENTS FROM OTHER 
NAMED WORKS 



AITIAI TON APATOY AIOSHMIQN 

Some material from Plutarch's work on Aratus' Dio- 
semiae found its way into the scholia on that poem, perhaps 
more than they explicitly acknowledge. But there is no 
justification for printing as fragments of Plutarch anything 
beyond the notes to which his name is attached. Previous 
editors could not isolate these, since they only knew the scholia 
in a confused form. A great advance was made by E. Maass, 
Commentariorum in Aratum Reliquiae (1898). He based 
his text on two of the 20 mss. that contain the scholia, namely 
Marcianus 476 (M), of the eleventh or twelfth century a.d., 
and Parisinus 2403 (A), to which he added the Aldine edition, 
taken from a ms. that has not been identified. The evidence 
of M enabled him to distinguish between the individual 
scholia. His text, however, is not satisfactory, since he mis- 
takenly allowed some authority to A and the Aldine edition. 
J. Martin in his excellent Histoire du texte des Phenomenes 
d'Arate (1956) shows that (so far as the scholia are concerned) 
all mss. descend from M, with the one exception of Scoria- 
lensis H III. 3 (S, c. 1490 a.d.) ; variants in other mss. are 

13 

Schol. Aratus, Diosemiae, 88 = Phaenomena 820. 
rjeXlcp kclI jjl&AAov iotKora arjfjbara Kelrac. 

At rod tjXlov rrpos 1 rov depa hicufcopal Kvpidjrepai 
tcov rrjs (jeArjvrjs eloi' hvvaoreucov yap rjfJLtpas 

GCL(f)€OT€pa SeLKVVGL TO, T6AC/X7ypta. 2 0€VT6pOV be OTt 3 

1 7rpos M : Kara S. 2 T€Kfii]pia M : arjfxeta S. 

3 8evr€pov 8e otl M : /cat S. 

88 



EXPLANATIONS OF ARATUS' 
WEATHERLORE 

(Lamprias Catalogue 119) 

due to error or deliberate alteration, but they include some 
plausible emendations. The text here presented is based on 
M and S ; I am indebted to the authorities of the Monasterio 
Real de S. Laurenzo de el Escorial for a microfilm of the 
relevant part of the latter. S, which is very corrupt, has 
many fewer scholia than M ; it entirely omits frags. 15-20. 
But it appears to retain some words and phrases omitted by 
the other ; it also confirms the lines of division between indi- 
vidual scholia. 

Plutarch's concern seems to have been to find in each case 
a single natural cause that would account both for the 
weather-sign and for the weather it was supposed to foretell. 
He was thus in the tradition of but not necessarily dependent 
on, the Stoic Boethus, who in the latter half of the second 
century b.o. wrote a four-volume commentary on the Dio- 
semiae, giving such explanations of the weather-signs (Gemi- 
nus, Elements of Astronomy, 17. 14 Petau ; Pohlenz, Die 
Stoa, ii. 94). 

I disregard the scholiasts' lemmata, substituting enough 
of Aratus' text to explain the comment. 

13 

In the case of the sun even more likely signs are estab- 
lished. 

Conflicts of the sun with the air are more important 
than those of the moon. Being dominant by day, it 
provides evidence that is plainer. A second reason 

89 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

Xafjurporepos earc, /cat et purj fjbeydXrj /cat loyvpa 
tov depos eir) 1 /xera/JoA^, ovk dv KparrjOeLrj' Ta? 
yap jxiKpas /cat eAa^pa? aVaarcAAet /cat OKeSdvw- 
otv ovtoj YlAovrapxos > 2 

14 
Ibid, Dios. 96=Phaen. 828. 
aAA' ovx 6tttt6t€. koZXos eetSo/xevos 1 TrepLTeXXy] . 

At iv to) rjXta) KoeXorrjres ovk tloiv avrov, <f>av- 
Tacrtat S' etat rrjs oifjea>s /car' eir lit pood eoiv l^ocfrepov 
depos. ov ydp to /xeaov oparat aAA' rj kvkXoj cu(jls. 
XafjL7rpa Se ovaa /cat Trepifieyyovoa* to €kXiit€s* 

€JJL(f>aOLV KOlXoTTJTOS 7Tap€^€t. 5 OV TpOTTOV ydp OL 

£a)ypd(f>OL dvTpojSeLS tottovs ypd<f>ovT€S (f>ojrl rpa- 
yyvovoi ttjv oi/jlv, are rij <j>vo€i rod fxev Xafirrpov 
irpofSdXXovTOS* €^a> /cat hiojdovvros ttjv <j>avracriav 
tov 8e jjLtXavos vrrooKid^iv 1 /cat fiaOvveaOac Sokovv- 

TOS, OVTOJ /Cat TTepl TOV tJXcOV TO* (f)aiVOfJL€VOV T7J 

oip€L /cara dvTi(f>pa£iV tov depos €kkottj)v tov \xlaov 
XafJL7rpov Sta ttjv GKidv 7rot€t 9 vrro^aiveod ai. o SXrjv 
ttoi€l ttjv dvTL<f>pa£iv 6 drjp G(f>68pa iriX-qOeis /cat 
ttolxvs, l^ocfrcodels Sta ^et/xeptov to ^coSlov. UXov- 
Tapxos. 10 

1 €677 M : €tr) r) S. 

2 fiiKpas Kal and ovtoj UXovrapxos omitted by S, kclI oKtoav- 
vvglv by M. 

3 F. H. S. : XafjLTTpa ovaa ookcI 7r€pi,<f>€vy€LV (7T€pL<f>€yy€t,v Wyt- 
tenbach) els. 

4 Kal ctV to €k\€Z7tov S. Bekker added /cat, the Aldine edition 
a>?, after ckXutcs. 6 irapi^i S : iraplx^iv M. 

6 Aldine edition : TTpoaftaXKovTos MS. 

7 Suspected by Wyttenbach. ? npds ttjv . . . vno aKids clvai. 

8 Aldine edition : to fir) M : tov fir) (</>. n€pl tt)v 6i//lv) S. 

90 



FRAGMENTS : OTHER NAMED WORKS 

is that the sun is brighter, and could not be mastered 
unless there were a great and violent change in the 
air. For it brushes small, slight changes aside and 
disperses them. Thus Plutarch. 

14 

But not when it looks hollow as it rises. 

" Hollows " in the sun are not real features of the 
sun, but optical illusions due to the interposition of 
dark air. What is seen is not the centre, but the 
circular rim ; that rim, however, being bright and 
shining all round the part that is invisible, gives it an 
appearance of concavity. For as artists, when paint- 
ing cavernous places, use light to affect the eye by 
contrast, since a bright colour naturally gives the im- 
pression of jutting out and pushing forward, while a 
dark one seems to be overshadowed and to lie in a 
deeper plane , a similarly in the case of the sun what 
appears to our sight when air is interposed suggests, 
because of the shadow cast, the hollowing out of the 
centre of the bright disc . . . b 

a Plutarch not infrequently has similes from painters or 
painting, e.g.* Moralia, 53 n, 64 a, 452 f, 575 a, 725 c. At 
57 c and 863 e he notes the effect of contrasted light and 
shade. 

b The Greek text is uncertain and not readily intelligible in 
detail. I have given what I think may be its intended 
meaning. At the end S adds : " What makes the interposi- 
tion complete. The air very closely packed and thick, made 
dark through the storminess of the zodiacal sign. Plutarch." 
This is probably garbled, but may be evidence that the note 
as a whole contains Plutarchean material. 

9 Ikkoittiv . . . 7tol€l Aldine edition : rj iKKovq . . . cklclv 
MS. The correct wording appears to be lost. 
10 o o\rjv . . . TlXovrapxos in S only. 

91 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

15 
Ibid. Dios. 97-9$ =Phaen. 829-830. 

OuS* OTTOT CLKTLVCOV at (JL€V VOTOV at §€ fiopfjd 

cr^t^d >fJL€vou jSaAAoxxt, ra S' av 7T€pl fieoaa cf>a- 
eivrj . 

t; Q,G7T€p €7TL TCOV O^daXfJLLKCOV, 1 OTOLV GV/JL^aLVrj 

KOiXaiveaOai tovs 6<f>da\pbovs y SrjAovori e^aodevq- 
oavros rod awfiaros, rj caoirep orav fiAecfrapov /car- 
ayayovres 2 fj TrepidALijjavTts rep Av*x vo ? rrjv oi/jlv 
irpoofSaAAtopiev , ov cf)aiv€T(u ovv€X€S to (f)a>s aAAa 
irAayiat /cat oiropahes at avyar ovrcos otclv a^Aus 
fj vecfxjoais avtbfJLaAos irpo tov rjAtov ardaa rrepi- 
OAli/jt) /cat oeLGT) tov rrjs oifjecog kcovov et? AerrTas 
olktlvcls /cat pajSooetoefe, o irdoxo^v avrol rfj 
alodrjoei, tovto Trepl tov tjAiov elvai SoKovpbev. 
ovtoj TLAovTapxos. 



16 
Ibid. Dios. 301-304 -=Phaen. 1033-1036. 

fJLTJO OT€ . . . 

. . . nvp avvyrai oirovhfj /cat virevh la Air^va 
TTiareveiv ^et/xcuvt. 

Ta Kavora fipaSecos e^drrrerai iraxvp,€povs tovs 

7TOpOVS €7TL(f>pdTTOVTOS TOV alpOS' StoVep Ol TOLS 8&~ 
Sa? CLTrTOVT€S TTpOTpt^OVOLV 3 €V Tjj T€(f)pa t LVOL OL7TO- 
KpOVodfj €t TL ZviKpLOV* /Cat TO TTVp T7JS vAt)S fl&AAoV 

di(j7]Tai. ovtoj HAovTapxos. 
92 



FRAGMENTS : OTHER NAMED WORKS 

15 

Nor when its rays are split and strike some to the south, 
some to the north, but its centre is bright. 

We may compare the experience of those who suffer 
from eye-trouble, when it results in their becoming 
hollow-eyed (through physical weakness of course), 
or what happens when we direct our vision towards a 
lamp after pulling down the eyelid or pressing round 
the eye. The light does not appear continuous, but 
in scattered, slanting rays. Similarly, when a mist 
or uneven cloud-formation, stationed in front of the 
sun, presses round the cone of vision and disturbs it 
so as to produce narrow rod-like beams, we attribute 
to the sun what is really an effect upon ourselves in 
the act of sensation. Thus Plutarch. 



16 

If fire is hard to light, or lamps, although the weather 
is fine, beware of storms. 

Combustibles are slow to take fire when the air is 
composed of large particles and blocks their pores. 
Hence when people are lighting torches they first 
rub them in the ashes, to brush off any moisture there 
may be, so that the fire may take a better hold of the 
wood. Thus Plutarch. 

1 ? 6<j>daXiJLL(x)VTa)v. 

2 Maass : KardyovTcs. 

3 Maass ; TTpoorpLfiovoi. 

4 tJ after evi.Kp.ov deleted by Maass. Perhaps to should 
also be read for el n. 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

17 

Ibid. Dios. 312-316 =Phaen. 1044-1048. 

TTplvoi S' av Kaprrolo KaraxOees ov8e pLeXawai 
aX wot aTreipTyroi . . . 

TTplvoi p,ev dapuvrjs aKvXov /card \ierpov exovaat 
X^ifJicovos K€ Xeyoiev errl rrXeov loxvoovros . 

<$>r)olv ovv 6 Qe6<f>paoTos on 6 rrplvos /cat r) oxlvos 
az>xp<v}po\ rfj Kpdoei /cat ^rjporepa tcov dXXojv ire- 
<f)VKora ttoXvv Kaprrov ov <j>epei y edv /jlt) els fidOos 
vypavdfj. eiKorojs ovv rfj rovrcov evfopla 1 Karafiav- 
revovrat irep\ tcov OTreppbdrcov oi yeajpyol, pads 
alrias ovorjs St' rjv dpb<f>oTepots r) TroXvKapTTia* el 
S' vrrepfidXXei rod Kapirov to ttXtjOos, ovk dyaOov 
orjpLelov dpuerpov yap eTropifSplav /cat TrXeovaopuov 
vypoTrjros r) irepl rov depa dveois /cat drjXvrrjs 8rj- 
Xol. ovtoj YiXovrapxos* 

18 

Ibid. Dios. 319-321 =Phaen. 1051-1053. 

TptirXoa 8e oxlvos Kveei, rptooal 8e oi au£at 
yivovrai Kaprrolo , <f>epei 8e re or\p,aff eKdorrj 
egecqs apora). 

"Oaa yap ttjv oxivov e/c rov depos dxf>eXel, ravra 

/cat rov olrov 6p,ola)S /cat ra ^XdrrrovTa. 8eiy puara 

ovv ra)v anopajv 6 irpwros ev rrj a^tVa) cart rtov 

TrpcoTOJV, /cat rcov pueoojv 6 fieoos, /cat 6 rpiros rcov 

reXevraiajv. 2 ovtoj YlXovrapxos. 

1 €V(f>opla F. H. S. : d^opi'a. 
2 Aldine edition : rov rcXevralov M. 

This is not to be found in an extant work. On the other 
94 



FRAGMENTS : OTHER NAMED WORKS 

17 

Holm-oaks and dark mastichs burdened with fruit are 
not without meaning. . . . Holm-oaks holding a full 
measure of crowded acorns would tell of stormy weather 
that will greatly prevail. 

Now Theophrastus says that holm-oaks and mas- 
tichs, being arid in their temperament and naturally 
drier than other trees, do not bear much fruit unless 
deeply penetrated by moisture . a It is with good 
reason, therefore, that farmers use their productivity 
to make a forecast about the crops they have sown, 
since one and the same cause brings about a high 
yield in both cases. But if the quantity of fruit is 
very great, it is not a good sign : the relaxation and 
softness of the air indicate an immoderate rainfall 
and excessive wetness. Thus Plutarch. 



18 

Three times does the mastich b flower and three times 
increase with fruit, and each crop in succession gives a 
sign for the cornfield. 

All atmospheric conditions that favour the mastich 
also favour wheat, and similarly with everything 
harmful. Thus the first crop in the mastich is an 
indication of the prospects of the first crop of wheat, 
the middle one of the middle one, and the third of 
the last. Thus Plutarch. 

hand at Caus, Plant, v. 6. 10, Theophrastus speaks of the 
mastich as having warmth and moisture. 

6 Pistacia Lentiscus. 

c Cicero may have understood Aratus better, when he 
translated tria tempora monstrat arandi : the flowering of the 
mastich indicates the times for ploughing, of which there 
were three (note d on frag. 60). 

95 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

19 

Ibid. Dios. 325-326 = Phaen. 1057-1058. 

ovriva yap KaXXiora Xo-^aii) o)(lvos dprjrai, 
K€tvci) y i£ dXXa>v dpoois 7ToXvXr)ios et'77. 

Ov \l6vov Iv roZs t,cpois ovfiTrdOetd eon dXXd 
/cat iv tols <f>VTOL$. ocraovv 1 K€Kpap,€vr]v vypor-qn 
fj ifjvxpoTrjTL 7Tapa7r\r)aLa)s e^et rrjv e^iv, /cat 2 rpe- 
<f>€rai and rwv 6p,oLu)v /cat tols avrols evOrjvel /cat 
pbapatverai. Sto 7roAAa /JLer* dXXrjXojv owa/cju,a£et 
/cat Kap7TO(f)op€L, ret \x*kv depei ra Se ^et/xcovt rivd 
Se /cat efapt. rd>v puev ovv at Kpdaeis 8id(/)opoi, rd>v 
S' ojitotat /cat avyyevels o<f>6hpa* rcov ovv rrjv 
6p,oiav Kpaotv kypvroiv* elol irplvos, ox^vos, cr/ctAAa, 
nvpos. ovtoj YlXovrapxos . 

20 

76^. Dio*. 362-364, =Phaen. 1094-1096. 

ouoe //,ei/ opviUa>v ayeAais iqireipouev avrjp, 
e/c i^ctojv ore 7roAAat i7TL7rXrjoocoocv dpovpacs 
ipXOfJbevov depeos, ^at/>et. 

ILrjpoTepai yap at vfjcroi rd>v r)7T€ipu)v VTrdpxovoai , 
cos <f>rjoi UXovrapxos, darrov /cat paov rod av^ju/^- 
pov KaraorrjiJiaTos avTiXapbfSdvovTai. Sto /cat Ta 
opvea <f>€vy€L /cat Tat? r^Treipois eTTiireXdt^ei. 

EI H TON MEAAONTON IIPOrNQSIS 
QOEAIM02 

TAere is no such title in the Lamprias Catalogue. The 
possibility cannot be excluded that it indicates not a book, 

96 



FRAGMENTS : OTHER NAMED WORKS 
19 

When the heavily laden mastieh yields its finest crop, then 
most of all will the ploughland bear a great harvest. 

Sympathy occurs not only among animals, but also 
among plants and trees. All such as have constitu- 
tions with a similar blend of moistness or coldness 
also have the same sources of nourishment and 
flourish and wither in the same conditions. Hence 
there are many which mature and bear fruit at the 
same time as one another, some in the summer, 
others in the winter, some even in the spring. Some 
plants, then, differ in their composition, while others 
are similar and closely related. Among plants with 
a similar composition are the holm-oak, the mastieh, 
the squill, and wheat. Thus Plutarch. 

20 

Nor does a mainland man rejoice when flocks of birds at 
the beginning of summer descend in great numbers from 
the islands upon his fields. 

Islands, being drier than the mainland, as Plutarch 
says, more quickly and easily take on a condition of 
drought. That is why the birds leave them and fly to 
the mainland. 

IS FOREKNOWLEDGE OF FUTURE 
EVENTS USEFUL ? 



but a part of a book. The fragments could, for example, have 
found a place in no. 71, vcpl fjLavrtKTJs on ocL^erai Kara rovs 
*AKa8r)fialKovs. 

1 oaaovv F. H. S. : orav ovv. ocr' av ovv (with €XJ]) Duebner. 

2 Aldine edition : 77. 3 Aldine edition : gwcxovtcov. 

VOL. XV 97 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

The Stoics argued that the reality of prophecy proved the 
existence of Fate, and that in turn the Providence of God 
guaranteed the reality of prophecy, since it is to our advantage 
to know the future. This utility was denied by Epicureans 



21 

Stobaeus, i. 5. 19 (i, p. 81 Wachsmuth). 

UAovrdpxov €K rov el rj twv /xcAAoVtojv npoyvco- 
(jis tu^eAi/xos" 
To yap el\xappAvov aTpeirrov /cat dirapdfiaTOV , 

XCOTTtp 1 fJLOVOV S(f)pVGL V€VG7j * 

KOLprepa tovto) k€/cAcu(7t' 2 dVay/ca. 

Sia tovto TTfV elfiapfjievrjv Kal Yleirpwiievriv* /cat 
'ASpdoTeiav kolXovolv, otl irepas rats' atrial? rjvay- 
KaofMevov €7riTi9rjot,v av€K<f>evKTOs ovoa /cat avairo- 
Spacrros. 

22 

Stobaeus, ii. 8. 25 (ii, p. 158 Wachsmuth). 

'E/c tov UAovrdpxov el rj tcov p,eAA6vTa>v irpo- 
yva)ois oj^eAi/zos" . 

"0 Se NeoTOjp ovk dfieATepos, vttvov <f>8ova)V tols 
tols vavs (frvAdaaovoL /cat 8t,aKeAev6p,evos 

1 \tp7T€p Gaisford. 

2 Meineke : vevaei . . . kckXcdt. 

3 Kal n€7Tpo)H€vqv inserted here by Wyttenbach, deleting 
Kal 7r€7Tpa)fjL4vri after avayKa. 

° Frag, adesp. 19 Diehl, 99 Page. 

h For these Stoic etymologies compare Be Stoic. Repugn. 

98 



FRAGMENTS : OTHER NAMED WORKS 

(Diogenianus,frag. 4 = Eusebius, Praep. Ev. iv. 3, cf. Schol. 
on Aeschylus, P.V. 624) and by the New Academy (Cicero, 
De Divinatione, it. 22-24). 

The first two of the following fragments give unadulterated 
Stoic doctrine. This suggests the possibility that Plutarch* s 
work was a dialogue ; but as a priest of Apollo at Delphi he 
was bound to defend the usefulness of prophecy, and may 
have adapted Stoic arguments for the purpose. 



21 

Plutarch, from the work Is Foreknowledge of Future 
Events Useful? 

What is fated is not to be averted or evaded : 

And by the mere nodding of his brow- 
Strong necessity is spun. 

For this reason they give Fate the names of Pe- 
promene (Destiny) and Adrasteia because, being a 
power unavoidable and inescapable (anapodrastos), b 
she attaches to causes a final necessitated result 
(per as). 

22 

From Plutarch, Is Foreknowledge of Future Events 
Useful? 

"And was it not fatuous of Nestor to begrudge the 
ships' sentries their sleep and exhort them with the 
words 

1056 c (S. V.F. ii. 997), rrjv 8' €lfj.apij.€vrjv . . . clvtos (sc. Xpv- 
olitttos) "Arpoirov kclXci Kal 'ASpaorctav kcli 'Avdytcqv /cat Uenpu)- 
fi€V7]v, cos nepas aTramv iinTiOtioav ; Arius Didymus, frag. 29 
fin. (Diels, Doxogr. Graeci, p. 465. 2, S. V.F. ii. 528) ; Ps.- 
Aristotle, De Mundo, 401 b 11 ; Schol. Iliad, xx. 127 ; Dio- 
genianus, frag. 2 (Eusebius, Praep. Ev. vi. 8). 

99 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

ovtco vvv (f>tXa reKva (frvAdaaere, /zrySe tiv vttvos 
alpecra), /XT) ydpp,a yevwpbeOa Svopueveeooiv ' ; 

ov yevrjoopueOa, <f)7]oi tls, ov8* dv KadevSajpbev, el 
7T€7Tpajfjb€vov eort [AT} dAtorat TOV vavoTadpuov." 1 TtV 

OVK $,V €LTTOl TTpOS TOVS TOLVTa AffpOVVTaS , OTL Kddei- 

puaprai puev loojs arravra ravra, cruy /ca0€tju,aprat 8' 
e/cdoroj to Std tovtcov /cat to iv tovtols /cat 2 ovra> 
/cat to p/rj aAAa)? 3 ovvTeAeZodai St'^a tovtojv; ov 
yap €gtl <f)v\aKri KadevSovTOJV ovSe vlkt) <j>evyovTOJV 
ovSe depioai p,rj OTTtipdvTOJV yrjv dyaOrjv* /cat Kada- 
pdv, ovSe yevvrjoat firj crvyyevopuevov yvvatKL rjAtKiav 
ixovorj /cat ocjpbaTos <f>voiv yovipuov, oi)S' aypas 
TvyzZv iv dOripois xojpiois. 



23 

Stobaeus, iii. 3. 41 (iii, p. 207 Hense). 

'E/c tov TlAovTapxov 5 el rj tcov pueAAovTOJV irpo- 
yvojois ojcfreAijJLos . 

'AAAd fjbrjv rj <f)p6vrjois ov oojpbaTOJV dAAd irpay- 
[LaTOJV oifjis €otl, rrplv iv avTols yeveoOac tov dvdpoj- 
ttov, ottojs apiOTa xprjoeTai toZs airavTtboi /cat rrpoo- 
Tvyxdvovoi rxapeypvoa SiaoKoireZv to pueAAov. to 
fJLev ovv crtofAa rrpouoj p,6vov oj/x/Aarcorat rot? 8* 
oTTiodev TV(f)A6v ioTiv dre^vcos", 6 17 Se Stdvota /cat Ta 
7rapcp-)(r]fM€va fiAeTretv tjj pLvrjpLr) rrecfrvKev 6 yap 

1 Canter : bvoTadfiov. 

2 Kal to Usener. 3 ? /x^8a/xa>?. 

4 Gercke : rrjv ayaOrjv yijv. 

5 ? HAovTapxov, €K tov Hense. 

6 ar^xvojs Tr. ; other mss. omit. 

100 



FRAGMENTS : OTHER NAMED WORKS 

So now, dear children, watch, and let not sleep 
Take you, lest we become the foemen's joy ? ° 

We shall not become his joy, is the answer, even 
should we go to sleep, if it is destined that the ships' 
station shall not be captured.' ' Who would not reply 
to such nonsense that, although all these things b 
may be fated, it is jointly fated with each of them that 
it must be achieved by such-and-such means and in 
such-and-such circumstances and such a way, but 
not in any other manner without these concomitants ? 
There is no keeping guard by men who sleep, no 
victory for those who run away, no harvesting for 
those who have not sown good, cleared ground : one 
cannot beget a child without intercourse with a 
woman of the right age and a fertile body, nor catch 
game in districts where there are no animals. 



23 

From Plutarch, Is Foreknowledge of Future Events 
Useful? 

Well now, prudence is a vision not of persons, but 
of events, before a man is involved in them, giving 
him the opportunity to examine the future to see 
how he may best deal with what meets and befalls 
him. Now whereas the body has eyes in front only, 
and is quite blind to the rear, the mind is so consti- 
tuted as to see things past as well, by the use of 

a Iliad, x. 192-193. 

b Nestor will have been the last of a number of examples 
adduced by the imaginary opponent, who uses the so-called 
dpyos Adyos-, according to which, if everything is fated, all 
exertion is unnecessary ; cf. Cicero, De Fato, 30 (S. V.F. ii. 
956), who gives the same answer as that of Chrysippus. 

101 



PLUTARCH'S xMORALIA 

iyKadrjfJbevos del /cat OLKOVpcov ypapufiarevs iv rjfuv, 1 
C09 <f>r)Gt,v 6 UXdrcov, ovtos ion /cat rrpoyeyovcbs 

TWV 2 eVTCLvOa, T7JS ifjVXTJS €?T6 flipOS €tT€ SpyCLVOV, 

J) rtov 7Tpay[idTCx)v dvTi\ap,fSdverai (frepopbevcov* /cat 

<f>vXaTT€L KCLl LOT7]OL KOLI KVkXoV 7TOl€i, TO 7Tapa)^^- 

jjuevov imorpefovaa /cat ovvdirrovoa ra> irapovri 
koI napappeXv els to dnecpov ovk itooa /cat dvviT- 
apKTov /cat dyvtQOTOv. 

EI2 EMnEAOKAEA 

Diels, Frag. d. Vorsokratiker, 31 a 33, guesses (quite 
speculatively) that Plutarch's commentary was the ultimate 
source of what Hippolytus says of Empedocles, Refutatio, 
vii. 29. 5. Ibid. 20, avrr) earlv 17 xoXaois fjv *coAa£et 6 brjfiiovp- 

24 

Hippolytus, Refutatio, v. 20. 5. 

TereAccrrat 8e ravra (sc. Orphica quaedam) /cat 
Trapaoihorai dvOpdjirois TTpo rrjs K.eXeov /cat Tpt- 
TTTo\ep,ov /cat ArjfMrjrpos /cat Koprjs /cat Alovvoov iv 
'EAeuatvt TeXerrjs iv OAtowTt 5 ttjs 'Attiktjs' rrpo 
yap rtov *¥i\evowiajv /xvorripiajv eoriv iv rfj <J>At- 
ovvtl* (rfjsy Xeyofievqs MeydArjs opyia. 7 eart Se 

1 fjfjuv Cobet : filva). 

2 irpoyzyovoos twv Wyttenbach : rrpoyiyovas* npoyeyovos Mad- 
vig. 3 a> Madvig : o. kcli Duebner. 

4 Gesner : fepoficvov. 

5 d>Xvfj Schneidewin ( y Axatas for 'Attiktjs Meineke). 

6 Q)\v4a)v Diels. 

7 ttjs . . . opyia F. G. Welcker, Gdttingen edition : Xeyo- 
fi€W} iA€ya\y)yopia. 

a Philebus, 39 a. 

b If the emendation is right, this is an allusion to the Pla- 

102 



FRAGMENTS : OTHER NAMED WORKS 

memory. Memory is the clerk, as Plato says, a who 
always sits within us and never leaves his post, born 
before this life, 6 either a part of the soul or the tool 
by which the soul lays hold on events as they pass 
by, preserves them, arrests their course, and forms a 
circle by turning back the past and joining it to the 
present, not allowing it to slip away to be lost in the 
infinite, where it would neither exist nor be known. c 



NOTES ON EMPEDOCLES 

(Lamprias Catalogue 43) 

yos, Kaddirep xaAfccv? tls fi€TaKOOfia>v oihr^pov koX £k Trvpos et? 
uScop fi€Tafid7TTQ)v, has a faint resemblance to De Sera Nu- 
minis Vindicta, 567 c, but the chance of a Plutarchean ori- 
gin is minimal, 

24 

These (Orphic) doctrines have been made the sub- 
ject of initiation and were revealed to men at Phlius d 
in Attica at a date earlier than the initiation at 
Eleusis that belongs to Celeus, Triptolemus, Demeter, 
the Maiden, and Dionysus. For the rites of the so- 
called Great Goddess at Phlius are earlier than the 
Eleusinian mysteries. There is in that place a colon- 
tonic doctrine of dvdtivrjats, by which we are born with latent 
memories. 

c In view of the Stoic elements in frags. 21, 22 it is worth 
noting that the non-existence of the past was emphasized by 
the Stoics (S. V.F. ii. 509, 518). How the non-existent could 
be known would be a problem, to which an answer is here 
given. 

d Hippolytus made a mistake ; he should have said Phlye, 
cf. Pausanias, i. 31. 4, OAucucrt 8e ciat . . . ^cufioi . . . Tijs, 
tjv McydXrjv 0€ov 6vofid£ovoi. 

103 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

TTCLCFTas iv avrrj, irrl 8e rrjs TraordSos iyyiypairrai 
fiiXP 1 vrfpepov rj ttovtcjov 1 rcov elpy)p,evtov Xoycov 
toea. 7roXXd fiev ovv iorl t<x iirl rfjs iraordhos €/cet- 
vr]s iyyeypajAiAeva, rrept a>v /cat YlAovrapxos Troizirai 
Aoyovs iv reus irpos 'EjUjreSo/cAea Se/ca j8t/?Aots" eort 
8e tols rrAelooi 2 /cat Trpea^vrrjs rts 1 iyyeypafipLevos 
7roAto9 TTTepcoros 3 ivrerajiivriv e^a)v rrjv atGxvvr]v 
yvvaiKa a7TO(f>evyovGav Slcokcov KvavoeiSrj.* int- 
yeypaTTTai Se errl rov Trpeofivrov <f>dos pvevrrjSy 5 
€7tl 8e rrjs yvvaiKos Tre/Deryc^t/coAa. 6 



EIS TA HSIOAOT EPrA 

The commentary on Hesiod's Works and Days, which 
was written earlier than De Fraterno Amore (see note on 
frag. 86) and perhaps earlier than the Life of Camillus (see 
frag. 100), is not listed in the Lamprias Catalogue, and is 
known mainly from the use made of it by Proclus, the neo- 
Platonist (412-486 a.d). It was probably in four books, 
since Gellius quotes a comment on v. 765 as being from the 
fourth book (frag. 102). The commentary of Proclus itself 
does not survive in its original form, but was excerpted and 
modified to provide material for the so-called " old scholia " 
to Hesiod (ed. Pertusi, Milan, 1955). Other remnants of 
Proclus are to be found in the commentaries of Tzetzes and 
Moschopulus. 

It cannot be known whether Proclus himself always ac- 

1 ra T&v before ttolvtcdv deleted by Miller. 

2 iv rots TrvXctoai Miller : Tat? iraoTaoi Wendland : rots kclooi 
Maass. 

3 Miller : TTtTpuros. 

4 KvavoeiSrj Gottingen edition : kvvoclStj. 

6 ®dv7)s pvcls ten Brink : OdV^s ipiivrr^s (?) Maass. 
6 U€pcr€<j>6v7] OAua ten Brink : ipiivrov Koprj (?) Maass. 

104 



FRAGMENTS : OTHER NAMED WORKS 

nade (or a room) and on this colonnade is painted a 
representation, preserved to our own day, of all the 
doctrines a I have expounded. There are many 
paintings on this colonnade, and Plutarch describes 
them in his ten- volume work, Notes on Empedocles. 
In the majority of them b is included a grey-haired 
old man with wings, his pudendum erected, chasing a 
woman of blue colour, who runs away. The old man 
is inscribed " Light, flowing (?)," c and the woman 
" Pereephikola." c 



COMMENTARY ON HESIOD'S WORKS 
AND DAYS 

knowledged indebtedness to Plutarch, but it is certain that in 
the form to which his work has been reduced acknowledgement 
is at times omitted. The problem of deciding what parts of 
the old scholia derive from Plutarch is not an easy one, and 
it seems to be impossible to identify otherwise unknown 
Plutarchean elements in Tzetzes or Moschopulus. But to 
confine a collection of fragments to those passages where he is 
mentioned by name would result in the omission of much that 
is virtually certain to be his. Unfortunately either Proclus, 

a Those of the Gnostics who called themselves " followers 
of Seth." 

b Again Hippolytus has probably misread his source. 

c The woman is later said to symbolize water. Ten Brink 
supposed the old man to be the Orphic god Phanes, quoting 
Orphic Hymn, v. 7, iravrr) Sivrjdeis TTTcpvyayv pnrals Kara Koafiov, 
XafJLTTpov dyojv <j>dos dyvov, d(p* ov o€ Qdvrjra klkXtioko} rj$€ IlpLrj- 
nov dvaKra. In Life of Themistocles, chap. 1, rlutarch men- 
tions paintings at Phlye, and the hereditary priesthood of the 
Lycomidae, who are otherwise known to have had connec- 
tions with Orphism, see J. Toepfner, Attische Genealogie, 
p. 209. 

105 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

who " seems to have had a positive distaste for quoting 
teootually " (T. L. Heath, Euclid's Elements, i, p. 34), or his 
abbreviators altered the wording of his source enough to make 
rare the occasions on which Plutarch's style can be confidently 
detected. The surest guide is the occurrence of matter that 
is paralleled in his surviving works. There is also some nega- 
tive evidence. Pertusi has shown that the oldest ms. (A, see 
below) distinguishes by prefixed marks scholia drawn from 
Proclus and those that come from other sources : the latter 
are unlikely to contain Plutarchean material. Accordingly 
I have omitted, following Pertusi, fragments 5, 6, 9, 41, and 
48 of Bernardakis' edition, and similarly not accepted ascrip- 
tions of scholia to Plutarch made by R. Beitzenstein, Nach. 
Gott. Gesell. Wiss., 1906, p. 40 and Wilamowitz, Ilias und 
Homer, p. 406. Eight other of Bernardakis' fragments have 
been omitted : no. 8 had already been identified by Patzig as 
drawn from Procopius, Bellum Gothicum, iv. 20 (the refer- 
ence to Plutarch is to the myth o/De Facie) ; 16, 67, 68, 69, 
74, and 75 seem to me to have been claimed for Plutarch by 
Westerwick on quite inadequate grounds ; and 87, added by 
Bernardakis himself, breathes the authentic spirit of Proclus. 

In an attempt to distinguish what is of Plutarchean origin 
in these scholia I have marked with an asterisk fragments or 
parts of fragments whenever I feel uncertain whether they 
are in any way based on him, and have placed within brackets 
sentences which, although they may lead up to Plutarchean 
material, contain no more than the usual scholiast's para- 
phrase of Hesiod. At the end of any fragment that does not 
mention Plutarch I have appended the name of the scholar 
who claimed it as derived from him. 

The extracts from the scholia have been introduced, not by 
the lemmata of the manuscripts, but by so much of Hesiod' s 
text as is necessary to make them intelligible. The tradition 
of the scholia themselves is such that Pertusi 1 s apparatus 
criticus occupies little less space than his text. It would be 
impossible to present here the evidence on which that text is 
established, and I have confined myself to recording variants 
where the reading remains uncertain or is due to conjecture. 
It may briefly be said that there are two branches of the 

106 



FRAGMENTS : OTHER NAMED WORKS 

tradition. One is headed by A, which needs however to be 
supplemented by other and on the whole inferior manuscripts, 
PZBT. The other is represented by L and R, which, though 
they have suffered much modification, preserve a certain 
amount that is not in the first branch. QUO belong to a 
mixed tradition. The manuscripts denoted by these sigla are 
as follows : 

A Paris, gr. 2771, x cent. 

Z Vat. gr. 38, a.d. 1323. 

B Paris, gr. 2708, xv cent. 

T Marc. gr. 464, a.d. 1316-1320, an arbitrarily revised 

version, written by Demetrius Triclinius. 
P Paris, suppl. gr. 679, xii cent. 
Q Vat. gr. 904, xiv cent., full of conjectures. 
U Neapol. Borb. gr. II F 9, xiv cent. 

Bodl. Dorv. gr. 71, xivjxv cent. 
L Laur. gr. 31, 23, xv cent. 

R Rom. Casan. gr. 306, a.d. 1413. 

The principal modern works that deal with Plutarch's 
commentary are : 

H. Usener, Rh. Mus. xxii (1867), p. 587 (Kl. Schr. i, p. 

119). 
E. Scheer, De Plutarchi eommentario in Hesiodi Opera 

et Dies, Rendsburg, 1870. 
H. Patzig, Quaestiones Plutareheae, Berlin, 1876. 
0. Westerwick, De Plutarchi studiis Hesiodeis, Munster, 

1893. 
M. R. Dimitrijevic, Studia Hesiodea, Leipzig, 1899. 
H. Schultz, Abh. Gesell. Wiss. Gottingen, 1910. 
M. Maes, Contribution a l'^tude du commentaire de Plu- 

tarque aux Travaux et jours d'Hesiode, Univ. de Liege, 

1939. This I only know at second-hand from Pertusi. 
A. Pertusi, Aevum, xxv (1951), pp. 147 ff. 

1 refer by the name of the author to the following editions, 
the first two of which also contain many of the scholia : 

D. Heinsius, Hesiodi Ascraei quae extant cum Graecis 

scholiis, 1603. 
T. Gaisford, Poetae Minores Graeci, 1814-1820. 

107 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

K. Sittl, 'HoxoSou to. a.7ravTa 9 1889. 

P. Mazon, Hesiode, Les Travaux et les jours, 1914. 

*25 
Schol. Hesiod, Works and Days, 7. 
peia 84 r Wvvei okoXiov kglI dyqvopa Kapcpei. 

Tov ttocklXov to rjOos 8cd iravovpylav " gkoXlov " 
ovofid^ei. tovtov ovv Wvvetv Ae'yei tov Ata, ndXiv 
els to dirXovv inavdyovTa rjOos 8id to KoXd^ew av- 
tov inl tjj iravovpyla. tov avddSr] /cat VTrepoTTTrjv 
evTeXij note! Kal Taireivov. rj yap av6d8eia 77/309 
KCLTacfrpovrjoiv iyeipei tcov dXXcov dirdvTcov, rj 8e 
Taireivcoois els evvoiav dyei tov firjSev rjpuas Sta- 
<j>epeiv tcov ofJbOLtov Kal p,eTpiovs note! to rjdos. 

26 

Ibid. 41. 

ovo oaov ev fjuaAaxj] re accu aocpooeAco p,ey 
oveiap. 

"lacos 8e Kal d<f) y loTopias tovto Xeyei. "Eo/xi7T- 

770? ydp €V Tip 7T€pl l TCOV eiTTOL 00<f)COV 7T€pl TTJS 

aXifiov fipcooecos 2 Xeyei* [p,4jjLvr]Tai Se ttjs dXipuov 
Kal r Hp68copos z ev Tto 7T€/jL7TTcp* tov Kad* 'HpafcAea 

1 7r€pi added by Jacoby. 2 R alone has ppojoeoos* 
3 Casaubon : 'HpoSoros. * irifnTTa}] te' Jacoby. 

F.H.O. iii. 37, 40. Athenaeus, 58 f, quotes him as 
saying that mallow is an excellent ingredient for the so-called 
dXifios or anti-hunger food. Plutarch used this work of Her- 
mippus for his Life of Solon (see most recently M. L. Paladini, 
R.E.O. lxix (1956), pp. 377 ff.) and mentions this anti-hunger 

108 



FRAGMENTS : OTHER NAMED WORKS 

U. von Wilamowitz Moellendorf, Hesiodos Erga, 1928. 
T. A. Sinclair, Hesiod, Works and Days, 1932. 



*25 

With ease makes straight the crooked, withers the proud. 

He calls crooked the man whose character is wily 
through being unscrupulous. Zeus, then, he says, 
" straightens " him when he restores his character 
to straightforwardness by punishing him when he is 
unscrupulous. He makes the self-willed and arrogant 
man of no account and brings him low ; self-will en- 
courages contempt for all other men, but to be 
humbled leads to the thought that we are no better 
than our fellows and makes us modest in character. 

Westerwick, claiming perhaps over-confidently to detect 
Plutarchean diction. It is not even certain that Plutarch in- 
cluded w. 1-10 in his text ; at Quaest. Conv. 736 e, he speaks 
in his own person of w. 11 ff. as ra Trpdra tojv "Epycuv. It is 
true that the scholia do not mention him as being among 
those who rejected the lines, but that does not justify Wester- 
wick and Sinclair in their inference that he thought them 
authentic. On the whole subject see Mazon, pp. 37-41. 



26 

They do not know 
The sustenance in mallow and asphodel. 

This may in fact be based on an item of learning. 
Hermippus in his work On the Seven Sages speaks 
about the " anti -hunger " food a [it is mentioned also 
by Herodorus in the 5th book of his account of 

diet of Epimenides in his Banquet of the Seven Sages, 157 d if., 
as well as De Facie, 940 c ; in both places this line of Hesiod 
is said to have given him a hint for it. 

109 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

X6yOV, KCLl 1 UXoLTOJV €V TCO TpLTU) TCOV No/ZOW.] 

9 KrnfJi€VL8r]v (j>rjcrl jjUKpov tl eSea/zartov rrpoa^epo- 
p,evov cSSe oXrjv htareXelv 2 rrjv rjfJLepav aovrov /cat 
arroTOV* r\v S' i£ aacfroSeXov /cat p,aXdx'r)S, oirep 
avrov aXifiov /cat dSuftov €ttoUl. 



27 
Ibid. 48. 

i^airoLTrjae II pofirjdevs ayKvXofJLrjrrjs . 

Et Se ayKvXojJLiJTrjs 6 Upop^Qevs (ovtcd yap 
ypdcf>€iv Set Kad* a /cat UXovrapxos) . . . 

Ibid. 126. 

ttXovtoSotcll, /cat tovto ye pas fiaaiXrfCov k'oxov. 

Kat nXovToSoras ctvat Set tou? jSaatAt/cou? avSpas 
/cat 4 Kadapeveiv rraoiqs rfjs 5 KaKovpyias /cat ttJ? tcDv 
Xpy]l^aTO)v irnOvfJbiag, a>v elatv aXXois x°P r jy OL KaT ^ 
f5ovXr]cnv rcDv OecJov. 

1 to) added by Bernardakis. 

2 oXrjv SiareXelv R : reXelv or Sid 0A171; TeAeu\ 

3 aoiTov koX clttotov Pertusi s aairos kcu clttotos R ; the other 
mss. omit, perhaps rightly. 

4 Omitted by all mss. but L. 

6 Pertusi : ndayjs re (except -naa-rjs L and re Traces T). Per- 
haps T should be followed, with Gaisford. 

« F.Gr.Hist. i. 31, F 1. 

6 677 d-e : Epimenides gave a practical demonstration of 
Hesiod's theory. 

110 



FRAGMENTS : OTHER NAMED WORKS 

Heracles a and by Plato in the 3rd book of the Laws b ], 
saying that Epimenides would take a small morsel 
and so remain the whole day without food or drink ; 
it was of asphodel and mallow, and made him free 
of hunger and thirst. c 

D. Heinsius (according to Bernardakis : I have not found 
where). 

27 

Prometheus, crooked of counsel, cheated him. 

If Prometheus is crooked of counsel — this is the 
right reading, as Plutarch also holds d — . . . 



*28 

Givers of wealth ; 
They had this privilege of kings as well. 

Kingly men should both be givers of wealth and 
keep themselves uncontaminated by any wrong-doing 
and covetousness of property, with which they supply 
others according to the will of the gods. 

Pertusi : since the line is quoted at Moralia, 417 b, with 
the comment cjs paoiXtKov tov €v irottiv qvtos. 

c Diog. Laert. i. 114, also knows of Epimenides' magic 
food, but does not mention its ingredients. Porphyry, Vit. 
Pyth. 34, gives an elaborate recipe, said to have been used 
by Pythagoras, including mallow and asphodel. Pliny, N. H, 
xxii. 73, thinks that alimus is a specific plant, and has 
nothing to do with asphodel. 

d It is the reading of our mss. of Hesiod : Proclus recorded 
an alternative 7roiKi\o(j,yTT)s, " varied in counsel." The rest 
of the scholion has nothing to do with Plutarch, but is typical 
of Proclus, cf. In Rempublicam, ii, 75. 9 Kroll, In Crat. 66. 
20 Pasquali. 

Ill 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

Ibid. 127-128. 

SevTepov afire yevos noAv yeiporepov p,eT07nodev 
dpyvpeov 7TOL7joav 'OAvpLma Sa^uar' k\ovTes. 

Urt be apyvpos lgv o€ktlkos, cos /cat 0U7]oiv egco 
reyyofjievos vtto tcov vypcov ttjv depixorrjra 2 Kal 

ifjVXpOTrjTCL TTdVTOS fJL&AAoV K€pd/JLOV KOLL ^oAkOV y 

SrjAov. . . . i/jvx^rat yap to vScop ev avTco paSlcos Kal 
OeppbatveTat irepiTidep^evcov ifjvxpcov 7} deppbcov, ware 
Sta tcov nopcov tovtcov Kal lov SexeoOai, tov xpvoov 

TTUKVOTOLTOV OVTOS . 



30 
Ibid. 143-145. 
Xevs 8e 7raTrjp TpiTOV aAAo yevos [lepoircov dv- 

dpCOTTCOV 

XciAKetov TTOirjo' , ovk dpyvpeco ovSev 6p,oiov, 
€K jxeAiav, Seivov T€ Kal ofipi/jbov. 

*Tovto to yevos etKOTCos TpiTov ovt€ voepov 3 ov 
ovt€ 7ravovpyov, dAAa Seivov ovtcos Kal els Tvpav- 
vlktjv SvvaoTelav e/cAa/CTto-av /cat cf>oviKOV, tcov oco~ 
fiaTCov fiovcov eTTifxeAes. Sid <f>rjot,v 

" aVAaTot, fieydArj 8e fiir) Kal x € ty € s darrTOi 
e£ cofxcov errecpVKOv. 

SrjAoX yap otl tcov ocopbaTcov ttjv pcofirjv tJokovv ol 
ev TOVTCp tco yevei s tcov S' dAAcov dpueAovvTes nepl 
ttjv tcov ottAcov KaTaoKevrjv SteTpifiov /cat tco x^Akco 
irpos tovto expcovTO, cb$ tco ocSnnpcp TTpos yecopycav, 
112 



FRAGMENTS : OTHER NAMED WORKS 

*29 

A second race thereafter, one far worse, 
The dwellers in Olympus made, of silver. 

It is clear that silver will admit tarnish, just as that 
when it is moistened by liquids it transmits their 
warmth or chill a to its exterior more than any 
earthenware or bronze jar does. . . . For water in 
a silver vessel is easily chilled or warmed if cold or 
hot things are placed around it. Consequently it will 
also admit tarnish through these pores, whereas gold 
is very compact. 

Sandbach, as suitable to Plutarch's interest in physics. 



30 

Then Zeus the father made a third new race 
Of men unlike the silver ; these of bronze, 
From ash-trees, dread and mighty. 

*This race is with good reason put third, being of 
men neither rational nor cunning, but truly terrible, 
who ran riot in a tyrannical and murderous exercise of 
power, caring only for their bodies : hence the poet 
writes : 

That could not be approached : great was their strength, 
And arms invincible grew on their shoulders.* 

For he makes it clear that the men of this generation 
trained for physical strength, and neglecting all else 
spent their energies in the manufacture of arms, and 
employed bronze for this, as they employed iron for 

a Cf. Lucretius, i. 494. 

1 o$ Z, Gaisford. 2 F. H. S. : vyporqra. 

8 vo€ P 6v QOL : vwdpov AZBT. 

113 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

Sta twos j3a<f>rjs tov ^aA/coV oreppoTroiovvTzs ovra 
<f)V<j€i iaolAclkov. €K\L7TOV(jr]s 8e TTJs j3a<f>rjs rjXOov 
€ttl rrjv tov GiSrjpov /cat ev rot? 7ro\€[Mois xprjoiv. 

*Tovto 8rj to ^aA/cow ytvos " e/c /xeAtdV * elire 
<f>vvai hcupiKibs, dvTL tov €k tu>v fAeAitov tcov 8ev- 
Spcov, ovyl e/c tG>v MeAtcuv tojv 1 NvfJL<j>tbv (kcu yap 
MeXias Nvfi(f)as elvai <f>aow)- aTonov yap tovs €k 
tov deiov yevovs ovras drjpicbSeis <f>vvat — aAA' cos* e/c 
8ev8pa>v GT€p€U)v Kal 8vGcrq7TTCov yeyovoTas t<x re 
adJ/xara yeveaOai loyvovTas Kal ra rjdr) arepa/xova? 
/cat piaiovs. 

31 

Ibid. 199-200. 

dOavaTCov fX€Ta <j>vXov ltov TTpoXnrovT dvOpwnovs 

Al8d)S /Cat Nc/XeOXS'. 

[Toureart to tcl>v /ca/caw eoyaTov. aVatSeta? ydp 
KpaTt]adof]s /cat <f>66vov tcjv dvOpcorrajv, irdvTT) to 
yevos rjixcov a7roAt7retV atoa> /cat vep,€ow. tovtojv 
yap a7T07TTQJcri$ icmv 77 dvacSeia /cat 6 <f)06vosi\ 

'AAA' ovtos fiev €l8u)Xov cov vefjbecreojs (So/cet yap 
/cat 2 avTos €ttl toIs Trap" d^iav evTV^ovoiv dyava- 
kt€lv), rj 8 y avatSeta ovx 1 €i8a>Xov ttjs al8ovs dXXd 

TO IvaVTldiTaTOV TTpOS aVTTjV VlTOKpiv6/J,€VOV TTjV 

Trapp7)oiav. . . . 

KaAaVs' ovv /cat ITAaTa>v ipojTr^Oels rl 7tot€ irpoo- 
yiyove tois /car' avTOV dvOpwrrocs, direKplvaTo purj 

1 r<ov added by F. H. S. 
2 Kal QUOL : omitted by AZBTR. 

a Cf. Pyth. Orac. 395 b. This note has suffered some 
mutilation, since Hesiod clearly states that the Bronze Men 
had no iron and used bronze for agriculture (v. 151). Perhaps 

114 



FRAGMENTS : OTHER NAMED WORKS 

farming. They hardened bronze, which is naturally 
soft, by some form of tempering. But when this 
method of tempering fell out of use they came to 
employ iron in war as well/* 

*Now the poet using the Doric genitive melian 
said that this bronze race sprang from ash-trees 
(meliai), not from the Meliai, the Nymphs b (they say 
that there were Nymphs called Meliai) ; for it would 
be odd for men of divine race to be born brutal — but 
as being sprung from hard trees that are little liable 
to decay they had powerful bodies and stubborn vio- 
lent characters.* 

Wester wick. 

31 

Then Shame and Indignation will forsake 
Mankind, and seek the nation of the gods. 

[This is the extremity of evil. For when shameless- 
ness and jealousy rule men, shame and indignation 
leave our race altogether, since shamelessness and 
jealousy are the negation of these things.] 

Jealousy, however, is a counterfeit of indignation 
(for it too appears to show anger at undeserved good- 
fortune c ), whereas shamelessness is not a counterfeit 
of shame, but its extreme opposite, masquerading as 
frankness of speech . . . d 

So Plato, 6 too, when asked what conceivable pro- 
gress his contemporaries had made, returned a good 

it originally said something like : "Our ancestors, too, origin- 
ally used bronze for arms, as they used iron for farming, etc." 

b Theogony, 187. c C/. De Virtute Morali, 451 e. 

d The sentences here omitted are, as Westerwick observed, 
characteristic of Proclus, not of Plutarch. 

• Plato the comic poet. Arist. Rhet. 1376 all, has a slightly 
different wording; Kock, C.A.F. i, p. 660. 

115 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

alaxvveodcu kolkovs ovtcls. on 8e delov it pay pa 

/Cat 7] V€fJL€GLS SrjXoL TO KOI Oeols CLVTTjV VTTOLpX^iV 

P€fi€ar)G€ 8e irorvia "H/o^/' <f>7]olv rj 7Toir)ois. <f>66- 
vo$ S' e£a>0€v Qelov %opov ttolvtos. 

32 

Ibid. 214-215. 

vfipis yap re /ca/07 heiXto Oporto • ov8e \xtv iodAos 
p7]i8la)S cf)€p€/jL€v Svvarat fiapvOec 8e 6* vrr* avrfjs. 

Aeyec 8e iaOAovs ov tovs rfj Tvyr\ xal T fj 8vvd\xei 
77/Doc^ovras', a>s (/>rjoi HAovrapxos, dAAa tovs /car' 
dpeTrjv 7rpo€Xovras, £k tovtov fi&AAov Seacvvs rrjv 
vfipiv a<f>6prjTov. oi fiev yap iv 8vvdjjL€i /cat o<f)68pa 

8vOX€pCLLVOVOLV €7TL Tat? €K TCOV do0€V€OT€pO)V €LS 

avrovs vfipeow oi 8e /car' dperrjv ^covres /cat rav- 
ras ras vfipets 8iaTTTVovoiv. ov8e ydp x ei ? a)V ty***, 
(f)7]olv 6 YiO)KpaTr)s , dv 6 8eiva iirl Kopprjs 7Tard£;r) 
JJL€ dSt/ca)?. 

*3$ 
Ibid. 219. 

d/>ta GKoAtfjac Slktjgiv. 

17JS 0€ 0LK7JS OVO OrjAOVOrjS 7] TTjV U€OV aVTTJV 7) 

• Iliad, viii. 198, quoted, Moralia, 19 d. 

b Plato, Phaedrus, 247 a, also quoted, Moralia, 679 e. 

c Hubris is for Hesiod the use of force or violence in con- 
tempt of right ; he meant that neither a great (or rich or 
well-born) man nor a lowly (or poor) man would profit by 
his own hubris or outrageous behaviour. The scholiast mis- 
interprets the poet, making him mean that neither can 
tolerate being treated with hubris. Such misunderstandings, 

116 



FRAGMENTS : OTHER NAMED WORKS 

answer : " To have no shame in being wicked." And 
that indignation is a divine thing is shown by its 
being felt even by the gods. " And divine Hera was 
indignant," says the poem. a But " Jealousy has no 
part in all the divine choir." b 

Patzig. 

32 

Hubris c is bad for poor men ; even the noble 
Cannot bear it with ease but sink beneath it. 

By " noble " he does not mean, as Plutarch says, 
those eminent in fortune and power, but those emi- 
nent in virtue, d thereby indicating more forcibly how 
unbearable outrageous behaviour is. For while men 
in positions of power greatly resent outrageous treat- 
ment from inferiors, those whose lives are ordered by 
virtue meet even this outrageous treatment with 
contempt. I am no worse after all, says Socrates, if 
someone or other slaps my face without justification. 6 

*33 

Along with crooked justice. 

Justice means two things, either the goddess her- 

due to neglect of the context, occur elsewhere, cf. frags. 60, 
76, 105. Here the misinterpretation was made easier by the 
fact that Hesiod's words for great (rich, well-born) and 
lowly (poor) had later come to mean morally good and 
cowardly (or wretched). 

d The Greek, like the version, leaves it ambiguous which 
view Plutarch took. Westerwick thought he believed Hesiod 
to have meant the eminent in virtue, but cf. frag. 41, and 
Sittl ad loc. ; it seems to me more likely that this is Proclus* 
opinion and that Plutarch correctly understood the " noble " 
to be the rich. * Cf. Plato, Gorgias, 508 d. 

117 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

to oltt* avrfjs epyov, rore p,ev rrjv deov /caAet At/c^v, 
fjv /cat irapdevov ovofxd^et, rore 8e ttjv Kploiv /cat 

T7)V TTOlVTjV, OJS OTCLV Xeyj), 'Vot9 8e 8iK7]V T€/C//,at- 

perai evpvona Zevs'. ,, cr/coAtd? Se St/ca? Acyet iw 
ra? /ca/ca>s" SeSt/cao^eVa? Sta to fir^Sev vytes <f>po- 
velv tovs StKa^ovras aAA' ep,7rada)S 8t/ca^€tv 7raV 
yap irddos gkoXlov, ojs drrXovv to dirades* 

34 
76R 220. 

T779 Sc Alktjs pod os eA/cojueV^?. 

Tov poQov ol fJLev rJKOvaav tov ifjo<f>ov . . . FIAov- 
rapxos 8e j8otamd£an> (ovtoj yap KaXelv ^acrt 1 
Botarrov?) Ta? 2 dpctvas 1 oSov? rds arevds /cat 6W- 
dvrecg podovs ovofid^eaOat (f>rjaiv. el ovv rovro 
Kparolrj, Xeyoi aV on, rrjs Slktjs eA/co/xeV^? vrro rcov 

€7TL 8tx)pOLS T(Z? St/Ca? KpiVOVTixiV OTCoAtOJ?, f>60oS 

early rovreart Svadvrrjs rj 6869 /cat rpa^ela, 81 rjs 
e'A/ceTat V7TO tcuv St/caaTcov. 

*35 
Ibid. 230. 

OVOe 7TOT WVOLKTjGl /X€T aVOpdOl, AlfJLOS 07Trjbei. 

Ovkovv ov8e ol Aa/ceoat/xovtot Xljjlov evXafiovvro 
St' euTeAetav StatT^sr, 77V e^ovTes 1 tojv dSt/ctcov €/ca- 

1 ^ai R. 
2 Botcorov? tov? ray A, Botcurouj rovs podovs — ras Pertusi. 

a There is much about such distinctions in De Aud. Poet. 
22 d— 25 b. 
118 






FRAGMENTS : OTHER NAMED WORKS 

self, or the act that proceeds from her a ; the poet 
sometimes calls the goddess Justice (he also names 
her the Maiden), sometimes he uses the word of the 
verdict and the penalty, as when he says, " Justice 
for them far-seeing Zeus provides." And here by 
" crooked justice " he means verdicts that are badly 
judged because the judges are not right-minded but 
give their decisions as their passions dictate : all 
passion is crooked, as dispassionateness is straight- 
forward. 

Westerwick : comparing slight verbal similarities at Mora- 
lia, 25 d, 468 c. 



34 

A tumult (rhothos) there is as Justice is dragged off. 

By rhothos some have understood the noise . . . 
but Plutarch, following the Boeotian dialect (they 
say the Boeotians use the word in this sense) says 
that mountain tracks, if steep and narrow, are called 
rhothoi. If this is the best interpretation, the poet 
would mean that when Justice is dragged away by 
those who decide trials crookedly for bribes the track 
on which the judges drag her is a rhothos, i.e., steep 
and rough. 



*35 

Famine is never the companion 

Of men among whom Justice goeth straight. 

So even the Spartans did not avoid famine through 
simplicity of their way of life (so long as they kept to 

119 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

ddpevov tolls yap TroXyreXelaLS r) rrXeove^ia avveia- 
eXdovaa Xtfiov yiverai wpotjevos. 



Ibid. 240. 
ttoXXolkl /cat ^vfirraaa ttoXis kolkov dvSpos aTrrjvpa. 1 

TOVTO 8oK€L fl€V OVK €IVCU KCLTO. SiKTJV, TO €VOS 
€V€KOL TTOVTJpOV TToXlV oXr)V 8l86vCU TTOLVrjV* SvVCLTCU 

8e Xeyeiv on fioxdrjpov ivos ovros oocrrrep voar\- 
fiaros r) ttoXis rrapaTroXavovaa ttoXX&kis els SXrjv 
eavrr)v dvafidrrerat rrjv Trovrjpiav i^ofioiovfievrj rep 
ivL 8vvarau 8e K&Keivo orjfiaivetv on ivos ovros 
novrjpov 8l8coglv r) Traoa ttoXis Slktjv, cos i£6v koo- 
Xveiv fir) KcoXvovaa rrjv rod ivos TTOvrjplav. ovrco 
koX rod * Ayafiifivovos av0a8oos rap tepet TTpoaevex- 
Oevros, €ls rravras "RXXrjvas Scereivev 6 Xotfios, obs 
rrapevras fiorjdfjaai rep teper /cat rov Atavros dcre- 
fSrjoavros 7T€pl to rrjs > Adr]vds Upov, 7rdvr€S evoftoi 
rfj Sikt) yeyovaoiv, ohs fir) dyavaKTrfoavres irrl rap 
dcr€f}rjfian. Set yap fir) emrpeTreiv rots vfipiorals 

firjSe GVV€TTLV€V€LV TOLS dSlKOLS, 8wafl€VOVS fl€V 

rravoai Trepioptovras Se rod Travoac 2 rr)v itjovacav 
twv TTOvqptov. 

37 

Ibid. 244. 

Aet Se avvdrrreiv rap 

Xifiov ofiov /cat XoifioVy aTTo<f>divvdovai Se Aaot, 

1 imjCpev Rzach : iiravpel late mss. 
2 Patzig would omit rov iravoai. 

120 



FRAGMENTS : OTHER NAMED WORKS 

it they were free from injustice), for greed coming in 
with luxurious living is the sponsor of famine. 

Pertusi doubtfully. 



36 

Often a whole city suffers for a sinner. 

This is taken to be unjust — that a whole city should 
be punished for one bad man. *But it may mean that 
if there is one bad man in it the city often becomes 
like that individual and is contagiously affected 
throughout by his wickedness, as if catching a dis- 
ease.* It may also mean that if there is one bad man 
the whole city is punished because it does not restrain 
his wickedness, although it could do so. Thus when 
Agamemnon had dealt with the priest as he pleased, 
the plague spread to all the Greeks, because they had 
failed to support the priest, and when Ajax com- 
mitted an act of impiety at Athene 's shrine, they 
were all liable to punishment because they had ex- 
pressed no indignation at the act. We ought not to 
let outrage have its way, nor connive at wrong-doers, 
omitting to put a stop to the licence of the wicked, 
although it is in our power to do so. 

Patzig, thinking it in Plutarch's manner to adduce the 
example of Agamemnon. 



37 

One should continue after 

Famine and plague at once, the death of the people • 
a Quoted again, Moralia, 1040 c. 



121 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

tovs ev tols 1 ttoXAols <j>epop,evovs* virepfidvTa 8vo 
orixovsy to 3 

7} tcov ye arparov evpvv* dircbXeoev 
/cat to, e£rjs. ovtlo UXovTapxos. 



38 

Ibid. 270-272. 

vvv 8r) eyco fnqr avros ev avOpumoiai St'/cato? 
et'ryv \xrc\T ifios vlos' eirel kclkov dv8pa Slkcliov 
ejJLfJLevai, el /zet£a> ye Slktjv dot/caJrepo? e£et. 

[To fJL€v Xeyopuevov cj>avepov el purj eort 8lkt] /cat 
TLfJLcopLa /card tcov olSlkloVj jJL7]8 y e^ovoi tl irXeov oi 
St'/catot tcov aoLKCov ev Tco8e tco napovTL o e<j>opa 6 
Zeus', psfyr clvtos etrjv St/cato? p,r\Te ttoIs ep,6s' 
8lktjs yap ovk ovarjs, ovop,a pLovov ecnrat to St/catoi/.] 
t be orj to biKCLiov cupeTov, Kav pjr) fj npovoia, 

/Cat <f>€VKTOV TO dSlKOV, SrjXoV OTt TTLIS ovtos 6 Ad- 

yos TrepiTTOs. StoVep 6 UXovTapxos tovs eiTTa tov- 
tovs cttixovs e/c/?aAAet drro tov 

irdvTCL IScov Alos 6<f>9aXjj,6s 
ecos tov 

dXXd Ta y* ovttco eoXna TeXelv At'a p,rjTioevTa, 
cos dvaijiovs ttjs 'HatdSou rrepl Slkclicov /cat dStKcov 
Kpioecos. 

1 tols omitted by all mss. but A. 

2 ov fepofievovs Koechly. 

3 to added by Duebner. 

4 cvpvv added by Rzach. 

6 817 to Wyttenbach : &a to A : to Q : Kara LR. 

122 



FRAGMENTS : OTHER NAMED WORKS 

with 

He may destroy a great army, etc, 

omitting the two intermediate verses that are found 
in most copies. a 
Thus Plutarch.* 

38 

So now may neither I nor son of mine 
Do right on earth, since to do right is bad 
If the wrong-doer wins the greater rights. 

[The meaning is plain : if there is no justice and 
punishment for the wicked, and the just are not going 
to have any advantage over the wicked in this world 
that Zeus watches over, may neither I nor son of 
mine be just, for if there is no Justice, to be just is 
no more than a word.] 

But if justice ought to be chosen, even if there is 
no such thing as Providence, and injustice avoided, it 
is clear that all this argument is beside the point. 
Hence Plutarch expels these seven lines (267-273) 
from 

the all-seeing eye of Zeus 
to 

Yet I do not expect 
That all-wise Zeus will bring such things to pass, 

as being unworthy of Hesiod's views on justice and 
injustice. 

° And women bear no children, families 

Decay by Zeus's will : another time . . . 

They are absent from a quotation by Aeschines, In Ctes. 134, 
but present in Pap. Rainer of 4th cent. a.d. 

b Mazon, p. 82, suggests that Plutarch found it absurd to 
oppose private misfortunes to public calamities, not under- 
standing that sterility prevents the people's recovery. 

123 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

39 
Ibid. 282-284. 

os 8e K€ fiapTvptrjcri eKcov eiriopKov ofiocraas 
xfjevaerai, iv 8e Slktjv fiXdifjas vtjk€otov daadfj, 
tov 8e r dfiavporeprj yeverj fieTOTriaOe Ae'Aet7rrat. 

*Td yap tcov iraTepcov dSiKrjfjiara ^patWt /cat tovs 
CKyovovs avTcov /cat evo^ovs drrocf>aiv€i rats tljjlco- 
piais- /cat ydp oveiSrj /cat dSo^tat clvtoZs £k tcov 
d8iKiiov avjJbpaivovoL, /cat tiozis €/c tcov dfjuaprr)- 
fidrajv d7roAajJLf$dvovT€S , civ eo^ov d8iKTjoavT€S ol 
Trarepes avTcov, avvairoXavovoi tcov 6cj>eiXopievcov 
€K€ivois KoXdoecov * 

"AXAcos 8e yivcboKei to 0€tov cos tols rjOecnv 

aVTCOV €p,7T€<j)VK€ TL T7]S d8lKOV TCOV y€VV7JodvTCOV 

irpoaipeotcos Kav rj/xas XavOdvcoai, /cat €lkotcos tclv- 

Tt]V iv aVTOLS 6ptOVT€S TTjV pi^OLV €KK07TTOVOL Old 

tcov TLjJbcopLcov /cat tov (jltj ivepyfjoai kcoXvovolv cog 
loLTpol 7TpoKadalpovT€S Tivas cov V<f)OpCOVTai vooovs. 1 

40 
Ibid. 286. 

gol o eyco eouAa voecov epeco. 

KdAAtora to <f)iX6oo<f>ov rjdos olov ioTiv elire 8 id 
tovtcov 6 UAovTapxos 8r)Aovtrdou. tov fiev yap 
'ApxiXoxov /cat tov 'IrmcovaKTa fS\aocf)r)iiias ovy- 
ypdxfsai /card tcov Xvirr^aavTCov TifJLOKpaTrjv 8e /cat 
MrjTpoScopov tovs ^TTiKovpeiovSy d8eXcj>ovs ovTas 
/cat rrpooKpovoavTas dAA^Aots", e/c8ot>vat /car' dXXrf- 
Xcov GvyypdfJLjjLaTa. /cat ri Set tovtovs Xeyecv, ottov 

1 vovcov Bernardakis. 
124 



FRAGMENTS : OTHER NAMED WORKS 

39 

And if a man shall wittingly swear false, 
Defeating justice with a sin past cure, 
Feebler is his posterity thereafter. 

*For the sins of the fathers stain their offspring 
and make them liable to punishment ; reproach and 
disgrace attach to them for their wrong-doing, and 
being repaid for the crimes their fathers have com- 
mitted, they share the punishments due to their 
fathers.* 

Alternatively divine Providence recognizes that 
some part of the immoral tendency of the fathers has 
been implanted in the characters of the sons, even 
if we do not see it, and so the gods, observing the 
presence in them of this root of evil, quite properly 
excise it by the punishments they inflict, and prevent 
it from becoming active, like doctors who take the 
initiative in purging some persons of the diseases they 
suspect them of harbouring , a 

Wester wick. 

40 

I've good advice for you. 

Plutarch said that these lines excellently demon- 
strate what sort of thing a philosophic character is. 
Archilochus and Hipponax, he said, composed slander- 
ous attacks on those who had hurt them, while the 
Epicureans Timocrates and Metrodorus, being 
brothers who had fallen foul of one another, pub- 
lished writings against each other. 6 Why mention 

° Cf. Be Sera Numinis Vindicta, 562 d. 
6 Cf. Adv. Colotem, 1126 c, Cicero, Nat. Deor. i. 93, 
Metrodorus, frag. 30 Koerte (Jahrb. Klass. Phil., Suppl. 17). 

125 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

ye /cat Etevcxjxivrjv 1 Sia S07 tlvol rrpos tovs /car' 
avrov (f>i\oa6<f)ovs /cat ttol7]t6\s puKpoifivxtav alAAovs 
oltottovs ovvOelvai Kara rravrayv <f>iAoo6<f>ojv /cat 
7tol7]t<jl)v ; aAAa tov ovtojs juovoikov 'Hat'oSov p/rj- 
8ev tolovto iradelv ov ydp puovotKov to fieAayxoAav 
\vTT7]6evra 8e irpos tov dSeA(f>6v dvrl rod jSAacr^- 
p,elv vovdereZv, *etSdra tovto 8r) to rov HojKpdrovs, 
or 1 rrds 6 /ca/co? a/cwv earl kclkos* Sctrai ovv vovde- 
alas, /cat tcra>9 eTTiyvwazrai iavrov ovra *a/cdv.* 



41 

7^U 287. 

rr}v pAv rot KCLKorrjra /cat tAaSdv eartv eAeodai, 

Ovk anoScKTeov to lAaSov, ojs UXovTapxos e£- 
rjytfocLTo, to irdoav eyKoXTTioaoOai /ca/ctav 6p,ov S07- 
Xovv. 

42 

76/rf. 293, 295. 

ovtos p>ev uavapiGTOs os avrcp rravTa vorjar). 
eoOXos 8* au /cd/cctvo? 0? eu ehrovTi 7rldrjrai. 

7jTjV(x>V p,€V 6 StOU/COS" 6V7^AAaTT€ TOVS CFTt'^OUS, 

Acyaiv 

oStos puev iravapioTOS os ev ehrovTi m^rar 
ccj^Aos" S' au KOLKtlvos os aura) 2 7ravTa votJct^ 3, 

TTJ €U7T€l0€t'a TO, TTpOJTeZcL StSoU?, TtJ (/>p0V7]0€l 8e TCI 

1 Pertusi : Scro^aiTTs. 

2 auros R (the correct text of Hesiod). 

3 vot)g7} edd. : vo^crct. 

126 



FRAGMENTS : OTHER NAMED WORKS 

these persons, when even Xenophanes through some 
petty feeling towards contemporary philosophers and 
poets composed nasty lampoons on all philosophers 
and poets ? But Hesiod, who was really cultured, did 
not react in that way, since it is not in the nature of 
the cultured to fall into a violent passion. Although 
he had been hurt by his brother he did not slander, 
but admonished him, ^knowing the maxim of Soc- 
rates that every bad man is unwillingly bad, and con- 
sequently needs admonition and may come to realize 
his own badness.* 



41 

Your bad life can be got in companies. 

" In companies " is not be understood, as Plutarch 
explained it, to denote embracing all vices simultane- 
ously , a 



42 

Far best the man who sees all for himself, 
Yet good the one who follows good advice. 

Zeno the Stoic interchanged the lines to run 

Far best the man who follows good advice, 
Yet good the one who sees all for himself, & 

giving first place to docility and second to wisdom. 

° Proclus objects that whereas the virtues imply one an- 
other, the vices do not. For the true meaning of the line see 
Wilamowitz. 

b S. V.F. i. 235, where add references to Julian, Or. viii. 
245 a and Suidas, s.v. 6pBa>s. Diog. Laert. vii. 25 explains 
that Zeno meant that action is superior to theoretical know- 
ledge. 

127 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

Sevrepeta. ' ApcaTLTnros S' air* evavrias 6 2o>/c/oaTt- 
kos eXeye to avfjufiovAov 8elo6ai x € W ov ctWt tov 
TTpovaiTeZv. 6 S' 'Hat'oSo? rod puerpov fidXiGTa 
Tvyxdvet, rpels 1 e^cts SteXcJjv, ttjv epucfrpova ttjv 
dvorjrov ttjv pbearjv Siv rj p,€V dpioTr) kolI rep deico 
TraparrXrj a ta' /cat yap to deiov avrapKes, cjanep 2 
/cat 6 iavrcp irdvra vocov /cat rrpoopcov ova dv fj /cat 

€69 TOV €7T€LTa \pOVOV dfJL€LVO). Tj 8e (^eVKTOTaTTj TO 
fry* * ~ £ ' O * > Q x \ 'Y D ' > 

[Mrju eavTco ovvaouai ra opua AoyL^eot/ai pbrjT 
dXXocs €7T€G0ai ovp,fiovXois ideXecv. p,€or] 8e tov- 

TO)V Tj TOV OVVOpOLTlKOV fJL€V TOJV dpb€LVOVO)V OVK 

exovaa 8vvap,iv, z erraKoXovdrjTLKr) Se tov avvoptov- 

TOS. *KOLL TCLVTCL fJL€V OVTOJS %X €L ' pdXlGTa &€ d£lOV 

erraivov to elrrelv ri tov epucfrpovos 18 tov ov yap to 
Ta irapovTa opav /cat ra iyyvs, dXXa /cat to rd 
iao/jueva npoopav tovto yap SrjXoi to <f>pdoaodai 

tt -»\ >/ y \ \ 4 > / -ft 

aiT€p aV €L7] €7TL Ta apL€LVO). 



*43 
Ibid. 313. 

ttXovtw 8* dp€T7j /cat kv8os 077^8et. 

M^Set? AotSopetro) tov gtlxov ctV tov rroXvdpaTov 
ttXovtov opejv tov 5 TToppoy Trjs dpeTrjs iaKrjvrjpLevov, 
dXXa ttXovtov oleadaj vvv Xeyeodai ttjv a7rd Ttbv 
€pycov TTOpiodzlaav d<j>6oviav toZs ipya^opLevots St- 
Kaiav ovaav /cat oVd tG)v oiKeccov ttovcov rjdpoi- 
ap,€vrjv. eiprjTat, yap iv toZs efiTrpoadev €K tcov 

1 €is rpcls LR. 2 a>G7T€p F. H. S. : wore. a>s re Pertusi. 

3 Duebner : ovaa hvvayns. 4 Pertusi : tov. 

5 rov added by Schultz. 

128 



FRAGMENTS : OTHER NAMED WORKS 

Aristippus the Socratic went to the opposite extreme 
by saying that to need an adviser was worse than 
begging. Hesiod strikes a happy mean by distin- 
guishing three conditions, that of wisdom, that of 
folly, and their intermediate. The first of these is the 
best and similar to the condition of the divine — for 
the divine is self-sufficient, just as is the man who sees 
and foresees everything that will be advantageous 
for himself in the future as well as the present ; the 
condition most to be avoided is inability to calculate 
the right course for oneself along with unwillingness 
to follow the advice of others ; the intermediate con- 
dition is one that lacks the ability of a man who can 
discover the right course, but is capable of following 
one who does discover it. *So much for that ; but 
Hesiod is particularly deserving of praise for giving 
the characteristic feature of wisdom — not to see just 
what is present and at hand, but to foresee the future 
as well ; that is what is meant by " discerning " what 
would be for the better.* b 

Wyttenbach. 

*43 

And wealth has fame and virtue in its train. 

Let no one speak ill of this line through envisaging 
that cursed wealth that camps far from virtue, but 
let him think that " wealth " here means the plenty 
that workers get by their work, a just plenty gar- 
nered from their own toil. It has been said earlier 

° Frag. i. 55 Giannantoni, frag. 17 Mannebach, cf. frag. 
16=Diog. Laert. ii. 70, Mullach, ii, p. 406. 

6 This refers to v. 294, <j>paaodyL€vos ra k cnciTa /cat is reXos 
Jjolv dficlvoj, which seems to have been unknown to Zeno, 
as to Aristotle and others in antiquity. 

129 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

epytov tovs dvOptonovs ylveoOai rroXvp.'qXovs /cat 
d(f>66vovs /cat acf)V€Lovs. tco Se tolovtlo ttXovtco 
€iT€odai iravrojs tt)v aperrjv /cat rrjv 86£av eVea^at 
S' o&x <*>s TrapaKoXovdrjixara ovra tclvtcl rrjs ev- 
TTOpias dXX cos* ovvvirdpyjovTa rep tolovtlo ttXovtco* 
/cat cos iravTOS, os av ovrco 7rXovrfj, /cat 86£av 
dyadrjv KeKTrjpuevov /cat StjXovvtos otl dperrjv €^et, 
St' rjv TTpooKaprepel tols olk€lols epyoLS. 

44 
Ibid. 314. 
SaifiovL S' otos erjoda, to epyd^eodai dpuewov. 

Aat/xa>v ov fiovov 6 drrovepbcov rjpLLV tov jStov /cat 
Slolklov ra rjpLerepa Kpelrrcov 1 rjpbtov /caAetrat, dAAa 
/cat avros 6 aV' eKeivov jSt'o? £t<doTOLS 2 aTrovefjLo- 

fJLCVOS, €LS OV fiXeTTOVTZS TOVS (J>€V €v8aLfJLOV€LV (f)afJb€V 

tovs Se /ca/coSatjLtovetv cos /cat rv^ Aeyerat 97 re 

€TTLTpOTT€VOVOa TOVS fttoVS TJpLLOV /Cat TO a77oStSdjLt€VOV 

e/caarots* 3 7rap' auTJjs" 6'0€V /cat cvTvyeiv Tivas /cat 
Suaru^etv Xeyopuev. tovto ovv (f>r)OLV 6 'Hat'oSo? 
TTpoTperrcov els to pur) L^fjv dpyov, otl ottolos aV 
e/cacrra) Tvyydvr\ fSLos aTroSeSopbevos, tovtco dp,€LVOv 
ipyd^eodaL, €lt€ dpLelvtov €lt€ xelpwv /cat pur) ttolzl- 
oOoll Trp6(j>aoLV dpyias ^At/ctW r) tv^v tj dXXo tl 
tolovtov, dXXd rrdvTcos epyov tl tprjTtlv rj yetopyLKov 

Tj T€KTOVLKOV Tj ipLTTOpLKOV r) aAA' OTLOVV* 



6 Kpelrrcov D. Heinsius : Kpclrrov Bernardakis. 
2 €Kaorco TLR. 3 CKdaTco TL. 



130 



FRAGMENTS : OTHER NAMED WORKS 

that it is from their labours that men become rich 
in flocks and have plenty and wealth. He means 
that virtue and good-repute necessarily follow wealth 
of that kind, and they they follow not as subsequent 
to, but as co-existent with, such wealth, for the 
reason that anyone who is wealthy in this way also 
has a good repute and shows that he possesses virtue, 
which is the cause of his perseverance in his own 
labours. 

Scheer, but although the method of interpretation is Plu- 
tarchean, it is applied at Moralia, 24 e in a different way, 
by giving dpcrrj the sense not of " virtue " but of " renown " 
or power." 



44 

Whatever your fortune be, to work is best. 

" Fortune (daimon) " is the name given not only to 
the power which allots our way of life and controls 
our affairs as our superior, but also to the way of life 
itself that is allotted to each of us by that power, 
and in respect of which we say that some men are 
fortunate and others unfortunate. Similarly " luck " 
means both the luck that controls our lives and what 
each of us gets from it ; hence we say that certain 
people are lucky or unlucky. *Hesiod's intention is 
to exhort us not to live in idleness, since work is best 
for whatever sort of way of life, better or worse, may 
happen to be given to each of us, and not to find an 
excuse for laziness in our years or our luck or anything 
like that, but to look without fail for some work — in 
farming, or building, or trading, or anything.* 

Westerwick, on the ground that Oclrjs rvxys €7n.TpoTT€vovarjs 
occurs at Moralia, 322 a. 

131 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

45 
Ibid. 317. 

alScos 8' ovk dyadrj Kexpyuevov dvhpa Koait,€t. 
Kai tovtov /cat tov i^rjs OTiypv rrapeufSefSXrioO ai, 

\rf<f>9€VT(LS CZ7TO TOV 'O/JLl/jpOV, KCU UXoVTCLpXOS €17T€. 

46 
Ibid. 327-334. 

loOV 8' OS 0* LK€T7]V OS T€ tjeuVOV KCLKOV €p^Tj 

os re KaoLyvrjTOio iov dvd Sefivca fSaivrj 
Kpv7TTaStT]s evvfjs a\6)(ov, irapaKaipia pe^cov, 
os re rev d(f>pa8irjs aXiraiverai 6p<f>avd reKva 
os T€ yovrja yepovra kolkw inl yqpaos ov8a> 
veiKeirj ^aA€7rotort KadovnToyLevos €7T€€OOlv, 
rep o rj tol Zj€vs avros ayaieTai, €S oe reAevrrjv 
epycov dvr dStKcov xaXenrjv CTredrjKev diAoifirjv. 

Aia<f)€p6vTajs Se rod Aids €puvr]p,6v€VO€v , inciSr) 
irdaas els tov deov tovtov dvrjyov tgls toiclvtcls 
tt poorly opias, 'I/ceatov koXovvt€S cos €<f>opov tcov 
Ikctcov kcu Sevcov cos tcov ijevoov TTpooTQ.Ty\v /cat 1 
'Ofjuoyviov cos tcov avyyevcov fidXiaTa <f>vXaKa kcli 
tcov TTpos tovs 6/JLoyviovs KaOrjKovTcov. ovtco yap 
/cat tcov iv 6p<f>avia ^covtcov clvtov eXeyov KrjSe/JLova, 

7rCLT€pa VOfJLL^OVT€S TTOLVTCOV Kol COV OVK €IGIV dvdpCO' 

7TOL 7TaT€p€S, KCU f5o7)66v TCOV dSiKovfievcov 7raT€pcov 
vtto tcov iraibcov. dydXfiaTa yap slow oi waTepes 
tov TrdvTcov naTpos, tov Atos" ol 8' els ra dydX- 

1 kolI added by Bernardakis. 
132 



FRAGMENTS : OTHER NAMED WORKS 

45 

A sense of shame ill suits a needy man. 

Plutarch, too, said that this and the following line 
were interpolated, being taken from Homer. 



46 

To harm the stranger or the suppliant, 
To climb into a brother's bed and lie 
Stealthily with his wife, working him wrong, 
Senselessly to offend against the orphan, 
To taunt with bitter speech an aged parent 
On eld's grim threshold, all these things alike 
Arouse the wrath of Zeus, who in the end 
Imposes a hard repayment for wrong deeds. 

He made especial mention of Zeus because he was 
the god to whom men applied all titles such as the 
following, calling him Hikesios as guardian of sup- 
pliants (hiketon) and Xenios, as protector of strangers 
{xenon) and Homognios as keeping particular watch 
and ward over relatives and over duties towards those 
of the same parentage (homognion). In the same way 
they also used to say that he was guardian of those 
who lived an orphaned life, thinking him to be the 
father of all and in particular of those who have no 
human fathers, and that he came to the aid of fathers 
who were injured by their children. For human 
fathers are the images of the universal father, Zeus b ; 

Odyssey 9 xvii. 347 (but Kexprjficvoi dvhpl napelvai) and Iliad, 
xxiv. 45 ; the latter is quoted by Plutarch at Moralia, 529 d 
as Homer's. Others held that the line was interpolated into 
the Iliad from Hesiod, see Schol. A ad loc. 

b Plato, Laws 931 a, cited also with the same inaccuracy 
(ayaA/xa for IBpvfia), frag. 86. 

133 



PLUTARCITS MORALIA 

/xaTa to)v decov Svacre/SeZs, €t? avrovs dva<f>epovoi 
rovs deovs, cov to. dydXfMara, ttjv hvooefieiav ware 
cIkotojs €(f>7] rov Ala /cat vepuecrav tovtois /cat tt&oiv 
ofxov rcov dSiKtov epyajv, dnep StrjpidjJLrjoaTO, ^aAc- 
77*37 v aTrootSdVat €ktlolv. avrrj yap rj dp,OLJ3r) rcov 
dSiKrjfjLdrajv ripLajpla tls ovoa rrjs dot/cta? d/coA- 
ovdos. 



47 
Ibid. 336. 

/cdS SvvajjLLV o' epSeiv lip ddavdroioi 0€oiolv. 
*T6 [lev dveiv, 07T€p eltbdaoiv ol veojrepoi Xeyeiv, 

€pO€LV OJVOfXOL^OV OL TTdAaiOl KOLL p€L,€LV . TO O 

drrapxeoQai rcov irapovrajv Std rod dveiv iSrjXovv 
/cat dvrjXas ras a7ra/)^ds' c/cdAow o 0' €i> 7rt>/ot 
/JdAAe dvrjXds," cf>rjolv "Op,rjpos . . .* 

To /xev ow /card Svvapav eoSetv dtfyaiptlrai iraoav 
rr)v iroXvTzXeiav €7tl rfj irpo(f>do€i rrjs evaefielas r)8v- 
irddeiav eladyovoav, koXcos ovv rod AaKOJVos elirov- 
ros, os epcorrjdels Std ri evreXrj dvovacv €<f>rj on Iva 
iroXXaKis dvcooiv. ovro) yap /cat Novfias 'Poj/zatots 1 , 
ojs AvKovpyos AaKeSaifJLoviOLS, npoaera^ev diro rcov 
evreXeardrajv dveiv. to yovv pur) virtpfSaXXeiv rrjv 
irepiovolav iv rfj Oepairela rcov decov TrpeTrajhiararov 
Ion 7rapdyy€Xp,a rot? els avro puovov fiXeirovoi to 
oaiov rr)v S' dyvetav /cat KaQapoTtyra fjudXcara rrpo- 
rjyovjJLevoJS Set GTrovSd^eodai tols Upovpyelv fj,eX- 

a Plato, Laws, 728 c, quoted also in connexion with the 
Works and Days at Mor. 553 f. 
b Cf. Quaest. Conv. 729 f, but this is a grammarian's 

134 



FRAGMENTS : OTHER NAMED WORKS 

and those who do not respect the images of the gods 
show their disrespect for the very gods whose images 
they are . So that he was right to say that Zeus is indig- 
nant with them and imposes on all alike for the unjust 
deeds he enumerated a retribution that is a hard one. 
For this is the repayment of wrong-doing, being a 
M punishment that follows the heels of injustice.' ' a 

Westerwick. 

47 

Do offering to the gods to suit your means. 

*What more recent generations are accustomed 
to call thyein (to sacrifice an animal), the men of old 
used to name erdein (to do) or rhezein (to perform) b ; 
by the word thyein they indicated the offering of a 
portion from the food before one, and they called 
such offerings tkyelai. " He cast thyelai on the fire, ,, 
says Homer c . . . * 

" To sacrifice according to one's means " excludes 
all extravagance that might introduce high living 
under the pretence of piety. The Spartan who was 
asked why they made simple sacrifices returned a 
good reply by answering " so that they may sacrifice 
frequently." d Similarly Numa enjoined the Romans, 
and Lycurgus the Spartans, to make sacrifices of the 
simplest offerings/ Not to exceed one's means in 
the cult of the gods is a most suitable maxim for those 
whose sole concern is piety. And those who intend to 
perform holy rites should take particular care of purity 

commonplace, cf Schol. ABT on Iliad, ix. 219, Etym. Magn, 
701. 36, Etym. Gud. 491. 38. 

e Iliad, ix. 220. 

d Cf Apophthegmata Laconica, 228 c ; Life of Lycurgus, 
chap. 19. * Life of Numa, chap. 8. 

135 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

Xovot, rrjv fjuev iv avrfj ttj ^cofj — roiavrr) 8* ioTiv 
oar) av iijdvTrjs fj rrdor]s doeXyeias rrdorjs aSt/ctas" 
7rdoy)s efiTradelas' ravrrjv yap av etrroip,ev Kvpioos 
dyveveiv, Kal jJLerd ravrrjv ttjv aTroyr\v tcov fipcoTCov 
Kal tcov ttotcov Kara rd rraTpca rjOrj* /cat yap dXXa 
aAAots* eoTiv, cov 6 /xeTacr^cov etpyerai tcov vop*L\Lcov 
dvoicov — ttjv Se iv toZs opydvois iraoi rots' iepols, 
rots' 1 tottois iv ols Set dvetv, rols rrepl to crco/xa 
rjpicov /coa/xots". yeXolov yap rols KaOapcoTaTois 
Trpooiovras ols Ovovoiv aKaddprois XP 7 ) ® -*' Tiarw, 
r) iv rot? pbepboXvopbivoLS olkols tovto TTpdrrovras 
r) pbotpav rep lepto rrpoodyovTas e/c twos /ze/xta- 
op,evrjs ivepyeias r) ioOrjra <f>€povras dtcdOaprov, 
ottov ye /cat ra> rrdvra 2 Kadaipovri rrvpl Traprjy- 
yeXrat xpfjoOat, pur) i£ aKaddprov ot/cta? Xrj<f>devTL. 
to S' 3 av lXdoK€o6 at tovs deovs rats aTTapaXeiTTTOis 
orrovSaZs /cat rots' /xera tovtcov dveooiv, dpxopLevrjs 
rjfiepas r) vvktos, olov ipacoToZs 7} dXXois rial roiov- 
tois, ivSelKvvrai* /cat ort XP 7 ) tolls rotaurats" drrap- 
Xcus rats' evrropioTOis drrdpxeodai tcov TrpoooScov* 
avToZs, Sta rfjs ovvex^as rrjpovvrag avTCov to rrpos 
rjp,as evpueves' r) yap IXecooiS ovk iKeivois 7rpoori0rj- 
olv o p,r) etxov, dAA' r)p,as imTrfoeiOTepovs Trotrjoei 
rrpos to puevovTCov avTcov del tolovtcov olol Trip eloi 
puerexetv aKcoXvTcos' /cat tovto SrjXoZ to evpueves, to 
puevecv rjfilv to ev del rrapa tcov Oecov, Kal cos itcelvoi 
8iap,evovai,v del o/Ltotot ovrcs*. 

1 rots added by F. H. S. koX added by Gaisford after nam 
and after dvciv. 

2 Gaisford : ru> iravrl all mss. save T (ra. iravra). 

3 8' added by Bernardakis. 

4 Gaisford : irepiohwv. 

136 



FRAGMENTS : OTHER NAMED WORKS 

and cleanness, first in their own life — such a life is 
one free from all indecency, all wrong-doing, all yield- 
ing to passion, for this is what is primarily to be 
meant by " being pure " ; secondarily we mean 
abstention from certain foods and drinks according to 
the customs of the country ; among different peoples 
there are different things that it involves exclusion 
from the customary sacrifices to partake of — and then 
we must look to the purity of all the sacred instru- 
ments, of the places where we have to sacrifice, of 
whatever we wear on our persons. It is ridiculous 
when approaching the purest beings to use any 
impure means of sacrifice, either by doing so in pol- 
luted rooms or by bringing to a shrine a share in the 
profits of some tainted activity, or by wearing a dirty 
garment. Why, we are enjoined to use fire taken 
from a house that is not unclean, although fire puri- 
fies everything. Again, the poet indicates that one 
should never omit to placate the gods with libations, 
at daybreak and nightfall, and with the associated 
offerings, such as cakes or such-like ; and that one 
ought to begin one's approaches to them with such 
easily-provided first offerings, retaining their good- 
will by the regularity of our observances. Propitia- 
tion of the gods does not give them anything they 
had not got, but will make us fitter for unhindered 
communion with them, while they remain always 
exactly what they are. And this is the meaning of 
the word " good- will " (eumenes), that good (eu) at the 
hands of the gods always remains (menei) with us, and 
that they remain (menousi) always the same. a 

Wyttenbach. 

a The word eumenes is often used of the gods, derived 
from menos, " disposition," not menein, " remain.' Ancient 

137 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

48 
Jbid. 342-343. 

tov (fyiXeovr* cVt Satra /caAetv, tov 8' i^dpov £a- 

cxar 
tov Se fidXtara KaXelv os tls oeOev iyyvdi vaUi. 

Tavra /cat tol iiropLeva tovtols irepl tcjv npos 
tovs cf)iXovs /cat yeirovas 1 KadrjKovrojv e^et rrjv 
rrapaiveoLVy ovk ovtol evrjdiKa 2 to? tlolv e8o£ev, dAA* 

€19 €Vy€V€S TjdoS KCU Sc£toV TTpOOayOVTCL TOV 7T€l66- 

fjievov. ov yap Set ro\ avra ^tAots" /cat ixOpois o\tto- 
StSoVat ouS' o/jlolcos €Karepovs opLOTpaire^ovs 7rotet- 
a#at /cat 6fJLoo7rov8ovs , rjyovpbevovs /cat rpdVe^av 
Pojjjlov etvai rrjs 'Eorta? /cat 0€a)v 3 7ravra>v tcov ttjv 
rpo<f>7]v Scoprjcra/jLevcov. 6veiv /zev ovv /cat vp,V€LV A 
vojjlos irpo rod ttjs Tpo<f>r}s dt/facrflar 0€t OVV flTj tovs 
ixOpovs dyetv eirl Satra <j>i\Lav 8rj VTroKptvopbevovs, 
dAAd tous oVto)? (f>i\ovSy ols /cat Koivojveiv ooiov <bs 
tt}s dXXrjg (^tAta? oura> /cat aAa)v /cat ottovScov /cat 
carta? /cat <f)iXocf)poovvrjs . /cat yd/) et a>9 erv^e /cat 
rous 1 e^Opovg toTicofJuev, ri Tronqooiiev €K€lvojv rjfju&s 
iv fjudpei kolXovvtojv em to. o/xota; /Z17 vttclkovovt€S 
ydp dSiKYjoofjiev tovs viraKovoavras , V7tclkovovt€s 
Se TrporjoojJLeda iavTovs dvOpcoirois airexOais Sta- 

/C€tjLteVot9. 

1 Westerwick : yovc'a?. 

2 F. H. S., c/. apcXrcpov, Moralia, 530 d : rjdiKd, 

3 0ca)v transferred here by F. H. S. from after carta? six 
lines below. 

4 vfivelv QLR : vfuv A : 17/xtv ZB. 

etymology is concerned not with the history of words, but 
with finding hidden " truths " in them. 

138 



FRAGMENTS : OTHER NAMED WORKS 

48 

Invite your friend to dinner, leave out your foe ; 
Above all ask the man who lives near by. 

This and the succeeding lines give advice on duties 
to friends and neighbours, and are not silly, as some 
have thought, but tend to bring the man who follows 
them to gentlemanly and courteous conduct. It 
would be wrong to treat friends and enemies in the 
same way, or to invite both on an equal footing to 
share our board and our libations, since we believe 
that the table too is an altar of Hestia and of all the 
gods by whose gift we have our food. It is indeed the 
custom to sacrifice and sing a hymn before touching 
food. One should not, therefore, bring one's enemies 
to a feast under a mask of friendship, but one's real 
friends, who may lawfully share one's salt, one's 
libations, one's hearth, and one's hospitality, just as 
they share all else that friendship offers. 5 And in- 
deed, if we indiscriminately entertain our enemies, 
as well as our friends, what shall we do when they in 
their turn invite us to similar occasions ? If we 
decline, we shall be unfair to them, since they did not 
decline our invitation ; if we accept, we shall abandon 
ourselves to the mercy of persons who are ill-disposed 
towards us. 

Westerwick, who would extend the extract further. 

* Cf. Be Vitioso Pudore, 530 d. 
b Cf. Quaest. Conv. 707 c. 

139 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

49 

Ibid. 346, 348. 

rrrjixa kclkos yeircov, ooaov r aya66s p^ey* ov~ 

eiap . . . 
ovo av povs aTroAoLT et jxr) ytirojv kclkos eurj. 

Tavra /cat 8ia rrjs ioropias 6 HAovrapxos em- 
aTuxjaTO* /cat yap AlrtoAovs /cat 'A/capydVas 1 , "EA- 
Arjvas ovras /cat yelrovas, €KTpiifjaL otd rrAeovetjiav 
aAArjAovs, /cat XaA/c^oovtous /cat Bv^avrtovs Sta 
r^v €ficf)VTov SuoyzeWtav 7rept cr/caA/xoi; 1 SievexdzvTds 
ev to) Hoanopa) vavp,axrjaaL 2 ' /cat €7rt rcov tSta>Tt/cd>v 
yetrwaaeaw 77-oAAa jxev ayaOa avfi^aivecv oca rav- 

TOLS, WS €7TL QAoLKKOV* /Cat KaTCOVOS , 7ToAAa Se T<X 

eVavrta* ras yap yeirviaoeis a<f>opp,as rrpo^evtlv 

€VLOT€ TToAAtOV €7T7)p€t,(x)V. 

Avtos fM€v ovv top fiovv €t? 7rapaSeiy/za napeAafie' 

Set S' €KT€LV€LV €7TL TOL O/XOta TO> Adyoy, J)S OVK <Xl> 

ovSev 4, airoAoiro el p,rj 5 Sta rov yelrova. irpos a 
/cat ol TTaXaioi vojjlol fiAerrovTts ioiKaiojoav rwv 
airoXAvp,4v(jjv tovs yelrovas rrjv TLfirjv avveiodyeiv.* 



50 

(a) Tzetzes on 346. 
(6) Scholia on 347. 

(a) AetKWGL tovto nAourap^os". ejLuaro /cAea 

1 Hemsterhuys added nXoLaplov twos after Tzetzes. 

2 Duebner : vavfiax^aavras. 

3 Gaisford : <f>vXaKov. 

4 (bs ovk av ovbev] oaaovv av Duebner. 

5 el firj added by F. H. S. 

6 rrjv TLfjLrjv ovveioayetv QR : avvaXXayfidrajv AZB. 

140 



FRAGMENTS : OTHER NAMED WORKS 

49 

Bad neighbours are a curse, and good as great a boon . . . 
You'ld lose no ox, were your neighbour not a knave. 

Plutarch confirmed this by historical examples. The 
Aetolians and the Acarnanians, neighbouring Greek 
peoples, ruined one another by their aggressiveness, 
and the inhabitants of Chalcedon and Byzantium 
were led by their innate enmity to fight a battle in 
the Bosporus over a quarrel about a thole. 6 And in the 
case of private neighbours many advantages may arise, 
as with Flaccus and Cato, c and many disadvantages 
too : proximity sometimes provides the occasions for 
many affronts. 

Hesiod took the ox as an example ; but we should 
extend what he says to cover anything similar, as 
nothing would be lost except through a neighbour's 
action . d With such things in view old laws con- 
demned the neighbours to contribute among them 
the value of lost property/ 



50 
(a) Plutarch demonstrates this. He records that 

« B.C. 330-270 and 230-205, Pauly-Wissowa, R.E. i. 1154. 

6 I cannot identify this battle. According to Tzetzes, who 
may have drawn on a fuller form of Proems' note, the thole 
belonged to a small boat. 

c Cato was launched in politics by his neighbour, L. 
Valerius Flaccus, Life of Cato, chap. 3, 337 d. 

d Cf De Audiendis Poetis, 34 b. 

e Said by Heraclides (Aristotle, frag. 611. 38) to have 
been a custom among the Cumaeans ; Hesiod's line is quoted 
by him. 

141 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

yap <f>r)aw rj KdVa>va TnirpdoKOVTa tov dypov Xeyeiv 
ore dyadov €^€t yetTova. 

(b) Aeyerau on QepLioTOKXrjs -^aypiov TwrpaoKcov 
€K€Xeva€ K7)pVTT€(jdai on dyadov e^et yelrova. 



51 

(a) Scholia on 353-354. 

(b) Tzetzes on 353-354. 

tov <f>i\€ovra (friXtlv /cat rep irpoaiovTi irpoaelvai, 

/Cat 86fJL€V, OS K€V Sep, /Cat p,r) 86fl€V, OS K€V fJL7] 

Sep. 

(a) Tovtovs 6 UXovrapxos c/cjSaAAct tovs ort- 
Xovs. 6 yap fJbeXXojv Xeyeiv otl tols dyaOols to 
StSoVat TrpoorjK€i /cat cos x a ^P ovai 8l86vt€s, oltottos 
av etrj Xeycov /cat StSoVat tco StSoVrt /cat pur) StSdvat 
tco firj 8l86vtl' ovtco yap av ras 86o€ls dvayicaias 
inoUi, tols 8e 7rpoKadr}yovfJL€vas tcov evepyeoicov 

i£€KOl/j€V. 

(b) '0 fi€v UXovTapxos tovtovs ojSeAt^ct tovs 
otixovs, Xeycov ov8e7TOT€ av yeveodac <f>lXov, el tcov 

<f>lXlU)d7)OOpL€VCOV €KOLT€pOS dvapL€V€L TTapOL TOV €T€pOV 

Trpocf) iXiojdrjvat .* 

52 
Scholia on 355. 

8ojT7J fA€V TLS €8cOK€V t d8cOTTj 8' OV TLS e8cOK€V. 

ov oojTrjv /cat aocoTrjv ov Aeyei tov OeocoKOTa 
7rpoT€pov rj fir) Seoa)/cora — /cat yap av /cat tovto 
vwevavTicas eXeye tols nepl tcov dyadcov 86ypuaoLV — 
142 



FRAGMENTS : OTHER NAMED WORKS 

Themistocles or Cato, when selling his farm, said 
that it had a good neighbour. 

(b) It is said that Themistocles, when selling a 
piece of land, caused it to be advertised as having a 
good neighbour. 



51 

Love him who loves, and him who helps you, help ; 
To him who gives, not him who gives not, give. 

(a) Plutarch excises these lines, on the ground that 
it would be absurd if a man, who is going to say that 
it is fitting for the good to give and that they enjoy 
giving, should say that they give to him who gives 
and give not to him who gives not. He would thereby 
be making their gifts compulsory, and would have 
eliminated initiative in conferring benefits. 

(b) Plutarch obelizes these lines, saying that no-one 
would ever become a friend, if each of two persons 
who might act in a friendly way waits for the other 
to make the first move. 



52 

A giver gifts, no gifts the giftless wins. 

By " giver " and " giftless " he does not mean the 
man who has or has not previously made a gift — that, 
too, would of course have been inconsistent with his 

a Life of Themistocles, chap. 18, Reg. et Imp. Apophthegm. 
185 d. A. Pertusi, Aevum, xxv (1951), p. 152, argues that 
Tzetzes wrongly ascribed this anecdote to Plutarch. 

1 Bernardakis : irpo<i<f>i\La)drjvai. 

143 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

aAAa top h(x)p7]TLKov /cat firj SajprjriKov xapirojv 
ififieXcov /cat ^apteVrajv. 6 TlAovrapxos et/ca£ct 

TOVS TOIOVTOVS, OOOL TTpoalpeOW ScOpTJTLKrjV ZyOVOl, 

tols cnfxiipi^ovoiv , ot XafSovres rrjv vtt* aAA^Aajv 1 
pi<f>elaav o<f>alpav ovre Karexovoiv ovre avTiirep,- 

TTOVGL TOLS fJLrj elSoOL G^acpi^eLV, dXXd Tols OLVTl- 

7r€fJLipai Svvapuevois. 



53 

Ibid. 359-362. 

os oe Kev olvtos eArjTOLL avaiOeLrjcpL murjaas, 
/cat T€ crfjLLKpov eov, to y y €TTa"xya)oev cf)iXov rjrop, 
el yap Kev /cat apiiKpov eirl opuKpto KaraOelo 
/cat Odfjua tovt e phots, ra^a Kev pueya /cat to 
yevoLTO. 

Ao/C€t fieV a7T7]pTfJG0aL TOVTO TOV 7TpOpp7]8eVTOS* 

exet he /cat awe^etav. eTreihrj ydp elirev on, kolv 
rj crpbLKpov to d<f>aipe6ev, Trayyoi tov d<j>aipedevTa 
Sta TTjv olkovglov d<f>aipeoLV, eTrrjyayev oti to opu- 
Kpov irnaajpevofjievov piev pbeya ti ytVerat, a<f>aipov- 
puevov S' els pbr]8ev KaTaArjyei- <jjot€ elKOTcos Xvirel 
/cat to apucKpov d<f>atpovpLevov. /cat el tovto dXrjdes, 
opdcbs ' AptGTOTeXrjs eXeyev oti xelpcaTov tcov ev 
Ta> pta) to p,rj napd tovto Xeyopuevov el ydp /cara- 
(f>povolTO <Ls puKpov eKaoTov /cat einXeyoipLev, " p,rj 

TTapd TOVTO," KCLKWS 7Tpd£opL€V. 2 €V pbeV OVV Ot/CO- 

1 dXXijXwv AZBR : aXkorpioiv Q. aXXcuv Bernardakis. 
2 Duebner : Trpdtjoifiev. 

° A similar use of this image, De Genio Socratis, 582 f ; 
it may have originated with Chrysippus, S. V.F. iii. 725. 

144 



FRAGMENTS : OTHER NAMED WORKS 

opinions about goodness — but those who are or are 
not of the sort to give tasteful and charming favours. 
Plutarch compares persons of this kind, who have an 
inclination for giving, to ball-players a ; they, on 
catching the ball that they throw to one another, 
neither keep it nor pass it on to others who do not 
know how to play the game, but pass it to players who 
can send it on. 



53 

Whatever a man may seize in shamelessness, 
However small it be, it chills the heart. 
For set aside a little on a little, 
And do it often ; that soon grows to much. 

This is thought to have no connection with what 
has gone before ; there is, however, in fact a con- 
tinuous thread. For after saying that even if what is 
taken is small, it " chills " him from whom it is taken b 
(since it is taken against his will), the poet added that 
an accumulation of small things constitutes a large 
thing, and that to go on losing small things ends in 
having nothing, so that a man who loses even a small 
thing quite reasonably feels hurt. And if this is true, 
Aristotle was right to say c that there is no worse 
phrase in life than " Not enough to matter " : if each 
item is disregarded, as of little importance, and we 
dismiss it with a " Not enough to matter,* ' we shall 
come to grief d ; we shall go hungry if we are always 

6 This interpretation of Hesiod's line is defended by Wila- 
mowitz, although others think the meaning to be that the 
taker loses his peace of mind. 

e Perhaps in a lost exoteric work ; the fragment is omitted 
by Rose. 

d Cf. MoroHa, 85 e, and Wyttenbach's note there. 

145 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

VOfALCLlS XtJMiO^OfMeV TOVTO OL€L €7rd8oVT€S* €V Sc Tjj 

Siairr} voarjaojxev noXAaKis [lev irapopcovres to op- 
66v, Xeyovres 8e ravrrjv tt)v <f>covrjv rj yap kolO* ev 
l/caarov eXXeiipis fMeydXrjv adpoi^ei rols rrapopcooi 
rrjv f}Adf}r}v. 

54 
Ibid. 368-369. 

dpxofxevov 8e nldov /cat XrjyovTOS Kopeaaodou, 
fjLecraodi fyetSeaOai" SetXrj S' £v rrudpLevi <^etSc5. 

Kat eV rols Trarptot? 1 iarlv ioprrj Tli&oiyta* /ca#' 
rjv ovr€ oiKerrjv ovre puoOcoTov etpyecv Trjs drroXav- 
oetos rod olvov defurov rjv, dXXd Ovaavras rraoi 
/L&eraStSovcu rod 8<jbpov rod kiovvoov. /caAcos ovv 
elprjTai 8elv ' dpxofjuevov iridov KopeoaoOai," /cat rfj 
ioprrj ov[j,<f)<j[)va)s z ' Set 4 Se /cat <f>€i8ovs rajJbLevofJLe- 
vois* rr)v drroXavoiv, loot* /cat eloavdis rjfjuv yeve- 
adai /cat avflts'. el S' drravaXojdevTos rod rrXeioTOV 
to XenropLevov oXlyov etrj, x^X€Trr)v etvat rrjv </>€l8cl). 
tovto 9 ydp, </>r)GL, Ta^a aV /cat Tparreir] /cat a^p^- 
qtov yevoiTO toIs (f>€iaap,€vois. 

1 ivlois Trarpios Bernardakis. h> r. 'Adyvaicov TrarpioLS Wester- 
wick. 

2 UidoiyLa Duebner. 

3 <7Vfi<f>a>va)S AZBQR : avfufrtoveiv TL. 

4 Setv Pertusi. 

6 Wyttenbach : <j>€i$ovs rafiL€vofidvovs. faibovs (or feiBcadai) 
146 



FRAGMENTS : OTHER NAMED WORKS 

using this incantation in our housekeeping, and our 
way of life will result in illness if we often disregard 
the rules of health with this remark. A deficiency 
item by item piles up a mass of harm for the careless. 

Wyttenbach. 



54 

Starting the jar and finishing, drink your fill, 

Go slow between : no good to spare at the bottom. 

Among our ancestral customs is a festival called 
Pithoigia a (opening of the jar), at which it was for- 
bidden to bar either a slave or a hired man from en- 
joying the wine. The rule was to sacrifice and then 
give everyone a share of Dionysus' gift. So it is well 
said, and accords with the festival, that one should 
take one's fill when the jar is started. But we also 
need thrift, husbanding our enjoyment, so that we 
may have it again and again. But if most of the wine 
has been consumed and there should be little left, 
then it is hard to be sparing " b ; the poet means 
that this little might well go sour c and become use- 
less to those who had been sparing of it. 

Wyttenbach, Patzig. 

° Plutarch may not have said exactly this, since the festival 
at Chaeronea that corresponded to the Athenian Pithoigia 
was called the " Festival of the Good Spirit, " Quaest. Conv. 
735 d, 655 e. 

b The text commented on may have had ^aAc-m? for SclXtj. 

e Cf. Quaest. Conv. 701 d-f ; Geoponica, vii. 6. 

fxcaovvTos rafiL€vofi€vois Gaisford. fcibeaBai rov fiecrov rovs r. 
Pertusi. 

6 TOVTO AQLR : TOT€ ZB. 

147 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

55 

Ibid. 370-372. 

fiiodos 8' av8pl (f)lXa) elprjfjbevos dpKios earco. 
/cat re Kaoiyv-qro) yeAdoas inl fidprvpa deadac. 

TTLOTieS dp TOL OfACOS Kol aTTlOTLCLl OjAeGOLV dv8paS . 

Tovrovs 8e rives tovs gtlxovs i^efiaAov, 6 8e 
UXovrap^os iyKpivec oelv yap /cat rov <j)LAov avvep- 
yov 7rapaXafJL^dv€LV eirl ajpiopbevcp jjlloOo)' eyjdpav 
yap 7rpo^€V€L to ttjs djjboifirjs /xera to epyov eAAnres 
d&OKrjTCos 1 vndp^av. tovtco S' ofioiov /cat to Ta 
TTpos tovs dSeAfovs ovvaXAdyfiaTa p,r) dfxdpTvpa 
7roi€La6ac to S' €TTa-)(d€S dcfraiptov elirtv otl yeAdaas, 
tovt€Otlv ojs irai^ovTas /cat [jbTj oirov8d£,ovTas . 2 
ttoAAovs yap dnoAeadaL 8 id to iriOTevcraL tlolv ols 
amoTeiv 8eov, dTriOTrjoac 8e 7raAtv ols 7TiOT€vaai 
8eov. 



56 
Ibid. 375. 

os 0€ yvvaiKi TreiroLue, tt€ttoiu o ye (prjArjTTjoc. 
Tovtov 6 TLAovTapxos ^aparret tov art^ov. 

1 Wyttenbach : dboKrjrov. 

2 See Schwyzer, Oriech. Gramm. i. 81 1 3 , but some words 
may be lost, as Dr. Dawe suggests, irai^cjv . . . onovbd^wv 
Pertusi. 

« W. J. Verdenius, R.E.G. lxiii (1960), p. 350, notes that 
Aristotle, E.N. 1164 a 25, explains in the same way, but 
does not explicitly ascribe the lines to Hesiod : they are 
absent from most mss. and P. Oxy. 2091. Plutarch, Life of 

148 



FRAGMENTS : OTHER NAMED WORKS 

55 

Promise a friend his wage, and see you pay him : 
Laugh at your act, but bring a witness in 
Even when doing a deal with your own brother. 
Trust and mistrust alike have ruined men. 

Some have excised these lines, but Plutarch in- 
cludes them, because it is right that even a friend 
ought to be engaged as an assistant at a definite 
wage, since it causes bad blood if, when the work is 
over, a the reward turns out to be short of his expecta- 
tions. The injunction not to make unwitnessed 
agreements with one's brothers is of the same sort. 
To remove the invidiousness of this the poet said 
that a man should do it with a laugh, that is as if in 
jest and not in earnest. Many people have been 
ruined by misplaced trust or distrust. 6 



56 

Who trusts a woman, puts his trust in thieves. 

Plutarch expunges this line. c 

Theseus, chap. 3, says that some ascribe v. 370 to Pittheus, a 
view for which he cites Aristotle (frag. 598) ; he quotes 371 
as Hesiod's in De Vitioso Pudore, 533 b. 

b One can do nothing but translate this scholion as it 
stands, but note that it must be a distortion. What it puts 
forward as Plutarch's reason for including the disputed lines 
is merely an explanatory paraphrase of them, in typical 
scholiast's style, but no-one can have condemned the lines 
on the ground that they were not intelligible. 

c Perhaps because he had a better opinion of women ; 
other guesses about his reason can be found in Wilamowitz's 
commentary. 

149 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

57 
Ibid. 376. 
fAOWoyevqs Se ttolls gco^ol narpcoLov of/cov. 1 

A6^€L€V av cLtottos 6 gtlxos etvat /cat ayavaKTOvv- 
tos or i yeyovev ov pbovos Ttp 7rarpL pb^woTe, <f>r)- 
alv 6 HAovrapxos, /cat UXdrcov enerai rep 'HatdSa) 
/cat 'RevoKparrfSy /cat AvKovpyos rrpo tovtcov ot 
Trdvres cpovro 8elv eVa KXr)povop,ov /caraAt7retv /cat 
tovto rjv to V7t6 'HcrtdSot; Xey6p,evov. 

58 
Tzetzes on 378. 
yrfpaios 8e Odvois 2 erepov 7rato' eyKaraXeiTrcov. 

Ot irepi UpotcXov /cat UXovrapxov dhiavor^rov 
tovto <f>aoiv etvac /cat irepiooov. 

59 
Scholia on 380. 

nXeLcov puev nXeovajv pueXeTrj, puei^cov S' €TndrjKr). 
MrjTTOTe 8e, <f>rjolv 6 IlXovTapxos, e/cetvo Xeyec to 

1 There are old variants aa>£oi and cfy, the latter requiring 
v. 377 to complete the sense. Since the scholiast speaks of 
one line, he must have read oa>t,oi. 2 ddvoi Hermann. 

« Laws, 923. 

b Frag. 97 Heinze. 

c Elsewhere Plutarch condemns Hesiod's sentiment, De 
Fraterno Amove, 480 e. 
150 



FRAGMENTS : OTHER NAMED WORKS 

57 

And may there be an only son, to preserve 
His father's house. 

This might be thought an extraordinary line, 
written by a man who was repining that he had not 
been his father's only son. May it not be, says Plu- 
tarch, that Plato ° and Xenocrates b follow Hesiod, 
and Lycurgus before them ? All these men thought 
that one should leave one's property to a single heir ; 
and this is what Hesiod meant. c 



58 

May you die old and leave a second son. 

Proclus and Plutarch say that this is unintelligible 
and could be dispensed with. d 

59 
More goods, more cares ; but greater is the gain. * 
May it not be, says Plutarch, that his meaning is 

d Translated as above the line is not intelligible after v. 
376, " May you have only one son to keep his father's 
estate." Some suppose Hesiod to have meant, " if you have 
a second son, may you die old, having had time to accumu- 
late wealth enough for both." More probable is Hermann's 
emendation, which gives the sense, "And may he (sc. your 
only son) die an old man, leaving another son in his turn." 

* So Plutarch seems to have understood the text. But he 
must have neglected the previous line, which requires a 
different interpretation, viz., " Yet easily could Zeus give 
untold wealth to a numerous family : the more they are, the 
more trouble they take, and greater is their gain." 

151 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

rod Ad/jLTnSos, on irXeiajv fjuev rj <f>povrls irrl rod 
TTAeiovos TTAovrov, jJueuQcov o rj enioocris, rjv ernur)- 
ktjv" elnev, avrod ovvav^ovros iavrov rod irXovrov 
Std rr)v ru>v opydvcov evrropiav /cat rwv VTrrjper&v. 
o /cat 6 Adfnris etprjKev ipcorrjOels nebs iKrrjoaro rov 
nXodrov rov 1 p,ev yap 2 oXiyov €<f>rj ^aAeTrd)?, rov oe 
ttoXvv paSicos, ttoXXcjv ovrojv rjSrj ra>v vnovpyovv- 
rojv. 

60 
Ibid. 391. 

yVjJLVOV OTT€Lp€LV. 

KdAAtov 8i <j>r)oiv 6 UXovrapxos /xerd rov oiropov 
verov ov/Jbfirjvai rj npo orropov SrjXov oe* rd ydp 
fjuerd HXeidSa orrapevra /cat npo rporrcbv <f)V€od ai 
ipSofioua — iv Alyvrrrcp 8e /cat rpirala — rd 3 8e fxerd 
rpoirds fjLoXts iv rpirrXaoicp rovrov rod ")(p6vov. 
ovrojg rd imyeveadcn, verov dyadov jjl&XXov r) ro 
rrpoyeveaOou. ol S' dp^atot /cat rrpco'Cairepov eorrei- 
pov, cog SrjXov e/c rcov 'EXevaivtcov reXercov, iv at? 4 
iXeyero, " Trap id i 5 Koprj yi<j>vpav doov ovttoj rpirroXov 
8rj."< 

1 ttXovtov rov added by Bernadakis. 

2 yap omitted by LR. 3 raTL: rov AZBQR. 

4 Bergk : ots. 

6 Bergk : ndt. 
6 Wilamowitz : rpirroXeov 8e QR, and probably A. 

° An Seni Sit Gerenda Res Publico,, 787 a ; Lampis was a 
merchant operating in Aegina, and according to Demos- 
thenes, xxiii. 211, the greatest ship-owner of that time. 

6 This is a misinterpretation of Hesiod, according to which 
he meant, not " prepare for hard work when you set out to 
sow," but " sow while it is still warm enough to need few or 

152 



FRAGMENTS : OTHER NAMED WORKS 

that of Lampis' aphorism, namely that although 
more wealth involves more anxiety, its increase, which 
Hesiod calls " gain," is greater, because such wealth 
multiplies of itself through making it easy to procure 
tools and servants ? That is what Lampis said when 
asked how he had got his riches : "I made my little 
competence, " he answered, " with difficulty, and my 
fortune easily , a as by then I had many men to serve 
me. 

60 

Strip to sow. 

It is better, says Plutarch, for rain to occur after 
sowing rather than before. 6 Clearly so, for seed sown 
after the setting of the Pleiads c and before the winter 
solstice sprouts after six days, and even after two 
days in Egypt, whereas seed sown after the solstice 
takes at best three times as long to sprout. It is so 
much better for rain to come after the sowing than 
before. But the ancients sowed even earlier, as is 
shown by the rites of Eleusis, in which they used to 
say : " Come forth, O Maid, to the bridge : they 
have all but done the third ploughing/' d 

no clothes," cf. Virgil, Georgics, i. 299, " nudus ara, sere 
nudus : hiems ignava colono." 

c Hesiod has just said that ploughing should begin at the 
setting (at sunrise) of the Pleiads, early November in his time. 

d Carmina Popularia, fr. 50 Diehl, 9 Bergk, 31 Page. 
Text and meaning are uncertain. The Eleusinian mysteries 
took place in mid-Bo£dromion, corresponding roughly to 
September. The bridge may be that over the Attic Cephisos, 
which is mentioned in connexion with these rites, Wilamo- 
witz, Griechische Verskunst, 286. The first ploughing is in 
the spring, the second in the summer, the third at seed-time, 
to cover the seed : Varro, Res Rusticae, i. 29, " tertio arant 
iacto semine " (Mazon, pp. 111-112). 

153 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

61 
Ibid. 414-421. 
rjfjbos 8rj Xrjyei fJLevos otjeos TjeXcouo 

KaVfACLTOS ISaXtfJiOV jJL€T07TCtjpLv6v OpL^pTjGaVTOS 
ZjTJVOS . . . 

rrjfJLOs dSr^Krordrrj ireXeran, rfirjdeicra Gi8rjpco 
vXrj. 

Ae'ycu S' aV /cat ttjv 1 afipcoTov vtto tcov iyyivo- 
puevcov drjpiStwv tols (J>vtoZs , cos d8rj KTordrrjv ovgclv, 
olov Qpnrcov /cat reprjSovajv, a 8L€fjL<j>v€Tai tols 

8ev8p€GL G7]7TOfJi€VrjS TTJS €V GLVTOLS VypOTTJTOS. TO 
8* €V TOVTCp tfXoTOfJb€LV 6p06v, OT€ £rjpCL fJL€V €GTL TO. 

8ev8pa, aVoScSaj/coTa tov olk€lov Kapnov, /ecu 

OVK€TL KafJLVei, 7T€pl TTJV €KTpO<f>7]V OLVTOV , fJL€TpLCLS §€ 
€TVX^V VypOT7)TOS dXX OX) TToXXrjS Tj8t] TTpOS TO 
OLK€LOV, TOLS 2 T€fJLVOVGLV 0)OT€* fJLTj OrjTT€odai fJL€TOL 
TTJV TOfJLrjv €69 O TIVOLS fiXtTTOVTaS Kdl cf>0LVOVG7}S 

refJLvetv ttjs oeXrjvrjs dXXd fJbrj TravoeXrjvov {17)8* 
av^avopbevrjs' rj yap tov cf>cdros €7tl8ogis vypoTtpa 
ttoi€i to. 8ev8pa KOLi ev€7TL(f>opa refivopbeva rrpos Trjv 

GTJlfjLV. 

62 
Ibid. 423. 

oXflOV fJL€V TpLTToSrjV. 

HoXvs iv tovtois 6 TiXovrapxos dfivvopievos tov? 
yeXcovTas tov 'HoxoSov rrjs apiiKpoXoyias, koX II Aa- 
rojva Xeycov nepl ttjs tcov gk€vcov iv olkois StetAc^- 

1 rqv] avrrjv Pertusi. 2 tot€ Pertusi ; TL omit. 

3 T : coar€ yc. 

154 



FRAGMENTS : OTHER NAMED WORKS 

61 

But when the fierce sun's might desists at last 
From sweaty scorching heat, once Zeus has sent 
The autumn rains . . . 
Then iron tools fell timber that's least gnawn. 

But he may also mean, as being " least gnawn," 
the wood which has not been eaten by the little 
creatures that occur in growing things, like wood- 
worms and borers, which are generated in trees when 
the moisture in them putrefies. It is the right thing 
to cut timber at this time, when the trees are dry, 
having yielded their proper fruit, and are no longer 
burdened with the nourishment of that fruit. At the 
same time they have been given only a moderate 
access of moisture, 6 not a great deal yet, in addition 
to their own — right, that is, for men who are cutting 
so that the timber shall not rot after they have cut 
it. With an eye on this some people are said to cut 
when the moon is waning, not at full moon or waxing. 
The reason is that the increase of light makes the 
trees moister and so prone to decay when cut. c 

Pertusi. 

62 

A three-foot mortar. 

Plutarch strongly rebuts those critics who make fun 
of Hesiod for his petty detail ; he says that Plato 
discoursed on the proper size of domestic utensils , d 

a Cf. Quaest, Conv. 636 d, where okvZtt€s (insects that live 
under the bark) take the place of Opines. 

b i.e., from the first autumn rain. 

c Cf. Quaest. Conv. 659 a, and frag. 109. Athen. 276 e, 
Theophrastus, Hist. Plant, v. i. 3, Geoponica, iii. 1. 

d Laws, 746 e. 

155 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

6ai avfjupberpias /cat AvKovpyov irepl rr\s r&v dvpcov 
KaraoKevfjs, lv* dno jrplovos coat /cat neXeKecos 
fjbovov aTTOiKikoi. oelv 1 ovv dnoSex^^dai /cat rov 
'HcrtoSov fJLerpa napaSovra /cat SXpuov /cat vrrepov 
/cat d£ovos /cat a<f>vpas. /cat rovs dpxatovs 8e ttoXvv 
/cat rovrcov TToielodai Xoyov /cat ra>v evperwv Hdfi- 
<f>cov fj,€v TLfJbdv Store rov Xvyyov npcoros evpe /cat ro 
€/c toutov (f>a)s elcrqyayev ets re rd lepd /cat r^v 
totav xpj]<7iv, rov he tojv IItT#€OJi> 2 Srjfiov Bid rovro 
ovtojs* ovopbdcrai,* Scon rwv ttLOojv eirevoriaavro rrjv 
7rAacrtv coore firj rrjv rroXvreXeiav 7rpoorJK€LV davfid- 
t,eiv dXXd rrjv ra>v xP €L(XJ 8tov, kSlv evreXrj rvyxdvrj, 
TT€pnroLr)oiv. 



63 

(a) Scholia, 426. 

(6) Hesychius, s.v. SeKabwptp afia^y. 

rpiGTridaixov S' difjlv rdfivecv 0€/caoo6/>a> djjid^rj. 

(a) ^TTidapjf] fiev eoriv dnXcodeiarjs rfjs x €L P°$ 
dno rod dvrcxeipos em ro aKpov rov apbiKpordrov 
SaKrvXov Scdarrjfjba . . . Stopov 8e ro avro ttojs 
/cat 7raAatCTT^, dAA' avrrf /xev e/c rcbv reoodpcov 
Sa/cruAa>v opdcbs ovvredevrcov, Swpov 8e rovrcov 
ovorpa(f>€vrojv /cat rov dvrixeipos eyepdevros . 

(b) Ae/caSdioa) dp,d£r}' rjs r) bidder pos rcov rpo- 
X&v Se/ca SwpcovJ h&pov 8e, <hs p,ev rives, r) 

1 Wyttenbach : Set. 2 Uidecov Z, Lenschau. 

3 8td touto ourcus added by ZB. ovtcds alone would have 
sufficed. * ovopdadcu Fischer. 

6 aTTo tov avrlxeLpos added by Schultz. 
• avryf Pertusi : otircos. ofrros (with iTakatarrjs) Gaisford. 

156 



FRAGMENTS : OTHER NAMED WORKS 

and Lycurgus on the making of doors, to ensure that 
they should be unornamented and made by saw and 
axe alone , a We should therefore welcome Hesiod's in- 
structions about the measurements of mortar, pestle, 
axle, and wedge. Moreover, the ancients attached 
much importance to these things : among other in- 
ventors, they honoured Pamphos because he was the 
original inventor of the lamp and introduced lamp- 
light into temples and into private use, and they gave 
the deme of Pithos b its name because its members 
conceived the idea of moulding jars (pitkoi). c So it is 
not costly elaboration that we should admire, but the 
procuring of useful objects, cheap and simple though 
they may be. 



63 

Cut a three-span rim for a ten-palm waggon. 

(a) A span is the distance from the thumb to the 
tip of the little finger when the hand is spread open. 
... A palm and a hand's breadth are much the same, 
but the latter is obtained by placing the straightened 
fingers side by side, whereas the palm is got by 
closing the fingers and extending the thumb. d 

(b) Ten-palm waggon : one of which the diameter 
of the wheels is ten palms. According to some 

° Cf Life of Lycurgus, chap. 13. 

b An attic deme in the upper Cephisus-valley. The de- 
motic is normally UiOevs, but Hirdevs is found in one inscrip- 
tion (ii cent, a.d.) and in Harpocration's lexicon. 

c Stephanus of Byzantium, s.v. Tlldos. 

d The extended thumb must be placed alongside the bent 
fingers. 

7 b€Ka8<opos Musurus. 

157 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

7TaXaLGTTj' d)S S' €T€pOL, OTdV TOVS T€GOapaS SoLKTV- 

Xovs ovorpeipas iyeiprjs rov dvTiyeipa, 009 UXov- 

TOLp)(OS . 



64 

Scholia, 427. 

<f>€p€tV 0€ yVTjV. 

[Tov fjuev ovv yvrjv elvat KtXevti rrpivivov, tt pood eis, 
" 7) /car' dpovpav el evpocs, 77 /car' opos, TTpLvivov!'} 
ov yap evnopos Boiojtols tj rrplvos, (f>rjolv 6 UXov- 
rapxos, dXXa rols TTTeXetvois dvrl rcbv irpivivoyv 
XpajvTOu tovs yvas KaraaK€vdt,ovr€S . 



65 
Ibid. 435. 

hd(f>vr]s S' tj TTTeXerjs aKiwraroi loropofjes. 

O aOT)7TTOV €0rjA0JO€V €LTT(X>V OLKtWTCLTOV' O 0€ 

YlXovrapxos i^rjyi^oaTO rrjv alriav, Xeycov elval tl 
6ripL$iov y o KaXetrai kls, Sceodtov rd £vXa' tovto 
koli UivSapov ovrco KaXelv Trepl rod xpvoov Xeyovra, 

K€LVOV OV 1 OTJSy ov KLS SdfJLVaTCLL, 2 

1 k€lvov ov Pindar : k€wov. 
2 ovbe kls 8a7rTet Pindar. 

a Latte thinks that this note was transmitted by Dio- 
genianus. A span is reckoned as three iraXcuoTal or hand's 
breadths. Rightly or wrongly, the scholiasts suppose that by 

158 



FRAGMENTS : OTHER NAMED WORKS 

" palm " means the hand's breadth, but according to 
others, including Plutarch, it is measured by closing 
the fingers and extending the thumb. 



64 

And carry a plough-beam. 

[Now he tells us that the plough-beam should be 
of holm-oak, adding, " of holm-oak, if you should find 
one in your field or on the mountain."] For the 
Boeotians, says Plutarch, do not easily come by holm- 
oaks, but use elm instead when fashioning their 
plough-beams. 



65 

Poles of bay or elm are akiotatoi. 

By akiotatos he means " uncorrupted." Plutarch ex- 
plained the reason, saying that there is a small crea- 
ture named kis (beetle), which eats through wood, 
and that Pindar gives it this name, saying of gold 
as being incorruptible : 

This neither moth nor beetle can subdue. b 

rim (atpis) is meant one quarter of the wheel's whole circum- 
ference, which will therefore be of 36 hand's breadths, too 
great for a diameter of ten hand's breadths. On the ap- 
proximation that the circumference is three times the diame- 
ter, the diameter should be twelve hand's breadths (Mazon, 
p. 103). Plutarch, by supposing that the Swpov is almost five 
fingers wide, not four, obtains nearly the right diameter. An- 
other explanation given in the scholia is that the dtplScs would 
overlap, being joined by tenons and mortices. 
» Frag. 261 Turyn, 222 Bergk. 

159 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

cbs darj7TTOv eyytVerat t¥ ovv tcl rocavra drjplSia 
rots yAu/cecrt /cat fiaXoLKOLS tjvXots, 8dcf>vr] Se /cat 
nreXea S/ot/xurara. 

66 

Ibid. 453-454. 

prjiScov yap erros elrrelv f5o€ 80s /cat d/jua^av. 
prjlSiov S' aTTavr\vaoQai' ndpa epya fioeaoiv. 

rT / * * < << > O ' > > »r «r>/-> 

llOVTCOV TO fJL€V O apOVTTJS €L7TOl aV O OLLTLOV 

fioas lv dpoorrj tov Kaipov kclXovvtos, to S' d 
eviropcov fiocov diroKpivaiTO 1 dv, otl /cat ol nap* 
avTco fioes epya e^ouort, /cat Std tovto ovk dv 
aiTovfievos Soltj.] o /cat d AaKCov 2 ttjv kvvtjv 3 
alTovfJievos elirelv AeyeTat irpos tov atTovvTa, et 
[lev euSt'a, carat /cat col dxprjaTos* et Se xetfitov, 
/cat €jitot XP 7 1 (J, 'I J ' S >" Kai yap /cat irepl tcov fiotov 
ep€L TavTov 6 aiTrjdeiS, " et puev jjltj Kaipos tov dpovv, 
/cat crot dxprjoTOL* et Se Kaipos, /cd/xot xp^crt^ot/' 



67 
Ibid. 465. 

€VXeoQ ai Se Att x^ ov ^ co A^jLtTjTept 0' dyvfj. 

Taura /cat deooefielas ecrrt Sdy/xara, 4 rpeVovra 
row? €pycov diTTopLevovs em T<i9 7rapaKXrjtJ€is tcov 
rd eoya Taura i<f>opcovTcov /cat reAetow 8vvafievcov 
decov /cat ouSev a7roAet7ret 77790? Tepipiv, et eVvo^ao- 
)Ltev tov dpovv /xe'AAovra Xafiopuevov ttjs ix^Xrjs {rjv 

1 Gaisford : dnoKplvcro LR : -tjtcu Q : -ercu ZB. 

2 o . . . Aa*cov Gaisford : ov (or ^i>) . . . Xdficov. 

160 



FRAGMENTS : OTHER NAMED WORKS 

Now such creatures are found in sweet soft timber, 
whereas bay and elm are very acrid. 



66 

Easy to say : lend me a team and a cart ; 
Easy to answer : I have work for my oxen. 

[The former sentence would be spoken by the " ox- 
less " man, asking for oxen to plough with when the 
time calls, the latter would be the answer of the man 
with plenty of oxen, namely that his oxen have their 
work to do and that he would therefore not lend 
them.] This is the same answer that the Spartan is 
said to have given when asked for the loan of a cap : 
" If the weather is fine, it will be no good to you 
either ; if there is a storm, I shall need it too." 
And in fact the man who is asked for a loan will say 
the same thing about his oxen also : "If it is not a 
suitable time for ploughing, they will be no good to 
you either ; if it is suitable, I shall need them too." 

Gaisford, Westerwick. 



67 

Pray to Zeus of the Earth and holy Demeter. 

These are also precepts of piety, directing men as 
they begin their tasks to call upon the gods who 
watch over those tasks and can bring them to success. 
What a delightful picture it is, if we imagine the man 
who is about to plough as laying hold of the handle 

8 Kvvrjv Scaliger : Koivrjv. 
4 hibdyfiara L. 

161 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

7T/30€l7rO/Z€V O TL 7TOT€ 8t]XoZ TOV dpOTpOV fJL€pOs) 

irplv iXdor] tovs jSoa?, fidprvpa kclXovvtcl tov epyov 
tov Ata /cat ttjv Arjfirjrpav, tov puev ujs TeXecnovpyov 
Sta tGjv ofjufipojv ttjs onopas, ttjv o' <bs irpooTaTiv 
TO>v yovlfjbcjDV Svvdfjbeojv ttjs y^S". o yovv ndvTa to\ 
irap* iavTov 1 Troirjoas ov% dnXcos atret tovs deovs 
dAA' u)OTT€p drraiTel to TeXos. d)$ ovv eXeye 
HojKpaTrjs €t»^€cr^at 8elv fjLovoiKrjv tov puavdavovTa 
/cat yovrjv Trai8cov tov yapuovvTa, ovtoj /cat 'HatoSos 1 
Kapncbv yovrjv tov ttjs €X€tXt)s 7J8r] XapLpavofievov 

/Cat Op7T7]Ka <f)€pOVTCL KOLL indyOVTCL TOIS VOJTOIS TO)V 

jSocov a)OT€ KLvrjOrjvai, /cat eA/cvaat to apoTpov. 



68 
Ibid. 486-489. 
rjjxos kokkv£ KOKKvi^et 8pvos iv 7reraAotcrt 

TO TTpCJTOV, T€p7T€L 06 fipOTOVS €77"' dlTtlpOVa yOUCLV, 

Trjfxos Z,€vs voi TpLTCp rjfjLOLTi p,r]8' aTToXtfyot, 
psryr dp virepfidXAcov fioos ottXtjv \lt\t diroXeiTrajv . 

"Ort 8' o toiovtos ojjifipos xpryatjLtos", ttiotovvtcli 2 
dno tov ttjv Zt/ceAtav evKapirelv ttoXXovs Se^o- 
pbivrjv iapwovs ofjufipovs' /cat drro tov irpoorjves 
tlvai Trj yfj tot€ to v8a>p* virodepfxaivopievov /cat 
vr]7Tiois ovoi toIs KapiroZs crvfi^epov /cat diro TOV 
Tivas /cat iv tcr^/xepta oireipavTas iapivjj ttoXXovs 
QtpLoai KapTTOVS' /cat yap 6 Tpi/JLrjviouos Xeyofievos 

1 iavrov Bernardakis. 

2 Tnarovrai ZBLR. 

3 to vScjp tot€ ttj yfj ZB : rfj yfj to vScop totc Bernardakis. 

162 



FRAGMENTS : OTHER NAMED WORKS 

(we have already explained which part of the plough 
that means) before he drives his oxen forward, and 
calling Zeus and Demeter to witness his work, the 
former as effecting the growth of the seed by his rains, 
the latter as presiding over the fruitful powers of the 
earth. Certainly the man who has done all he can 
does not simply make a request of the gods, but as it 
were claims the fulfilment that is his due. Socrates 
said that the pupil should pray that he might acquire 
the art of music and the bridegroom that he might 
beget children ; just so Hesiod meant that the farmer 
should pray for fruitful crops at the moment when 
he lays his hand on the plough-handle and brings his 
goad to lay it on the backs of his oxen, so that they 
shall move and draw the plough. 

Westerwick, comparing De Super stitione, 169 b, where 
w. 465-468 are referred to, with the same interpretation that 
God may be expected to help those who help themselves. 
Plutarch is also a likely source for the apocryphal statement 
of Socrates. 



68 

When in the oak-tree's leaves the cuckoo first 
Shall cry, and gladden men the wide world over, 
May Zeus send rain on three days and not cease, 
To fill an ox's hoof -mark, no more, no less. 

They prove that such rain is useful from the good 
crops grown in Sicily, which receives much spring 
rain ° ; and from the fact that the water being then 
slightly warm is agreeable to the earth and beneficial 
to the tender young crops ; and from the fact that 
some people who have sown as late as the spring 
equinox have harvested heavy crops ; indeed the so- 

a Cf. Quaest. Nat. 913 a. 

163 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

TTVpOS VTTO TOIOVTOJV Ofl/SplM €KTp€(f)€odai €OLK€ TWV 

eapivcov. 

69 
Ibid. 496-497. 

fjbrj ae kclkov X€ip,ix)vos dfJurfXCLVLrj Karafjbdpif;rj 
avv 7T6VL7J, Xenrfj Se ira-guv iroha X €l P l Triers. 

*TcOV XipLOJTTOVTCOV TOVS 7r68aS TTOS)(yV€.oQ<xL <f>T]Ot, 

to S' aAAo exoj/za XeTrrvveadcu. /cat els vofMos rjv 'E<£e- 
oLojv, p,rj e£eti>at irarpl rralSas dirodeoOai ecus av Sta 
Xl/jlov waxuvQfj tovs TToSas. lows Se /cat rrjv drro Kad- 
laecos /cat dpyias Trayyvoiv SrjXoZ tcov ttoS&v* . , . 
eot/ce Se /cat r) eV tols XijjloZs rraxwcns etvat Kara 
<f>voiv, ojs 6 YlXovrapxos' Setrat yap to iv rjpbZv 
depfjiov, Iva fievr), rijs eijcoOev rpo(f>rjs, rjv ov Sexo- 
fievov Sa7rava to ocofxa /cat avrov ri drroorra' hi 
aoOeveiav S* dSvvarovv aAAotcocrat to dmooTT(i}[i€vov 
aireiTTOV 1 d<f>lrjoL' /cat avro puev rd /ze'cxa /cat ra avw 
Ae7rnn>et rod Gcvpuaros, iv ots* ecrrt 7rAetov e/cetvo S* 

a/>a TO d7T€7TTOV €LS TO /CCITOJ <f>€p€Tai /Cat OUTO) S^ 

Tra^vvet rous 77-dSas. 

70 

7foU 502-503. 

Set/at>€ Se Sttcoeacrt depevs ere \iiooov iovros' 
ovk atet Oepos iooeZrai, TroieZode /caAtdV. 

Ata tovtov rod irapayyeXybaros /cat ra opuoca vo- 
rjreov. ovk aet evTOxr\oo\i€.v rrapaaKevaoreov ovv 

1 ov after dneTrrov AQUL ; omitted by ZBT. 
164 



FRAGMENTS : OTHER NAMED WORKS 

called three-month wheat a seems to owe its growth 
to such spring rains. 

Wyttenbach. 



Lest in grim winter helplessness seize thee 

And poverty, and thin hand squeeze swollen foot. 

*He says that starving men's feet swell, while the 
rest of their body shrinks. And it was a law of the 
Ephesians that a father might not abandon his chil- 
dren before his feet had swollen through hunger. 
But perhaps he indicates a swelling of the feet 
through sitting in idleness* . . . But it seems that 
the swelling in times of starvation is due to a natural 
process, as Plutarch says. For the heat in us needs 
external nourishment for its maintenance, 6 and if it 
does not get it, consumes the body and abstracts 
something from it. But if through weakness it is 
unable to convert what it abstracts, it lets it go un- 
concocted ; and although its own action on the middle 
and upper parts of the body, where it mainly is, is to 
make them thin, that unconcocted matter sinks, sure 
enough, to the lower parts and so causes the feet to 
swell. 

70 

When summer's at its height remind your servants : 
" It won't be summer always ; make your huts." 

This precept should lead us to think of other similar 
things, e.g., u we shall not always be fortunate, so 



Nat. 915 d with note. " Three-month " wheat 
was spring-sown and harvested three months after sowing. 
b Cf. Quaest. Conv. 686 e, 687 a. 
c Cf. frag. 49. 

165 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

Kal TTpOS TCLS 7T€piOTaa€LS. Ol5S' del Vy taVOV [JL€V ' 
<f>pOVTLGT€OV OVV KCU TWV TOIS VOOOIS €7nT7]8€LCDV. 



71 

(a) Ibid. 504. 

(b) Hesychius, s.v. Arjvaiojv. 

fjirjva Se ArjvaLcova, kolk rj/xaTa, jSouSopa rravTa. 

(a) UXovrapxos ouSeVa <f>rjol fjbrjva Aryvcuajva Bot- 

00TOVS KdXeLV V7T07TT€V€l S' fj TOV BoVKOLTLOV 1 CLVTOV 

Aeyeiv, os eariv rjXlov tov alyoKepojv huovros (Kal 
tov 2 fiovSopa Tip Bou /carta* 3 otuvqSovtos 8 id to TrAei- 
gtovs iv avTco 8ia<j>d€ip€o6ai jSoa?) rj tov c Ep/xai'ov, 

6? €OTl fJL€TO, TOV BoVKOLTLOV* Kal €L$ TGLVTOV ep^d- 

fj,€vos Tip Tapur^XicovL, Kad y ov Kal tcl Arjvala Trap 
'AdrjvaLois* "Iowa? 5 Se tovtov ouS' aAAa)?, dAAa Ar/- 
raiawa KaAelv.* 

(b) OuSeVa tcjv jjltjvcjv Bolojtoi ovtoj KaXovoiv 
€LKa^€L Se 6 HAovTapxos Hovkoltlov Kal yap ipvxpos 
ioTtv. eviOi Se tov 'TZpfiaCov, 09 Kara tov Bou- 
koltlov ioTiv Kal yap 'Adrjvaloi rrjv tcov Arjvalojv 
iopTrjv iv avTcp ayovoiv. 

1 Wyttenbach : fiovtcaipov (-icepov, -Kapov). 

2 rov Q : tov AZBR. to Duebner (with owahtiv). 

8 Wyttenbach : fiovKaipcp (-K4pa> 9 -Kapa>). 

4 Wyttenbach : /Sovkcuov AQ ftovKapco R jSouSopa ZB. 

5 Pertusi : *Ian>€s. 

6 Q : /caAct A : koXowjl ZBR. 

a Lenaion was an Ionic month. 

6 Wilamowitz remarks that the traditional accent of /fov- 
hopa (not pov86pa) suggests that f}ov- is the intensive prefix, 
and the word has nothing to do with oxen ; see, however 

166 



FRAGMENTS : OTHER NAMED WORKS 

we must prepare for changes of circumstance ; nor 
shall we always be in good health, so we must take 
thought for what is useful in disease." 

Wester wick. 

71 
Lenaion, month of wretched days, all fit to skin an ox. 

(a) Plutarch says that there is no month named 
Lenaion by the Boeotians , a but he suspects that the 
poet means either Bucatios, which is at the time when 
the sun is passing through the zodiacal sign of Capri- 
corn — the phrase " to skin an ox " agrees with Buca- 
tios, as the greatest mortality among cattle takes 
place then b — or Hermaios, which comes after Bucatios 
and at the same time as Gamelion, c the month in 
which the Athenians celebrate the Lenaia ; and this 
month has exactly that name among the Ionians, who 
call it Lenaion. 

(6) The Boeotians do not give this name to any 
month, but Plutarch guesses Bucatios to be meant : 
for it is a cold month. Some people think Hermaios, 
which is about the time of Bucatios, to be intended, as 
the Athenians celebrate their festival of the Lenaia 
during it. 

L. J. D. Richardson, Hermathena, xcv (1961), p. 53. But 
Plutarch may well have been right in deriving fiovKanos from 
f$ovs and Kaivta ; it was a name in use in Central Greece, the 
first month of the year in Boeotia, Life of Pelopidas, chap. 
25. 

c Hermaios was an Aeolian and Dorian month, not every- 
where at the same time of year, but in Boeotia coincident 
with the Athenian Gamelion, roughly January. It is to be 
noticed that according to Hesychius it was not Plutarch, but 
others, who identified Lenaion with Hermaios. 

167 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

72 
Ibid. 524. 

or avooTtos ov ttoocl revoei. 

s ApiaroTeXrjs 8e <f>r)ai iftevSos elvcu to Kara rovs 
7ToAv7roSas* avrovs yap iavrovs firj KareadUw dAA' 
find rajv rrayovpcov 1 KareaOUadai. 

*73 

Ibid. 539-540. 

rrjv 7r€pL€oaacrdai, Iva rot rpi^S arpefieojai, 
pir]8 y opOal <f)plaaa)aw det/oo/xcvat Kara aco/xa. 

Tovro crufij3alv€i rot? ptycjac Tne^ofievcuv yap rcov 
Tpix&v Kara ras pi^as firro rr\s ifjvxpdrrjTos /cat ttv- 
Kvojaeojs 2 rrepl avras ycvojJLevrjs atpovrat opdal. 

74 

Ibid. 541-542. 

dfjb<f>l Se ttoggl rreStXa f$oos t(f>i Krapbevoio 
dpfjieva hrjoaodai, ttLXois evroade irvKaaoas . 

'E/c /Joetaw Sepfidrajv etvat tceXevec rd virohrniara, 
/cat tovtcov rcov z laxvpajv roiavra S' etvai rd rwv 
o<f>ayevT(A)v fiotov, dAA' ov rd tcjv avTOfAarcus drro- 
davovrojv. €t/coTO>s" aTroOvrfOKOvai p,ev yap rj vocrq- 
aavres rj yrjpdaavres cSore rjadevrjKOTes, rcov 8e 

1 nayovpojv also in Tzetzes : yoyypwv Aristotle. 

2 Pertusi : ttvkvoxjccov AZBL : nvKvwaiv QR. 

8 rwv AZBQ, omitted by LR. 

168 



FRAGMENTS : OTHER NAMED WORKS 

72 

When No-Bones gnaws his foot. 

Aristotle says this about the cuttle-fish is untrue : 
they do not devour themselves but are devoured by 
crabs , a 

Patzig. 

*73 

Put on this cloak, that your hairs may stay in place, 
Not rise and stand up straight upon your body. 

This happens to people who are cold. Their hairs 
are pressed at the roots by the cold, and contraction 
taking place around them, they stand up straight. 

Sandbach. The interest in physical explanation is char- 
acteristic of Plutarch. 



74 

Around the feet fasten well-fitting shoes 

From slaughtered ox, padded with slippers of felt. 

He tells us that the footwear should be of oxhide, 
and strong hide too ; such is the hide of slaughtered 
oxen, but not that of those that have died a natural 
death. This might be expected since they die either 
of disease or of old age, and therefore in a weak con- 
dition. 6 But if they are slaughtered, the strength 

a History of Animals, 591 a-b ; Plutarch, Be Soil. Ani- 
malium, 978 f, where, as in Aristotle, Athenaeus, 316 e, 
Antigonus, 92 (99), and Pliny, N.H. ix. 87, the damage to the 
cuttle-fish's tentacles is ascribed to congers (yoyypoi). It is 
likely, but not certain, that this is what Plutarch wrote in 
his commentary, and that the word has been corrupted. 

b Cf. QuaesL Conv. 642 e. 

169 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

Gcfxxyevrajv rj iv rots 8ep[xaaiv ivovaa 8vvapa,s p>i- 
vei. 8etv ovv €K rovrojv elvai tol VTroSrjfiara' 8elv 
8e kolI 7tlXols €v8odev \prjodai ov\L$veoQai rots 
7togl SvvajjievoLS kcu fi€il^6va)s dXeaiveiv rd yap 
aKpa pbet^ovos Setrac ftorjdecas cos rroppodrepov ovra 
rod jjbeaov, iv cS ro €pb(/)vrov deppuov. 

75 

Ibid. 548-553. 

rjoo'Cos 8' irrl yalav drr* ovpavov darepoivros 
dr)p 7TVpo(f)6pos rerarai \xaKaptov irrl epyois* 
os re apvaadpuevos rrorapL&v oltto alevaovroov, 
vipov vrrep yairfs dpdels dvefioio OveXXr), 

dXXoT€ JJb€V (P V€L TTOTL €G7T€pOV, ClAAot' drjGL 
TTVKVa QprjLKlOV Hop€(X) V€<f>€OL kXoV€OVTOS . 

*TauTa Xeyerat (f>vacKCos rrepl rcov els rov depa 

<f>€pop,€VO)V €K rCOV VypCOV rCOV €7TL yfjs oloV TTOTCL" 

pucov r) Xcpuvcov dvaQv\xidoecov . . . rrjv 8e Qeviv 
avrov puera^v 1 yrjs koli ovpavov rdaiv iKaXeoev cos 
Kal els viftos x^P ^ 7 " ^ kcli els tcl KolXa Kara8vo- 
puevov rrjs yf\s- rovrov 8e <f>rjaiv and rcov rrorapicov 
dpvodjxevov ras drpbi8as atpeoOac vrrep rrjv yrjv 
dvdyovra ravras * 8id yap rr)v ifjv£iv to Oeppiov 
eloco rrjs yrjs elpyopuevov dvarrepLTTei ras drpbi8as 
Kal €K rcov rrorapicov rcov iv avrfj Kal e/c rcov 
<j>pedrcov % Kal eoriv I8elv rovro ivapycos drroreXov- 
puevov drro rcov aXvKCov 2 Kal <f>pearLcov dvd8oaiv 
ecodev roiavrrjv drpLco8rj. 6 ovv dr)p Se^opuevos 
ravras vifsoZ 8id rrjs rcov dvepucov avarpo<f>rjs , Kal 

1 avrov fieragv F. H. S. after Pertusi : /xera^t) avrrjv. 
170 



FRAGMENTS : OTHER NAMED WORKS 

contained in their hides is preserved. So footwear 
should be made from them. And we should use felt 
inside, that can mould itself to the feet and give 
greater warmth ; this is because the extremities need 
more help to resist the cold, being further from the 
centre of the body where the innate heat is. 

Wyttenbach. 

75 

At dawn upon the earth from starry heaven 
Stretches a mist, wheat-bringing for the fields 
Of rich men ; drawing from ever-flowing rivers, 
Raised high above the earth by swirling wind, 
Sometimes it rains at evening, sometimes blows 
When Thracian Boreas drives the thickening clouds. 

*This is an account, based on natural science, of 
the exhalations which are carried into the air from 
wet places on the earth, e.g., rivers and marshes. . . . 
He used the word " stretching " of its position be- 
tween earth and heaven because it finds its way to a 
great height and also sinks into the hollows of the 
earth. And he says that it draws vapours from 
rivers and then rises above the earth taking them 
with it.* Owing to the cooling effect (sc, of the north 
wind at dawn) the heat of the earth is confined in 
its interior, and causes vapours to rise from its rivers 
and wells. It is possible to see how this heat clearly 
effects a vaporous exhalation of this sort at dawn from 
the water of salt-pans and of wells. The air receives 
these vapours and carries them up high by wind- 

a Cf. Quaest. Nat. 915 b. We have here, as in frag. 76, 
an example of the widespread view that in the face of cold 
heat may concentrate itself and so gain in effectiveness. 

2 Pertusi : clAikwv. 

171 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

OTOLV TOVTO y€V7]TCLL TOT€ fl€V COS TTpOS €07T€paV V€l, 

tpvxOetorjs 1 rrjs arfAiSos, rore Se els TrvevfJuaTcov 
fjLerapdAAei ovoTaoecs. 



76 

Ibid. 559. 

rfjfJLos TOjfJLiav flovaiv, iir* dvept, 8e rrXeov etrj 
dpfxaXirjs' (JLOLKpal yap inLppodot evcfrpovcu elotv. 

Ata tov x €l ^P lov IM)va Tpo<j>7]v irXeiova /ceAeuet 
StSoVat, tolls p>€V poval to rjfXiov ttjs elcodvias npoo- 

TlOeVTGL, TOIS S' dvdpCOTTOLS TtXzOV Tj TO TJfJLLOV €t 

firj dpa to rjfJLiov /cat to nXeov Set ovvTaTTeiv, iv 
djj,(f>OT€pOLS irXeov rj to rjpbcov otSa> 2 tls tov edovs' 
7T€TT€Tai yap ^et/xoDvos" ovtos rj Tpo<f>rj jjl&XXov iv 

fJLT]K€L TCOV VVKTCOV T\ T€ ydp depflOT^S €LOCO Kadtipy- 

fjuevT] Sta Trjv e^codev ttvkvcooiv nXecova Sa7rava # 
/cat pbrJKOs at vvktgs k\ovoai irXeiova ttIttovgl Tpo- 
<j>rjv, z fjv " dpp,aXidv " elwev cos 7rpoo(/>tXrj tols rpe- 

<f>OfJL€VOLS /Cat evdpfJLOCTTOV . 



77 

Ibid. 561-563. 

Taura <f>vXaoo6fjL€vos . . . 

Tovtov /cat tovs e£fjs 8vo Staypa^et 4 UXovTap- 

1 hiaxOttorjs R. 2 Bernardakis : Sihcom. 

3 ttjv rpo<f>rfv Q. 

4 L : dvaypd<f>€i AZBQ : ypd<j>€i R. Trepiypdfat, Dimitrijevic. 

a i.e., in addition. The author of this note has strangely 
172 



FRAGMENTS : OTHER NAMED WORKS 

currents. When this happens, sometimes it rains at 
evening, when the vapour is cooled, but sometimes 
the vapour changes to form winds 

Sandbach. 



76 

Half-rations for the oxen now, but more 

For men : the nights are long, and that's a help. 

He tells us to give more food throughout the winter 
month, adding a half to the cattle's usual quantity, 
and more than half for the men — unless indeed one 
should take " half" and " more " together, so that 
one would give both more than half the normal. 
Food is better digested in the winter, during the 
long nights. For not only does the bodily heat, being 
confined inside by the closing up of the body's surface, 
consume more, 6 but since the nights are long men 
digest more food, which the poet called harmalia as 
being welcome and well-adapted e (euharmoston) to 
those it nourishes. 

Westerwick. 



77 

Guarding against this . . . 

Plutarch strikes out this verse and the two succeed. 

misunderstood Hesiod, who plainly intends the cattle, with 
no work to do, to replace eating by sleeping, and may have 
meant the men to have something between half and full 
rations. 

b Cf. Quaest. Conv. 635 c, Be Defectu Oraculorum % 411 c. 

c Adjectives also joined at Moralia, 141 a, 697 d (Wester- 
wick). 

173 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 
Xos. . . . tovtcov 8e 8iaypa<f>evrojv aKoXovda ra 

*78 



i&s- 1 



Ibid. 571. 



dAA' ottotov <f>€peoiKos . 



'0 [lev @p&£ kiovvoios eAey€ <j>ep4oiKov rov ko- 
yXLcLv, €7nTLjJL7JaaL 8e (f>r)aiv 6 WXovrapxos 2 avrcp 
riva tovto Xeyovrt 'Ap/cdSa- elvai yap ev 'A/)/ca8ta 
rov <f>ep€oiKOV opdv iieXiTTyf ioiKora ofJUKporaTov 
K(ip(f)rj Kal avp<f>€Tov iavrcp ovvdyovra areyoTroieL- 
adai 8 id tovs ^etjitcuvas'. 4 fiatvew 8' dvd rd (/>vrd 
depovs* rov 8e koxXLolv firj <f>aiveodai dtpovs, aAA' 
orrorav Sfifipos yevrjrcu dvaSvo/xevov 5 8cd tcov <f>VTtov 
f3atV€Lv eA/covra to Kod<f>ov etjornodev SarpaKov. 

79 
Ibid. 580. 

tjojs, r\ re (f>av€Loa noXeas ine/S^ae KeXevdov 
dvdpibiTovs. 

T6v fJL€V OVV "OfATJpOV (f>7]OLV 6 HXoVTCLp)(OS €TTl- 

1 All mss. but R have £t;i\s ?j. 

2 6 VlXovrapxos added by Maes. 

3 opdv fjLcXiTTT)] oKiovpov pvyaXfj Pertusi, cf. Et. Magn. s.v. 

<f>€pioiKOS' . . . €VLOL $€ t,(x>OV XeVKOV OflOLOV yaXfj VTTO SpVOl KCU 

iXatcus (read iXdrcus with Meineke on Hesychius) ywopcvov, 
fiaXavrjcfadyov, ovr<a KaXovfievov vtt* 'ApKabojv. Tzetzes found 
/zcAtTTfl in his version of the scholia. 

4 rov \€L[id)va L. 

5 <f>alv€aOcu after dva8. deleted by F. H. S. 

a Vv. 561-563 have obscurities and difficulties of which 
174 



FRAGMENTS : OTHER NAMED WORKS 

ing ones a ... If they are struck out, the next follow 
consecutively. 

*78 

But when House-bearer . . . 

Dionysius of Thrace b said that " House-bearer " 
means the snail, but (Plutarch (?)) c says that an 
Arcadian criticized him for the statement, asserting 
that it is possible to observe the " House-bearer " 
in Arcadia — a very small animal like a bee d (?), 
which collects fluff and rubbish to make itself a 
covered nest to meet bad weather, but climbs up the 
plants in summer ; the snail, on the other hand, does 
not appear in summer, but whenever there is rain it 
comes out and climbs about the plants drawing its 
light shell behind it. 

Maes. 

79 

The Dawn, whose coming sets upon the road 
Many men's feet. 

Now Plutarch says that Homer adorned the day 

Mazon and Sinclair make light. Wilamowitz follows Plu- 
tarch. 

* Frag. 7 (M. Schmidt, Philologus, vii [1852], p. 372). 

c The name of some authority is missing here, and Plu- 
tarch is the authority most frequently quoted in these scholia. 
The guess that this note goes back to him may be wrong. 

d Et. Magn. describes this Arcadian animal as white, like 
a weasel, and feeding on acorns ; but it gives another inter- 
pretation of the name fapdoiKosy which makes the creature 
something like a large wasp. These two meanings are also 
in Hesychius. Photius, quoting the word from Cratinus, 
gives the former and adds that the animal's nest is made 
among the roots of trees. Kock thought yaXfj (weasel) in all 
three places a mistake for yaXcdirr) (gecko lizard). 

175 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

derois els repifjtv euSo/ct/zo&xt /cooyx^crat ttjv ^fte'- 
pav 1 " KpoKOTreirXov" avrrjv Xeyovra /cat " po8o8d- 
ktvXov" * tov S' f Ho~toSov fiet^ovcos diro rcov epycov, 
ecff a 8rj Trpoiovaa Kivel rovs dvOpcoirovs /cat oltto 
rrjs €k\vo€los els ttjv evepyov p.e8iorc\oi £torjv. 

80 
Ibid. 586. 

/Lta^AoTarat Se yvvatKes dcpavporarot 8e rot dv- 
8 pes. 

Ma^Aorarat Se yvvaiKes cos iftvxpoTepai ttjv /cpa- 
glv /cat Std tovto fipdSiov 2 opycoaai dvaOepfMai- 
v6jj,evcu. ol S* dvSpes d<f>av pore pot* Sta t^s e^codev 
depfJLrjs d</>avaw6fjL€voi, A <f>vaei Oeppiorepoi ovres /cat 
tjrjporepoL rcov yvvaiKcov. *TOtaura Se /cat tov 'AA- 
kcuov aSetv 

otva) 5 nvevfiovas* reyye* to yap darpov irepireX- 

Aerat, 7 
a o a>pa ^aA€7ra, 
d^et 8' e/c ireraXcov dSe'a 8 t€tti£, 
dvdel Se /cat oKoAvfios* *w Se ywakej pnapco- 

rarat, 
Ae7TTOt Se' Tot dv8pes, eirel KecfiaXrjv /cat ydvara 
Uet/nos d£et.* 

1 ij<3 Pertusi. 

2 jfy>a8ioj>] p$ov Coraes. Perhaps some words are lost after 
opyajoan,. 3 AZBL : d<t>avp6rarot, TQR. 

4 Wyttenbach : dva<f>aiv6fi€vo(,. 

6 So also Athenaeus, 22 e, Macrobius, vii. 15.!l3,jEustathius, 
1612. 14, Suidas, s. v. riyyci rcyye . . . otvw Plutarch, Mora- 
lia, 698 a, Athenaeus, 430 b. 6 irvcvfiova ZBR. 

7 7re/H<7T€'AA€T<H AZB. 8 aSea Graeve : rdhedv. 
176 



FRAGMENTS : OTHER NAMED WORKS 

with epithets distinguished for their delightfulness, 
calling it " saffron-robed " and " rosy-fingered " ; 
whereas Hesiod gave it greater honour by referring 
to the tasks to which its appearance stirs men, bring- 
ing a change from relaxation to an active life. 



80 

Women most lustful, but men are at their weakest. 

Women most lustful as being colder in bodily tem- 
perament ° and therefore coming to sexual heat more 
slowly, but now being warmed (sc, by the heat of the 
summer). But men are weaker (aphauroteroi) through 
being desiccated (aphauainomenoi) by the external 
heat, being naturally hotter and drier b than women. 
"^Similar sentiments are expressed in Alcaeus' ode : 

Wet your lungs with wine : the Dog-star comes again ; 

This weather is hard to bear. 

Sweetly the cicada chirps among the leaves, 

And thistles flower. Women are now at their damnedest, 

But men are feeble as Sirius parches 

Their head and knees. c * 

Wyttenbach. 

a Cf. Quaest. Conv. 650 f, but it is the common Greek 
view that women are colder than men ; cf. G. E. R. Lloyd, 
J.H.S. lxxxiv (1964), p. 102. 

b Cf. Quaest. Conv. 650 b. 

c Frag. 39 Bergk, 94 Diehl, of which this is a somewhat 
abbreviated and unmetrical version, retaining few traces of 
the Aeolic dialect. For a full version see Page, Sappho and 
Alcaeus, 303. On the sexual significance of " head and 
knees " see R. B. Onians, Origins of European Thought, pp. 
110 ff. The fact that the same unmetrical form of the first 
line is found also in Athenaeus and Macrobius shows that 
this false version was current. Neither it nor the other mis- 
takes should be corrected, since they may have been in Pro- 

177 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

81 

Ibid. 591-596. 

Kal poos vXo<f>dyoio Kpeas fJLrjTTOj reroKvcrjs 
irptoToyovtov r €pi<f>ojv eirl 8* aWorra TTivefxev 

olvov y 
iv OKtfj i^ofievov, K€Kopr)fJL€VOV rjrop i8aj8r)S , 

OLVTLOV OLKpatOS 7j€(f>VpOV TpeifjCLVTa TTpOOOJTTOLy 

Kprjvrjs r aUvdov Kal arroppvTov, tj t adoXojros , 
rpls v8aros 7rpo^eetv, to 8e rerparov Upuev olvov. 

* 9 lEpydrr) puev r) rpo<f>r) Trpenovoa 7rXrjpovv fSoeitov 
Kpecjv rr)v yaorepa, /cat ev a/cia 8e KaOrjfievov Kal 
vtto rod 7j€(f)vpov KaraTrveofievov TTiveiv €ttI rfj Kpea)- 
<f>aylq fAitjavra Kprjvalov vhojp rtp oivoj, rpia fierpa 
npos ev ov yap Siappeovoiv avdpojTrois ypd<f)€i 
8iaurav, dAA' Ikttovovoi rr)v yrjv Kal avrovpyols Kal 
fiiojTiKols' rots yap roiovrois ov8ev 7rpoo<f>opa)T€pov 
rrjs loxvpas Kal 8vo<f>ddprov ravrrjs rpo<f>rjg, ov 
Xlovojv 1 Seofievois 2 ov&€ pimSiajv, dXXd <j>voiKrjs 
ev7rvoias, olos 6 aKparjs Zefopos, Kadapos c5v 8, rd 
yap fiopeia Xrjyovra ovvdirr^rai rots Svtlkois ttv€V- 
/xacri.* 

To 8k ravrrjv hrawiaai rrjv Kpaoiv rod otvov 
Kal rod v8aros drorrov cfvat 8ok€i* Xeyerac yap, 

7] rrevre ttiv€iv rj rpi 7] fir) reoaapa' 

rd 8e rpia fiiyvvvat, rrpos €v roiovrov etvat, 8ok€l. 

1 aKidbajp D. Heinsius. 

2 Seofidvois AQL : §€o/xev^s ZBR. 

8 After oiv AZBQ have £4<j>vpos : Pertusi omits, with LR. 

4 Gaisford (as at Moralia, 657 c) : rpia rrlvciv rj ttcWc. 

clus' text. Plutarch cites the first line correctly (Moralia, 
178 



FRAGMENTS : OTHER NAMED WORKS 

81 

And meat of a leaf -fed heifer that has not calved 
And first-born kids : and fire-red wine to drink 
Seated in shade, when food has sated the heart, 
Facing a fresh west wind ; and draw from a spring, 
That never fails but flows away unmuddied, 
Three measures of water, and add a fourth of wine. 

*The food suits a working man — to fill his belly 
with beef and then to sit in the shade, fanned by the 
west wind, and drink after his meat, mixing spring 
water with his wine, three measures to one. The 
poet is not writing a way of life for the dissolute, but 
for tillers of the ground, working farmers with a 
living to get. For such there is nothing more suitable 
than this strong food that does not easily spoil ; they 
need no snow a or fans, but only a natural pleasant 
breeze, like the " fresh," b i.e., clean west wind. (For 
north winds, as they die out, are associated with 
breezes from the west.)* 

Rut to praise these proportions of wine and water 
seems to be strange. There is a saying, 

Drink either five or three or else not four.* 

Rut to mix three to one seems to be a drink of this 

698 a), and may therefore not be responsible for the quota- 
tion here. 

a Used, like ice to-day, to cool drinks. 

6 The word aKparjs has here been understood to mean 
44 unmixed " ; more probably it is a compound of arjui 
44 blow " and means 44 blowing strongly " or 44 blowing on 
the heights " (Frisk, Or. Etym. Worterbuch, s.v.). 

e R. Stromberg, Greek Proverbs, p. 97 ; also quoted, 
Quaest. Conv. 657 c and by Athenaeus, 4-26 d, Plautus, 
Stichus, 707 : three measures of water and two of wine make 
five, or two of water and one of wine make three. 

179 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

aAA' €K€lvoli jjbev at Kpdoecs, 8vo rrpos ev /cat rpitov 
npos 8vo, Kara Xoyovs SmAdaiov /cat rjpuoXiov, tovs 
rjyepb'ovas tlov TToXXaTrXaoLojv /cat ernpLopicov, els 
fieBrjv elal ttivovtlov avrrj 8e crtocftpovcos ttivovtlov, 
Kat fJLTjv /cat nepl vSaros aAAot puev ypdtfcovow 1 els 
OTadpLov airofiXeTrovTes , c/cAcyo/xevot to Kovcfrorepov 
Kat rives koI vSpoardras KaraaKevd^ovai, St' tov 
to j8apu /cat Kovcf)ov v8top Kpivovai — /catrot 7roAAa- 
%ov kov<J)OV jiteV eaTt rrovqpov 8e, tbs ev XaA/ctSt 
UXovrapxos loropel to rrjs > Apedovor)s. ol 8e /cat 
to pa8itos olvco Kepavvvpuevov 8oKip,dt ) ovoiv v8cop 
apioTov, TToXXrjS 8eop,evov rreipas /cat 8ia<j)6pcov 
olvcov els to 2 cfrcopadrjvou tolovtov ov. aAAot 8e 
els Kepdpueiov TroTrjpiov v8cop epiftaXovTes ecoai 8c* 
oXrjs p*elvai vvktos, elTa yevopbevrjs r)p,€pas opcooiv 
el Tiva evTOS ttjs kvXlkos €^€t yeco8rj irepufrepeiav 
ovot&oolv /cat pLeXavc^ovoav /cat tovto or)pLelov rl- 

deVTOLl TTJS TOV ii8aTOS cf>avXoT7jTOS , Ov8* OVTOL 77"€t- 

pav 7rapa8i86vTes eviropiOTov. irdvTcov 8r) ovv tcov 
toiovtcov a/nXovoTepov 6 f Hatooo9 KeXevei tco yecop- 
ytKcp pLiyvuvai tco olvco v8cop €K Kprjvrjs drroppvTOV, 
Iv fj KtvovpLevov /cat XenTov* /cat ddoXcoTov, dXXd 
pbr) yecoSes- 

1 ypd<f>ovaLv] Kploiv iTotovaiv Pertusi doubtfully. 

2 nrj after to omitted by Wyttenbach, or placed before 
toiovtov. to <j>. t. ovk ov Duebner. 

180 



FRAGMENTS : OTHER NAMED WORKS 

last kind. Those other two mixtures, however, two 
parts to one and three parts to two, standing in the 
ratios of 2 : 1 and \\ : 1, the first in the series of 
multiples and superparticulars, are suitable for men 
drinking to the point of intoxication ; this of Hesiod's 
is for sober drinkers. 

Again with regard to water one set of people write 
with an eye on the scales, choosing the lightest, and 
some even construct hydrostatic balances b which 
they use to determine what water is heavy and what 
light — yet in many places the water, though light, is 
bad, as Plutarch records of the water of Arethusa 
in Chalcis. Others adjudge best the water that 
readily mixes with wine, a thing needing much ex- 
periment with different wines, before a water can 
be detected as being such. Others again put water 
into an earthenware cup and let it stand over- 
night ; then they look the next day to see whether 
any earthy blackish ring has formed inside the cup ; 
they count this a sign of the water's inferiority. They 
too enjoin a test that is not easy to carry out. 
Hesiod's advice is simpler than all tests of this sort : 
he tells the farmer to mix with his wine water from 
a spring that flows freely away, c so that its movement 
will make it light and unmuddied, without earthi- 
ness. 

* lh lh H • - • 

b According to the dictionaries the Greek word does not oc- 
cur elsewhere in this sense. The instrument meant is perhaps 
the hydrometer described under the name of vBpooKOTriov by 
Synesius, Epist. 15, cf. A. Fitzgerald, Letters of Synesius, 
p. 99. 

c Line 595 is also quoted at Quaest. Conv. 725 d, where a 
spring that flows easily away is said to be free of earthiness. 

3 Kal XCTTTOV ZBQ : XaA€7TOV R XtlTTOV ATL. 

181 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

82 



Ibid. 639-640. 

QL^vpfj ivl K(xi\ir\ t 
"AaKprj . 

KetTCu fiev ovv virkp rrjv 686v fjv fia8ll > ovoiv ol 

€7TL TO MoV(J€LOV aTTlOVT€S rj "AoKpT). TOV S* 'EAt- 
KCOVOS €KK€lfJL€VOV TOIS dv€fJLOlS, KCU OavpiaOTaS fl€V 

dvanavAas e^ovros iv depec 8varjV€fJbov o' ovtos ev 

X€CfJ,tbvi y T7JV "AoKp-qV €V Tip fJbeorj/JbppLVO) K€LfJL€V7JV 
TOV OpOVS T7JS fJb€V €K TOJV dv€(JLOJV diroAaveiv j8ta? 
€v Se tco depei to evnvovv pbrj €x €tv * doLKrjTov 8' 
avTTjv 1 6 YlAovTapxos loTopel /cat tot€ etvat, 0€- 
cnrUcov dveXovTcov tovs olkovvtols, 'OpxojJLevtcov 8e 
tovs ocodevTas 8e{;ap,€va)v 66ev /cat tov deov *Opxo- 
fievtois TTpooTa^ai ra 'HatdSoi; Aeitpava AajSetv /cat 
ddifjcu irap glvtols, (hs /cat 'ApiGTOTeArjs (f>r)al ypa- 

<f>0)V TTJV 9 0pXOp,€VLCOV 7ToAtT€taV. 



*83 

(a) Ibid. 643. 

(6) Plutarch, Be Audiendis Poetis, 22 r. 

vt) oXtyr]v alveiv. 

(a) "Alvetv " 8e Ttves dvTi tov TTapaiTeladai nape- 
Aafiov, tov xatpeiv Aeyeiv r) Trapepxtvdai rj ovk alveiv 

OJS 8€lVTjV y 0)G7T€p " €7TaiVrjV U € pO €<f)OV '€ LOLV ." 

1 avTTjv Q : avro all other mss. 

a Aristotle, frag. 565 Rose ; see a fuller account in Septem 
Sapientium Conviviurn^ 162 c— e. 

182 



FRAGMENTS : OTHER NAMED WORKS 



In a wretched village, 
Ascra. 

Now Ascra lies above the road followed by those 
going to the temple of the Muses. Helicon is exposed 
to the winds and has some remarkably fine summer- 
resorts, but is unpleasantly windy in winter ; Ascra, 
lying on the southern side of the mountain, gets all 
the violence of the gales, but does not enjoy pleasant 
breezes in summer. Plutarch records that it was 
uninhabited even in those days, the Thespians having 
destroyed the inhabitants ; the survivors found refuge 
at Orchomenos. Hence the god ordered the men of 
Orchomenos to take Hesiod's remains and bury them 
in their own territory, as Aristotle says in his book 
on the Constitution of Orchomenos , a 



*83 

Praise a small ship. 

(a) Some took " praise " in the sense of* decline/' 
i.e., say good-bye to or pass over or not praise, as being 
dreadful, as in " commendable (epaine) Persephone." 6 

D. Heinsius. A dubious fragment : the sign prefixed to 
the scholion in A indicates that it is not derived from Proclus, 
and the passage printed as frag. 83 (6) shows that its matter 
falls in the category of " what every schoolboy knows." It 
may be, however, that Plutarch's commentary, although 
not the source of the scholion, nevertheless expressed the 
same views. 

6 An example of etymology from an opposite, as in Incus 
a non lucendo. The true meaning of the traditional epithet 
inaivq is uncertain ; ancient guesses connected it with eirawos 
(praise) and alvos (dreadful). 

183 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(b) Xdpiev Se /cat to tt)v ypeiav rrjv rcov ovo- 

fJLOLTOJV (7VVOLK€LOVV ToZs V7rOK€t,{JL€VOL9 TTpdy/JLCLOLV, 

<t)S ol ypafifjiaTLKol StSdoKovcnv, aXXrjv irpos aAAa 
Svvafiiv AafJLpavovrcov , olov cort 

vif oXiyrjv alveZv, fieydXrj 8' evi <f>opTia dead at. 

rep 1 /jl€V yap alveZv arjjjLatveraL to irratveZv, avro Se 
to 2 irraiveZv dvrl rod 7rapcuT€LO0ou vvv Key^pf]- 
rat, Kaddirep £v rrj ovvrjOetq /caAa>? (f>afX€V e^etv 
/cat yaipeiv KeXevopuev orav /jltj SeayfieOa jjbrjSe Aa/x- 
j8ava>/xev. ovtoj 8e /cat rrjv " irraLvrjv Ylepoe(f)6- 
vecav yt evioi (f>aoLV cog TTapaiTrjTrjv elprjodai. 



84 

Ibid. 651-662. 

evda S' iycbv irr* ae#Aa hat<f>povos 'A/x^tSa/xav- 
ros, ktX. 

TauTa rrdvra Trepl rrjs XaA/ctSos* /cat 3 rod 'A/x<£t- 
SdfjuavTos /cat rod dOXov /cat rod rplirobos eit/Je/JA^- 
oOai (j)7]uiv 6 UXovrapxos ovSev eyovra ypr^oTOV. 
tov fiev ovv 5 Att</>tSa/xai/ra vavfiaxovvra 4, rrpos 
'Eperpieas vrrep rod ArjXdvrov dwoOaveZv ddXa S* 
en-' avra> /cat dytbvas deZvai TeXevrrjoavrL tovs 
ttcllScls*- viKTJoai S' dyojvi^ojxevov tov 'Hatooov /cat 
dOXov fJbovoiKov rpiiToha XafieZv /cat dvadeZvcn, tovtov 
iv t<2> 'EAt/ccovt, ottov /cat Karoyos iyeyovei raZs 

1 to most mss. 

2 aura) Sc to) some mss. Paton suggested the omission of 
the seven words from arjfiatveTai to inaivelv. 

3 koX added by Pertusi. 

184 



FRAGMENTS : OTHER NAMED WORKS 

(6) It is also an admirable procedure to relate the 
use of words to the subject-matter, as the teachers of 
literature instruct us to do, when these words take 
on different meanings in different connexions, as with 

Praise a small ship, put your goods in a large one. 
By the word " praise " (ainein) is meant " commend " 
(epainein), and " commend " is itself here used as the 
equivalent of " decline," a just as in our everyday 
language, when we do not need something or do not 
accept it, we say " that's very nice " or " good-bye 
to that." Similarly some people say that " com- 
mendable Persephone " is so called because we 
should decline her invitation. 6 

84 

There to the games of wise Amphidamas, etc. 

Plutarch says that all this about Chalcis, Amphi- 
damas, the games, and the tripod has been interpo- 
lated, and contains nothing of value. The story is 
that Amphidamas died in a naval battle with the 
Eretrians over the Lelantine Plain ; contests and 
games for the dead man were held by his sons ; 
Hesiod competed and won, and received, as a prize 
for poetry, a tripod which he dedicated on Helicon, 
where he had been possessed by the Muses ; the 

° Text and exact meaning are uncertain. Babbitt in 
L.C.L. translates not " here " but " nowadays." The usage, 
however, was an old one, cf. Aristophanes, Frogs, 508, ko\- 
Xlot , errcuva). 

* Not wishing to leave this life for the underworld. 

4 fjLovofiaxovvra K. F. Hermann, but the error, if it is one, 
may be that of the scholiast himself. 

6 Thus QULR Trine. : dyejves eyevovro rcXevrrjaavros rrapa 
rdv iavrov rraLhc^v AZB. 

185 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

Moiiaats, /cat liriy pa\i\ia errl tovtco dpvXovai. iravra 
ovv ravra XrjpojSrj Xeycov CKelvos air* avToov ap^erat 

TOiV €LS TOV KdipOV TOV TtXoV OVVT€IVOVTOJV, " TJfJLdTa 

TrevTrjKovTa." 

85 

Ibid. 706. 

ev S' ottlv dOavdrajv /za/cdoa>v Tr€<f>vXayfJL€vos €?- 
vat. 

*To£>TO ^€T(I TOVS 7T€pl ydfJbOV X6yOVS 7TpOOLfJLl6v 

ioTt, tcov prjOrjaofJievcov TratSeu/zaTOJV- Set yap irpo 
iravToov OToyaQeoQai rod Ace^apta/xcVov rot? Scots'.* 
/cat ydo, cos 1 HXdrcov <f>r)oiv, 6 fiXdnoov els to delov eij 
daeXyrujudrajv 2 <f>vXdrT€iv iavTov OTrovSd^ei /cat wdv- 
rcov dGe^rj/Jbdroov /cat yap 6 tovs ayadovs dvSpas 
alaxvvo/xevos, napovTCov avrcjv dW^crat tovtcov, 
jxrf rt ye o 3 tovs deovs. /cat ri Xeyw tovs ayadovs 
avTovs ; dXXd /cat et/cdva? dyadcov Tives oefiovTai 
/cat vtt* avTals okvovgl Tiva Trovrjpdv Trpa^iv rrpatjai, 
cos rj pLT) 7Tpooi€fJL€V7) tov ipaoTrjv eratoa Bpaoal Tt 
aax r )P<ov vtto ttj tov* ScvoKpaTovs et/cdvt tov ctoj- 
<f>povos. 

1 F. H. S. : kclI 

2 avrov deleted by Wyttenbach after dacXyTifidTcuv. 

3 firj ri ye Westerwick : o F. H. S. : /at) on yc. 

4 rfj tov Pertusi : rfj AZB : rod QL. 

a Dio Chrysostom, ii. 11, Proclus, Chrestomathia (Homer, 
vol. v, p. 101 O.C.T.), A. P. vii. 53, 'Hoiohos Movoais 'EAi/coWat 
tovB* avcOyKcv, vftvq) viKrfoas iv XoAki'Si dctov "Ofirjpov. Plutarch 

186 



FRAGMENTS : OTHER NAMED WORKS 

inscription is constantly quoted. Plutarch says that 
all this is silly stuff, and begins with the lines con- 
cerned with the right season for navigation, " Fifty 
days, etc." 



85 

Beware the vengeance of the blessed gods. 

* Following what he says about marriage, this is the 
introduction to the pieces of instruction he is about 
to give. For to aim at what is pleasing to the gods 
should take precedence of all else.* Indeed, as Plato 
says, a man who has regard to the Deity takes 
care to keep himself from improper acts and all forms 
of impiety ; for one who feels shame before good 
men, refrains from such things in their presence, let 
alone one who feels shame before the gods. And 
why talk merely of good men themselves ? There are 
some who respect even the portraits of good men and 
are loath to commit any evil beneath them, like the 
hetaira who would not allow her lover to behave im- 
properly beneath the portrait b of Xenocrates, who 
was famous for his chastity. 

Westerwick : on ground of interest in Xenocrates. 

will certainly have disbelieved in the possibility of a contest 
between Hesiod and Homer ; he may have found it impos- 
sible that Hesiod could be contemporary with an Amphida- 
mas who died in the circumstances stated (but see J. Defradas, 
Banquet des sept sages, p. 103). Thucydides, i. 13, places the 
first Greek sea-battle in the early 7th century ; the Lelantine 
War is assigned to the late 8th century (W. G. Forrest, His- 
toria, 6 (1957), pp. 160-175). Modern scholars argue that 
the falsity of the legend does not prove the spuriousness of 
the lines, which do not imply it. 
6 Either a painting or a bust. 

187 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

86 

Ibid. 707-708. 

/JLrjSe KaaiyvrjTO) loov TTOLeloO ai erolpov 

el 8e K€ Troirjorjs, purj pnv rrporepos kclkov ep£rjs. 

*Trjv Kara cfyvoiv tj/jlcov oyeoiv rrpos dXXrjXovs rrjs 
Kara rrpoaipeaiv elvai rijxiojrepav <f>r)olv ovros 6 
Xoyos. Kal yap rrjv jiev aTroOeodai ecfS rjfiiv rrjs 
8e rov 8ecrp,ov errrjyaye to rrav avrrjv 1 <f>vXdrreiv 
ftefiaiov 8elv ovv jieit.ova npbrjv vepuecv d8eX(f)o2s t) 
eraipois' Kal ydp Kal rocs rrarpdoiv ovra) (/>tXa 
Trpd^opiev, ovs 2 Set jxerd deovs rtfiav d>s dydXnara, 
<p7]GLV, ovras e<peona oeojv. ovtoj oe /cat rrjv 
OLKeiav ttoXlv rive? elrrov eyyvrepav 6 rrjs pbrj olKelas, 

K&V fJL&XXoV TLS €V TaVTT) TVyydvJ) TLjJLO)lJL€VOS, otd 

rrjv Kara <f>vocv oyeoiv. Kal opdws 6 Havainos, 
7toXltt]v avrov 'AdrjvaLOJV rroielodai arrevSovrajv, 

€L7T€ Tip OU)<f)pOVl (JLtaV TToXtV dpK€LV. Kal 6 TtOV 

HrrapnaTtov fiaatXevs rrpos rov 'Ap/caSa rov ^evov 
elrrovra rrpos avrov on <f)iXoXaKO)v olkol KaXolro, 
lt KaXXiov tol," etrrev, " el (fyiXorroXts eKaXov jiaXXov 
rj (f>iXoXaKa)V . " . . . 

L 1 ovra) o aKoAovuov to e^rjs, on ei nva rroir)oo- 
p,eda (f>iXov, drrpooKpovorovs elvai Set rrpos avrov.] 
*Kal ydp rj rd)v Ylvdayopelajv rrapaiveois ovy on 
rrporepovs dfiaprdvecv els <f>tXov 8iaKO)Xvoeiev dv, 

1 avrrjv AZBTL : avrov Q Pertusi. 

2 Duebner : 7rpa£ a/xeVots L : -(jlcvojv Q : -fidvoj A : irpar- 
r ovras ZBT. 3 ovras] 6 YLXdr ojv Cobet. 

4 Gaisford : ifocrria or ifi ioria, 

5 Herwerden : eyyiaircpav. 

188 



FRAGMENTS : OTHER NAMED WORKS 

86 

Don't make a friend the equal of your brother. 
But if you should, don't harm him unprovoked. 

*This sentence says that our natural relationship 
to one another is more valuable than one that is of 
our own choice, since we can at will give up the latter, 
whereas the bond of the former is imposed by the 
Universal Power, and firmly preserves it. We ought, 
then, to esteem our brothers more than our friends. 
We shall thereby also do what is pleasing to our 
fathers, whom we should honour next after the gods, 
as being (in Plato's words) " household images of the 
gods." a * Similarly some have said that a man's own 
city is closer to him than that which is not his own, 
even if he is more honoured in the latter, because of 
the natural relation. And Panaetius was right, when 
the Athenians were eager to give him their citizen- 
ship, to answer that " one city was enough for a 
sensible man." b And the Spartan king replied to a 
visitor from Arcadia, who told him that at home he 
had the name of being a friend of Sparta, " it would 
do you more credit to be called a friend of your own 
country." c . . . 

[The next line follows on from this, to the effect 
that if we do make anyone a friend we should not 
offend him.] * Indeed, the advice of the Pythagoreans 
would not merely prevent us from being the first to 
wrong a friend, but also encourages us to bear 

° Laws, 931 a, tyionov ISpvua, but dyaXfia is in the context. 
Cf. frag. 46, and F. M. Cornford, Plato's Cosmology, p. 100. 

h Frag. 27 van Straaten. As a Rhodian, he had the right 
to Athenian citizenship, since the two cities had lao7roXiT€La, 
Polybius, xvi. 26. 

e Cf. Life of Lycurgus, chap. 20, Apophthegm. Lac. 221 d. 

189 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

aAAa /cat ra dp*apTr\\iara rov <f>i\ov Trpatos (frepeiv, 1 
ea>s dv 8vvd)p,eQa, napaKeXeverai . /cat e^et to rrap- 
dyyeXfia irpos rfj dXXrj hiKaioovvrj /cat to efjL<f>pov 
€ikos yap rjfjids /cat dapptfcravTas rvyyaveiv rtvd 
ra> <f)lXcp, /cat Set firjSev els avrov rroielv Xvov rrjv 
a^e'cnv.* 

*87 

Ibid. 709. 

p,rj8e i/jevSeadai yX(x)aor]s ydpiv. 

M^ \iovov TrapaireloOai rov <j>iXov Xvirelv 8id 
twos epyov TTpooKpovovra, aAAa firjSe i/jev86[Jbevov 
rrpos avrov <f>aivea6at Std irepirrr^v /cat dvovrjrov 
rijs yXwrrrjs dp\ir\v* /cat yap rovro Xv7rrjpov /cat 
TTpodyov els airexOeiav 6 yap \fjev86pbevos /cat a7ra- 
rtov ov <f>tXos' oOev rovro TTapatrrjreov . o /cat 
HXdrcov elne, rov eKovoiojs ipevSopuevov aTTiorov 
eiKoroJS elvai, rov S* airiarov a<j>iXov. /xe'ya ovv 
orjfjbeiov rjdovs ov ^iX-qriKov ro ipevSoXoyov 7rpos ov 
oierai <f>iXov elvai 2 /cat eiridoXovv rrjv <f>iXiav. 

88 

Ibid. 717-718. 

p,7]8e ttot ovXofievrjv 7revtrjv 6vp.o(f>86pov dvopl 
rerXad 9 6veihit,eiv , /za/caoa>i> 86oiv alev eovrcov. 

Tr)v ireviav r)* rjixels eavrols Trpo^evovfiev Six&s rj 

1 irpfios <f>€p€iv Bernardakis : irpoa<f>€p€Lv AQL {nrofievew kolI 
<j>4pew ZB. 

* elvai placed before irpos ov by ZB. 
8 fy ZBR. 

190 



FRAGMENTS : OTHER NAMED WORKS 

patiently the friend's faults, so long as we can. a And 
the precept is not only one of morality ; it contains 
good sense into the bargain, for we are likely to have 
entrusted some of our interests to a friend, and we 
should not act towards him in any way that would 
make a breach in the relationship.* 

Wyttenbach. Plutarch refers at T>e Fraterno Amore, 491 b, 
to his discussion of v. 707 " elsewhere," presumably in this 
commentary. The passage should be compared. 

*87 

Don't lie to please your tongue. 

Not only avoid hurting a friend through offending 
him by some action, but do not be discovered lying 
to him either through an unnecessary and unprofi- 
table impulse of the tongue. For this, too, is hurting 
and leads to enmity. For the liar and cheat is no 
friend. So this must be avoided. Which is what 
Plato said, namely that the willing liar is naturally 
not trusted, and the man who is not trusted has no 
friends. 6 So it is a strong indication of a character 
not made for friendship to speak untruth to another 
whom he believes to be a friend and so to muddy the 
waters of friendship. 

Westerwick, on ground of diction. 

88 

Never reproach a man with poverty, 
Accursed and heart-breaking gift of heaven. 

Poverty is either of our own making, in one of 

a Carmen Aureum^ 7-8, /z^S* cxdaipe <f>CXov aov afiaprd&os 
€iv€Ka niKprjs, 6<l>pa hvvrj. b Laws, 730 c. 

191 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

St' dpyiav r) St' daojriav Trevopuevoi, rj diro rov 
iravros €)(OfjL€v dnoKXripajdelaav tjimv. ravrrjv ovv 
a£ioZ fjurj oveiSl^eiv, ws rr\v ye Trap r)p,as d^iav 
elvai fivplaov ovetScov ov porjdovjJLevrjv vc/)' rjfjbcov. 

OVTU) 8rj KCU VOOOV TTjV fJL€V €LfiaplJb€VT]V OV Set 
OV€i8l^€IV, TTjV S' OLTTO TTJS rjfJLerepaS OLKpaataS St(Z 

rr)v aKpaoLav 6vei8ioreov , oh ££6v vytaivetv ox>x 
vnapxet, rovro St' avriqv. 

89 

Ibid. 719-721. 

y\woor)s roi drjoavpos eV dvdpooTroioiv dpioros 
<f>€i8(jo\rjs t TrXeiGrr] Se X^P L ^ KaT ^ p<€Tpov lovorjs. 
et Se kolkov elirois, rdxcL k avros p,€i£ov a/cou- 
<7ats\ 

*'0 fJLev Orjoavpos rrjs yXoornqs iorlv rj Kpvipis roov 
vo-qfidrcov rj eV rfj iftvxfj /cat t&v <f>avraaioov roov 
fir) yevopuevoov €K(f)6pcov vtto rrjg yXcbrrrjs vpoTrercos 
KtvovfJLevrjS' Set yap rrjv Kpioiv 1 irnfierpelv rfj 
yXooocrrj rov Kaipov rfjs Kwrjoews, aAA' ov ravrrjv 
Kvpiav etvai eavrfjs. to Se rrXeiarrjv pbev avrrjs 2 
etvat x^P LV fi€Tpias ovarjs, dpxrjv Se yiveodai jitet^d- 
voov /cat dXyecvorepoov aKovojxdroov rrjv Trporrereiav 
avrrjs, dficfrco rrapeorrjoe, /cat on alperov rovro ro 
fiopiov /cat OTt <f>€VKrov* 009 YlirraKov (f>aoi, tt£[l- 
iftavros avrcp rov 'AjttacrtSos' Upelov /cat d^ioooavros 
avriTTepufjai roov fiopioov avrov 3 ro KaXXiorov a/xa 
/cat x ei P lOTOV > e£*X6vTa rrjv yXoooaav diTooreiXai . 



KLvrjmv Gaisford. 2 Duebner : cclvttjs. 

3 QU : aura) AZBLR. 



192 



FRAGMENTS : OTHER NAMED WORKS 

two ways, laziness or extravagance, or we have it 
allotted to us by the Universe. It is this latter kind 
he thinks we should not taunt a man with, since the 
kind that we have ourselves to thank for deserves a 
million reproaches, if we do nothing to relieve it. 
Similarly one should not make a disease for which 
fate is responsible a subject of reproach, but when a 
disease comes from our own self-indulgence, reproach 
is called for, because of that self-indulgence : owing 
to it we are not well, although we could have been. 

Patzig ; cf. Be Audiendis Poetis, 23 f. 



89 

A man's best treasure is a thrifty tongue ; 

It earns much thanks wagging in moderation. 

If you speak ill, you may hear something worse. 

*The tongue's treasure is the concealment in the 
mind of thoughts and fancies, when they are not 
divulged by unconsidered movements of the tongue ; 
for the tongue should not be its own master, but our 
judgement should determine the right time for it to 
be set in motion. To say that it earns great thanks 
when moderated, and that its impulsiveness is the cause 
of our hearing more damaging and painful things 
said of ourselves, shows it to be simultaneously true 
that this member is desirable and that it is undesir- 
able.* So they say that when Amasis sent Pittacus 
a sacrificial animal and asked him to return to him 
that part of it which was at once the finest and the 
worst, the latter removed the tongue and sent it back. a 

° Cf. Be Audiendo, 38 b, Sept. Sapient. Conv. 146 f (in 
these passages Bias, not Pittacus), Be Garrulitate, 506 c ; 
and Gnomologium Vaticanum, 131. 

193 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

Kal €OLK€P 7J <f)VOlS TO fJL€V TCOV 680VTCOV ZpKOS dUT?}? 

Oelvai 1 TTpoaOev, /caTa/cAeioucra [JLaXaKrjv avTrjv ovaav 
Kal evKivrjrov, tov S' eyK€(j>aAov dvwdev delvai, irapd 2 

tov Aoyov to pueTpov avTjj 8elv vnapx^tv ivSetKW- 

f 3 

pb€V7]. 

90 

Ibid. 724,-725. 

p,rj8€7roT i£ rjovs Ah AetjSetv aWoira olvov 
Xepolv aviTTTOiGiv . 

'Ev fJL€V OVV J!i7rdpT7) TOLS TToAtTCU? OL* €6? OLpXV V 

KadiGTajjuevoi 5 €</>opoi* TrpoeKTjpvTTOV firj Tp4<f>€iv 
jjLVGTGLKas, tva tovs to cf>avAov tovto Kal evTeAes 
TrapafSavTas /xei^oVci*? KoAd^ajGw' r * o S' 'HgioSos 
VL7TT€Gdai tols X€tpa9 irapaiv&v rrpo tov o7T€V0€iv 
evheiKWTai tov irepl tovto firj TreiGopuevov fJL€i£,ovos 
d^iov elvai KaTayva)G€OJS , a>9 aveTTLTrjSeiov npos 
Traiheiav. 

91 
Ibid. 733-734. 

jU/^S' alSola yovfj TrenaAaypievos evSodev olkov 
€GTir) ipureAaSov 7Tapa<f>atv€pL€V, dAA' aAeaa^at. 

Taura ttjs arraioevGias ovTa e/cyora, kolv GpuKpa 

1 Duebner : avrr\s (or avrfj) ctvai. 

2 F. H. S. : dvcodcv elvai nap* ov(nap 9 Jjs R : napa U). 

3 Bernardakis : cvSeLKvvjidvrjv. 

4 tto\Lt(us added by Maes, ol by Pertusi, cf. Life of Cleo- 
menes, chap. 9. €v fiev ovv 27ra/cmaTCH£ Ruhnken. 

6 Ruhnken : /ca#icrra/i€vois. 

6 ol before fyopoi deleted by Pertusi. 

7 KoAaf ovr€ s 7rapaPalv€Lv jzeifova kcoXvowgw Pertusi after Wyi - 
tenbach. 

194 



FRAGMENTS : OTHER NAMED WORKS 

And it seems that nature has put the " fence of teeth " 
in front of the tongue, shutting it up because it is 
weak a and easily set in motion, and has placed the 
brain above it to indicate that the check on it should 
come from our reason. 
Wyttenbach. 

90 

Never at dawn pour fire-red wine to Zeus 
With unwashed hands. 

In Sparta the ephors on entry into office used to 
issue a proclamation against growing moustaches, 
with the object of heavily punishing those who trans- 
gressed in this small and insignificant matter. 6 Hesiod 
in enjoining washing of the hands before libation in- 
dicates that the man who is not going to comply 
with this deserves severe censure, as being unfitted 
for education. 



Wyttenbach. 



91 



And privy parts, if splashed with seed indoors, 
Disclose not near the hearth : that act avoid. 

These results of lack of education, although minor 

The Greek word /xaAa/cds is a kind of pun, literally 
meaning " soft " and metaphorically " lacking self-control." 

6 Cf Moralia, 550 b, Life of Agis and Cleomenes, chap. 
30, 808 d, Aristotle, frag. 539 ; Annual of British School at 
Athens, xii, Plate X. 

c If this note derives from Plutarch, it must be a garbled 
version of what he wrote. In the Life the object of the ban 
on moustaches is said to be that of making the citizens 
obedient even in small matters. 

195 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

fj, See 7Tapa(f>vXdTT€LV, kclAcos tov YlXovrdpxov Ai- 
yovros, on Kaddirep iv Aoyois to purj ooAoikl&iv ov 
davfJbaoTov, dAAd to ooAoikl£,€iv KaTayeAacrTov, /cat 
iv toIs epyoLS ov to firj TrpaTT€iv ret TOtaura iiraive- 
tov, dAAd to 7TpaTT€iv iirovelhiGTov *helv ovv tov 1 
p,€p,oAvop,€vov airo yovfjs diroKpV7TT€iv tol atVta tov 
fjboAvofJLov /cat [jltj yvp,vovv 2 iyyvs ttjs cartas" ficopids 
yap /cat avTT] rcov Oecov /cat KaOrjpbepLvcov Ovoicov 
/Cat G7TOv8cOV U7toSo^.* 

92 

Ibid. 742-743. 

p>r)&* dird irevTol^oio 6ecov iv SatTt OaAelrj 
avov oltto x^ojpov TafAveiv aWcovi oihripco. 

IIapa/ceAei/€Tat tolvvv purj iv evcj^lais Oecov t€jjl- 
veiv tovs ovvxcls* re/zc^ras 3 ydp /cat KaOrjpapiivovs* 
6/cetVats" 5 Set irapafiaXkeiv dAA' ovk iv clvtoZs tovto 

TTOieiV. 

*Kat ydp TpoTTOv Tivd veKpovv ioTi tcov iv rjfjblv 
Ttva fjuoplcov d(f>cupovvTas 6 avTa tov ocbpuaTos, cos 
ovfJLirecpvKOTa to 7 ttot€ Tpicptrai. xprj ovv, el ev- 
oefSrjoop,€v , 8 purjSe 9 Taura Ta 10 TTpoarrodvrjOKOVTa tov 

AoiTTOV OLOpLCLTOS d7TOGT€p€LV ^COTjS iv Tat? doficOTOV 

iypvTCOV TTjv c^corjv Oecov evcox^ais 11 ' dAAoTpiov ydp 



1 tov added by Pertusi. 2 ? yvpvovadai. Pertusi. 

3 Bernardakis : rcfivovras. 

4 Bernardakis: kclO . p . ficvovs A K€Kadapfi€vovs ZBQL kcl&- 

(UpOVfl€VOVS R. 

5 Bernardakis : cWW. 

6 QLR : a<f>aipovvrai A. €t d<f>aipovvr(u Schultz. 

7 ZB : afc. 8 €va€^rjaofjLcv added, e.g., by F. H. S. 

196 



FRAGMENTS : OTHER NAMED WORKS 

matters, should be avoided. Plutarch well says that 
although there is nothing marvellous in not talking 
ungrammatically, yet ungrammatical talk is ridiculous ; 
similarly although it is not praiseworthy not to do 
things of this kind, yet it is reprehensible to do them. 
*A man, then, when polluted by semen should hide 
the parts responsible for the pollution, and not bare 
them near the hearth, for the hearth, too, is an altar 
of the gods and the recipient of our daily offerings and 
libations.* 



92 

From five-branch at rich banquet of the gods 
Do not with shining steel cut dry from quick. 

So he enjoins men not to cut their nails at the 
festivals of the gods. For one ought to have cut them 
and made oneself clean before coming to those fes- 
tivals, not do these things at them. a 

* And indeed in a way it brings death to certain 
parts of ourselves when we remove them from the 
body, since they have become united with that which 
at one time nourishes them. So if we are to act 
rightly (?) even these parts, that die before the rest 
of the body, ought not to be deprived of life at the 
festivals of the gods, who have a life that cannot be 
extinguished. Such an action is foreign to their 
festivals.* 

D. Heinsius and Scheer claimed the first sentence as Plu- 
tarchean, Westerwick the rest. 

° Cf. Be hide, 352 e. 

9 [vr\ ae LR. 10 ra added by Post. 

11 ZB rewrite this passage from veKpovv to eutuxiW and are 
followed in whole or in part by editors. 

197 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

*93 
Ibid, 744-745. 
firjSe ttot olvo)(6r)v Ttfle/zev KprjTrjpos virepOe 

TTIVOVTOJV. 

IloAAa roiavra /cat rols Yivdayopeiots iXeyero- 
tpyov p,r) VTreppaiveiv /cat xeAtooVa fir) elaSex^aOai 
/cat ixa-^aipa irvp fir) GKaXeveiv, ovpupoXiKcos irapai- 
vovvras 1 Ttov opyt^opbevcov fjir) eireyeipeiv ota Xoycov 
Trapo^vvTiKCjv to TrdOos , /cat <f>Xvdpovs fir) elodyeiv 
eis rov oIkov /cat AaAous* /cat pur) Setv to Slkcliov 

V7T€p/3aiV€LV . TOLOVTOV OVV /Cat TO €7TlTL0€VaL Tip 
KpCLTTJpi T7)v OlVOypr\V OVfJb^oXlKOV 7Tal8€Vfia* tovt- 
€GTL fJLTJ €TTL7rpOo6€V dy€W TOV KOIVOV TO tStOV. O 
JJL€V ydp KpOLTTjp 7TpOVK€LTO KOWOS lv TOLLS Tpa7T€^atS' > 

€K 8e 7*779 olvo)(6rjs dpvofjievoL €7Tivov oi owoet- 

TTVOVVT€S . 

94 

Ibid. 746-747. 

firjSe Sojjlov ttolojv dveTTifjeaTOv 2 /caTaAetVet]/ 
/jltj toi i(/)€^ofJi€vrj Kpcotjrj XaK€pv£,a Kopojvrj. 

*0t fiev OTi Set OLKtas tt/oo ^eipiibvos orvvTeXelv — o 
ydp KpojypLos ttjs Kopwviqs x €L f JL d)vo9 ovpufioXov — ot 

1 TTapawovvTa U, Pertusi : irapaivovvrai Heinsius, but there 
may be an anacoluthon. 

2 The scholia give a variant avzTrlppzKTov . 

Quoted, Moralia, 28 b, as a line typical of those com- 
monly thought to need explanation. 

b Cf. Quaest. Conv. 721 c, where an interpretation is men- 
tioned which made this a warning against " slanderers and 
whisperers/' 

198 



FRAGMENTS : OTHER NAMED WORKS 

*93 

Don't put the ladle down above the bowl 
When men are drinking. 

Many precepts of this sort were also given by the 
Pythagoreans — not to step over a yoke, and not to 
receive a swallow, 6 and not to stir the fire with a 
knife, c symbolically enjoining us not to stir up further 
by exasperating words the passion of men who are 
growing angry, and not to introduce into our house 
drivellers and chatterboxes, and that we ought not 
to transgress the right . And this matter of putting 
the ladle over the bowl is a similar piece of symbolical 
instruction — that is to say it means " do not put 
private interest before common interest/ ' For the 
mixing-bowl used to stand among the tables for all 
to share, while it was from the ladle that those who 
were dining together took their wine and drank. 

Wyttenbach, Westerwick. Plutarch, Sept. Sap. Conv. 
156 d, understands Hesiod to have meant " Don't fail to 
keep the cups full " ; hence Wilamowitz thinks that this 
scholion does not derive from him. 

94 

When building, do not leave the house untrimmed, 
Lest croaking rook d should find a perch and caw. 

*Some say that one ought to finish houses before 
the winter. The cawing of the rook is a sign of winter. 

c Mentioned, Quaest. Rom. 281 a, De hide, 354 e. 

d The word may mean crow, but it is the rook that appears 
in Greece in the winter. On the difficulties of this passage 
see Sinclair's note. The true meaning of the injunction can 
be gathered from Michael Glycas, Lines written in Imprison- 
ment, 20-21, orav 6 Kopat; ttovttotg Kadlarj kcli <f>a)vd£r), ckcI onq- 
lialvci Oavarov koX ^cuptor/Lcov ddpoov. 

199 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

S' on [AT] dreXrj Set 1 tov oIkov i&v, p,rj ipoyov eV- 
aydyrj trap dXXcov, ovs rfj Kopcovrj dneiKaoev, cog 
7ToXXd dv (fidey^afAevovs vefieacovTas eVt tco eAAt7ret. 2 * 
Set Se /cat inl rd aAAa to 7rapayyeA/xa S^aretVety 
/cat fJLTjSev tcov rjfjLerepojv kpycov dreXes irepiopav 
<f)€p6[jL€vov dAA' e/cacrra) to TrpoofJKov indyeiv reXos. 

95 

Ibid. 748-749. 

firjS* a770 x VT P 07r ^ Cx)V dv€7npp€Krcov dveXovTa 
eodeiv /JLTjSe Xoeadcu. 

®voiav ravrrjv 6 UXovrapxos npoye^pov /cat 
KadrjfJLepLvrjv elrrev opBcos, d(f>* cov pLeXXopiev ioOUcv 
lepd ndvra ttoiovvtcls Std rod drrdp^aoOai. /cat yap 
at tcov Upcov Tpa7T€^ojo€tg tovto et^ov dirap^d- 
jjievoi yap air* avTcov iSatvvvTO. *xpy vaL ^e K€LL 
eVt tcov Xovrpcov to avTO Spav eXovovro Se irepi- 
X€Ofjb€voL Kara Kparos re /cat copicov • XPW °^ v 
/cat tovtov TTporepov d<f>opioai tl rrjs z rjfj,€T€ptas 
Xprfoecos tepo> 4 Oecov, 5 /cat ovrco to Aot77oV ets" rrjv 
dvayKaiav ^petav TrapaXapb^avecv * 

96 

Ibid. 750-752. 

p>r}8 y €7t' dKivrjroLGi /ca#t£etv, ov yap dpueivov, 
77atSa Sua>Se/caTatoi>, 6 t dvep* dvr\vopa ttol€l, 
pirjSe SvcoSeKafJLrjvov loov /cat tovto TeVu/CTat. 

1 Westerwick : Seiv. 2 Bernardakis : c'AAeiTret. 

3 rrjs AQR : rrpo rijs ZBL. 

4 Duebner : Upcov or rols Upols. cos Upov Wyttenbach. 

6 dcols ZB. 

200 



FRAGMENTS : OTHER NAMED WORKS 

Others that one ought not to leave the house unfin- 
ished for fear of attracting censure from others, whom 
the poet compared to the rook, because they would 
make a great noise in their indignation at your 
failure to finish.* But we ought to extend the injunc- 
tion to other things a and not suffer any of our tasks 
to run on unfinished, but give everything its proper 
completion. 

Patzig. 

95 

Don't take and eat food from the cooking-pot, 
Nor bathing-water, without a sacrifice. 

Plutarch rightly called this an easy daily sacrifice, 
when we render holy all we are going to eat by making 
an offering from it. fe For this was a feature of cere- 
monies where a table was spread for a god : the 
worshippers used to make an offering from it and 
then dine. *And one ought to do the same when 
bathing ; of old they bathed by having water poured 
" over head and shoulders/' c We ought therefore 
first to set apart from our own use a portion of the 
water, too, as sacred to the gods, and then take the 
rest for our necessary purposes.* 



96 

Don't seat a boy of twelve days (better not !) 

On what may not be moved — it unmans the man — 

Nor yet a twelve-month old : that's just as bad. 

° Cf. frag. 49. 

b At Quaest. Conv. 703 d, it is explained that an offering 
should be made to the fire which had heated the pot. But 
Hesiod probably meant that there should be a sacrifice before 
a new pot was taken into use (Mazon). c Odyssey, x. 362. 

201 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

M.rj7roT€ Se kolXXlov UXovrapxos , on jjltj Set 2 ra 
veoyvd aKivrjra eav /cat airorideodai iv aKwqrois' 
doOeveorepa yap yiverar Kivelv S* aura on /xaAtora. 

/CoV €77 1 TLVOJV CLVTOL TIS Kadt£r)* €7rl* KWOVfJL€VO)V 

KaOi^eiv 5 /cat aaXevetv 8iol tovtojv, old now €vkl- 
vrjra /cAtvt'Sta /xe/xr^dV^rat TTpos rrjv rcov Tra&iojv 
evvrjv. 

97 
Ibid. 753. 
jjirjSe yvvcuK€Ltp Xovrpco XP oa <f>cuopvv€oOai. 

Mr) 8elv ovvaTToyvpLvovodcu reus yvvai^l rovs dv- 
8pas* 7rpos yap rip doyr)p,ovi /cat diroppoial nves it< 
rcov yvvat,K€LO)v acofidrajv /cat 77€/HTTa)/xaTa>i> 6 ^a>- 
povow, ojv dva7TLfjL7rXaodai rovs dvopas fioXvopba- 
rcoSes ion' /cat rols ets rov avrov dipa eloiovoi 
/cat rots' €tV to avro vScop dvdyKt] tovtojv airo- 
Aauetv. 

98 
Ibid. 757-759. 
pbrjSe ttot iv 7Tpo-)(orjs 7TOTafJLcov aAaSe rrpopeovrcov, 
jLtr^S' €7rt Kprjvdcov ovpew, fidXa S* ifjaXiaodai, 
jLtTjS' ivairo^vyjew . to yap ov rot Xoj'Cov ionv. 

Tavra St,aypd<f>€t UXovrapxos, ojs evreXrj /cat dv- 

1 ZB add <f>7]m. 2 D. Heinsius : Sew. 

3 Pertusi : Kaditdvy* 
202 



FRAGMENTS : OTHER NAMED WORKS 

But it may be that Plutarch gives a better explana- 
tion, namely that young babies should not be left 
unmoved or put down on something immovable," 
since they thus become weakly. They ought to be 
kept on the move as much as possible, but if one does 
set them down on anything, they should be set on 
moving things and be swayed by them, as in the 
rocking cradles that some people have devised for 
children to sleep in. 



97 

Let men not cleanse themselves in the women's bath. 

Men should not strip along with women. Besides 
the impropriety, there are certain effluences that pro- 
ceed from the female body and its excretions with 
which it is a kind of defilement for men to be infected. 
Both those who enter into the same air and those who 
enter into the same water are necessarily affected by 
them. 

Wyttenbach. 



98 

Never in the flow of rivers running seaward 
Make water, nor at springs (but shun the act). 
Nor cleanse thyself therein. 'Tis better not . . . 

Plutarch strikes out these lines as being paltry and 

a Cf. Plato, Laws, 789 b-e, for this advice. The other 
interpretation given by the scholiast, namely that the pro- 
hibition is against seating a child on a grave, is in fact correct. 

4 €7ri added by Wyttenbach. 
6 Pertusi : xadt,£dv€i,v. • Tt€pnro}\ia.ra. Duebner. 

203 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

d£j la TraihevTiKrjs Movar)$* *p,r] ovptiv iv irpoxoals 
TTorayLcov rj iirl Kprjvcjv firj8 y a7ro7raT€lv, tovto yap 

TO a7TOlfjVX€lV * 



99 
Ibid. 760-764. 
cSS' epSew Sewrjv Se fiporwv vnaXeveo $r)p/i)v 

deos vu tls ion, kolI avr^. 

[Tovto to reAos" €otI tcov TrapayyeXfiaTajv , LKavov 
ets* to 7Tcu8€voai T^tas to iavTwv rjOos, €vXa^OV[JL€- 
vovs ttjv (/)tffjLr]v.] *ov yap oaov ap€Tr\s ol avdpojiroi 
o<f>dXXovTai , tooovtov /cat Kpcoeojs apeTrjs, <f>r)olv 
6 UXaTOJv . . . €tl 8e Kal dptjafjievrjv TavTTjv rrav- 
oai ^aAe7rdv €ia)6aot, ydp ol dvOpojiroi iroXXairXa- 
ata^etv as dv irapaXdfiojoi <f>rip,as Kal e/c ofUKpcljv 
[xeydXas 7Tol€lv* Kal TeXos TrpooedrjKev otl kiv8v- 
vevei /cat d)$ iirl to TrXeloTov dXrjdrjs etvat Traod 1 
<f>rjfir] " fjv Xaol ttoXXoI 2 (ffrj/JLi^coat/ /cat Sta tovto 
ex^iv tl /cat avTrjv Oelov TToXXaKis yovv 6 jJbev dp- 
£as avT7)s ovk €7TLOTrjiJLa)v* ioTiVy eiioToxos 8' avTrj* 
St' avTcov ava<f>aiv€Tai tcov dVojSatvcWaw, a>OT€ et- 
kotojs Set (f>vXaTT€od ai ttjv KaKrjv <f>rj[JLr)v. /caTa 5 
tovto ovv x? r h ai [ x ' ov TO Setv /cat 86£av v<j)opaoO ai 
top 7Tat,8€v6p,€Vov. ov ydp dnXajs dXrjdes o eXeye 

opyias' eAeye 0€, to puev etvat a<pav€S firj tvxov 

1 7racri Q, Pertusi. 
2 7roAAot Aaol Q (with Hesiod). 

204 



FRAGMENTS : OTHER NAMED WORKS 

unworthy of an educative Muse — *not to urinate in 
the flowing water of rivers or at springs, and not to 
defecate there ; that is what " cleanse " means. * 



99 

So do, and so avoid an ill repute . . . 

Repute, too, is herself a goddess. 

[This is the end of his maxims, and enough to 
cause us to educate our characters by being careful 
of our repute.] *For men, says Plato, are not as 
bad at judging of virtue as they are at practising it. 
. . . Further it is hard to put a stop to a reputation 
once started, since men are accustomed to multiply 
reports they receive and make much out of little." 3 *" 
Finally the poet added that probably for the most 
part every report " that many folk recount " is in 
fact true, and therefore has something divine about 
it. Certainly the originator of a report is often with- 
out knowledge, but the report itself proves to be 
right on the mark as a result of its very consequen- 
ces. There is good reason, then, why we should avoid 
ill-repute. The maxim that the pupil should be- 
ware even of opinion is useful when this is considered. 
What Gorgias said is not true without qualification ; 
he said : " To be without seeming to be, lacks notice, 

° An odd mistake : dno^vx^Lv must, as in Homer, mean 
" wash off sweat." For the meaning of 7r/>oxo<u, not " mouths," 
but " flowing waters," see Bacchyl. 6. 3, eV 'AXfaov npoxo- 
cucrfi viKtov, and other passages collected by W. Biihler, Die 
Europa des Moschos, p. 80. 

3 €7norqfiajv added, e.g., by F. H. S. 
4 aMj Q : avrq. 6 Duebner : #cat. 

205 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

rov So/cetv, to Se So/cetv aaOeves purj rvxov rov 
etvai." irapd ydp rols ttoXXols /cat to So/cetv lox vv 
e^et /cat ra e/c rov So/cetv aTrofSaivovra Svoxeprj 
SetKVvrai ovk ovtcl dAtya. jjl&XXov ovv, ojs Eevo- 
Kparr)s eAeye rov /xeV <f>LXov ' *AXe£av8pov €^etv 
eVe/ca p,rj8 y av rov SolktvXov Kcvfjoai, rov Se purj 

€X@pOV TTaVTCL OiV 7Tpd£at, OVTCO /Cat 'HcTt'oSo? TTJS 

fjbev napa rols noXXols 86£rjs d^iol 7TOL€Lo6ai Aoyov 
fjurjSeva, rrjs S' aSo^'as, tva purj ovfJLJ3fj, irdvra 7rotet- 
cr#at Xoyov. 

100 

Plutarch, Life of Camillus> chap. 19. 

Ylepl S' rjfjbepcov a7TO(f>pd8ojv etre XP^J rideodai ri- 
va? etre 2 SpOcos ' Hpa/cAetT09 €7T€7rXr)£ev ' HcrtoSto rds 
fi€P dyadds rroLOVfievoj ra? Se <f>avXas, ojs dyvo- 
ovvri (f)VOtv rjpiepas dirdarfs \iiav ovoav, irepojOc St- 
TjTropijrat. 

101 

Scholia, 765-766. 

rjfjLara S' e/c AioOev 7r€(f>vXayjievos ev /caret fiolpav 
rre^paSepbev S/xc6ecrat. 

At 7rept rrjs tojv rjfJLepiov £i<Xoyrjs /cat aTre/cAoy^s' 
irapaiveoeis e^ouat juev Ta? dp^d? e/c rcov irapa- 

1 oui> after /ucv deleted by F. H. S. 
2 e?T€ Reiske : etre ilx}. 

206 



FRAGMENTS : OTHER NAMED WORKS 

to seem to be without being lacks effect." ° That 
needs qualification because with the masses even 
seeming is powerful, and its disagreeable conse- 
quences are shown to be not a few. Better be guided 
by Xenocrates' remark that he would not even lift a 
finger to be Alexander's friend, but would do any- 
thing to avoid having him as an enemy. 6 Similarly 
Hesiod tells us not to pay any attention to the good 
opinion of the masses, but to take every care to 
avoid getting a bad name. 
Wyttenbach. 



100 

I have discussed elsewhere the question whether 
one should reckon certain days as inauspicious, or 
whether Heraclitus c was right in reproving Hesiod 
for considering some days good and others bad, on 
the ground that he did not know that the nature of 
all days is one and the same. 

Sandbach. Taken by Bernardakis to refer to Trepl -fjficpcov 
(Lamprias Catalogue no. 150), but the discussion is as likely 
to have been in the commentary on Hesiod, or in both places. 



101 

Watching the Zeus-appointed days right well, 
Reveal them to your slaves. 

The injunctions given about choosing and avoiding 
particular days have their origin in observations that 
men have made, but some injunctions have prevailed 

a Diels-Kranz, Frag. d. Vorsokratiker, 82 b 26. 

b Frag. 105 Heinze. 

e Diels-Kranz, Frag. d. Vorsokr. 22 b 106. 

207 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

rrjprjoeoov, dXXai 8e Trap* dXXois 1 eKpdrrjoav, eirei 
/cat Trap* '0/><£et Xeyovrai rives avrcov 8iaKpioeis 
/cat ev rols 'AOrjvaicov irarpiois Sicopiodrjoav, at 
jjLev dy adai rives at 8e <f>avXai pueoai 84 rives elvai. 
/cat oi>x oXas rjpLepas /jlovov vireXafiov rives evKai- 
piav e^eiv irpos Karap^ds rivcov irpdtjecov aXXd /cat 
fiopia rrjs rjfiepas, ore fjiev rd ecodivd eiraivovvres 
ore 8e rd ire pi 8eiXrjv oipiav, oirov 8e /cat rots' fiev 
deois oiKeia rd irpos fJLeorjfiPpiav 2 elprjKaoiv rjpcooi 
8e rd jxerd pLeorjpi^piav. 6 yovv 'HoioSos rds 
noXXds ev rovrois el8oos rcbv /car' avrov iraparrjprj- 
aeis, els rds rjXiov Kivrjoeis /cat oeXrjvrjs /cat rds 
irpos dAA^Aous" oxeoeis avros diro^Xei/jas dvdyei rds 
rcov eirirrj8eiwv /cat dveirirr]8eioov 8ia<f>opds, a<£' <Lv 
jjidXiora yiverai Trdvra puev rd Qvr\rd rwv 3 kivov- 
fjLevcov, dXXa 8e fiaXXov dXXoov. irpos 8e rds* 4 irepi- 
68ovs avroov oiKeicos r) dXXorpioJS e%ei. 5 

ArjXol 8e /cat rwv (f>vrcov rd fiev oeXrjvr) ovy- 
Kivovfjieva rd 8e rjXicp- rd fiev yap p68a /cat ta /cat 
jLterd rovrcov rd rjXiorpoiria irpos rjXiov dvio^ovra 
rpeirei rd <j>vXXa /cat irpos KaraSvofievov oboavrcos 
els eoirepav peirovra, rd 8e rcov eXaicov <j>vXXa St- 
Sacr/cet /cat rovs yeoopyiKovs yeyovevai rpoirds r) 
Xeifiepivds r) Oepivds 8id rrjs eavrcov irepiorpo(/)rjs, 
ore fxev dvoo ro fjieXdvrepov lo)(6vroov, ore 8e ro 

1 Kern : aAAaty. 

2 ? npo fl€(T7JfJ,PpLaS. 

3 QR omit tu>v, perhaps rightly. 
208 



FRAGMENTS : OTHER NAMED WORKS 

among some people and others among others. We see 
that distinctions between days are also recorded in the 
works of Orpheus, and it was determined by the an- 
cestral customs of the Athenians that some days were 
good, some bad, and others intermediate. And cer- 
tain people have supposed that not only whole days, 
but also times of day were opportune for the putting 
in hand of certain actions, approving sometimes the 
early morning hours and sometimes those of late 
evening. They have also said that the hours up to 
noon are appropriate to the gods, those after noon to 
the heroes , a Hesiod, then, knew most of the con- 
temporary observations in this field, and himself took 
the step of referring the differences between propi- 
tious and unpropitious days to the movements of the 
sun and moon and their mutual aspects : all mortal 
things in the realm of change have in these b their 
chief source of becoming, but some more than others ; 
and having an affinity for their revolutions or being 
alien to them, are favourably or unfavourably affected. 
This is shown indeed by plants, some of which move 
in conjunction with the moon, others with the sun. 
Roses and violets and also the heliotropes turn their 
leaves to the rising sun and similarly to the setting 
sun, inclining towards the west. And the leaves of 
the olive tell the farmers by turning over that the 
winter or summer solstice has come, having the 
darker side up at one time and the lighter at another. 

° Diog. Laert. viii. 33. This is a Pythagorean injunction, 
cf. M. P. Nilsson, Entstehung d. griech. Kalenders, p. 22. 

6 According to another reading, " all mortal things have 
in these movements, etc." 

4 Post : npos tcls 8e tcls (T omits he tcls). 7rpos ras he Pertusi. 
6 After €x €L a H MSS - have tcov ycvo^evcov, perhaps a variant 
for rayv klvov/jl€vojv above. 

209 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

XevKov. ra 8e rcov alXovpcov ofJLfJLard <f>aai /cat ra 
OTrXayxva rcov fivtov Trdvres 1 <f)dlveiv p,kv aeX-qvrjs 
Arjyovcrrjs, avtjeaOai 8e a/c/>ta£ouc^ns'• . . . . 2 el p,ev 
nepl TravoeXrjvov e^aipedelr), rrjv jxev yovLfiov dp^r)v 
en <f>vXdrr€L /cat avdis ftXaardveL /cara rrjv Trpoorj- 
Kovaav copav, el 8e </>9ivova7]s, dyovov ylverai. /cat 
airA&s ra fiev 7TXr)povjJL€vr)s evdrfvelrai rd 8e Xrj- 
yovarjs avrrjs, rots fxev (L^eXtfiov rfjs vyporrjros 
ovarjs rjv Sta^et to aeXrjvcuov <j>cos avijavofievov,* 
tols 8e fiAafiepas. 



102 

Aulus Gellius, xx. 8. 

Id etiam, inquit, multo mirandum est magis, quod 
apud Plutarchum in quarto in Hesiodum commentario 
legi : cepetum 4 revirescit et congerminat decedente 
luna, contra autem inarescit adulescente ; earn cau- 
sam esse dicunt sacerdotes Aegyptii cur Pelusiotae 
cepe non edint, 5 quia solum olerum omnium contra 
lunae augmenta 6 atque damna vices minuendi et 
augendi habeat contrarias. 

1 7rdvT€s ATQL : 7ravTo>v ZBR, Pertusi. 

2 Lacuna noted by Schultz. 

3 ? av^avofidvoLS, 

4 cepe turn some mss. (see Skutsch, Archiv filr Lexicogra- 
phie, xii, p. 199). 

6 Hertz : edunt. 
6 Hertz : aucta. 

a Cf. Be hide, 376 e for cats' eyes. At Quaest. Conv. 1/ 
670 b it is not the entrails of mice, but the livers of shrews | 

210 



FRAGMENTS : OTHER NAMED WORKS 

Everybody says, too, that the eyes of cats and the 
entrails of mice contract as the moon wanes, and in- 
crease as it grows to the full. a If . . . b should be 
taken up at the full moon it still retains its principle 
of growth and sprouts again at the proper season, 
but if taken up when the moon is waning, it is sterile. 
And in general some things flourish when the moon 
is waxing, and others when it is waning, since the 
moisture shed by the increasing light of the moon c 
is beneficial to some things but harmful to others. 

Schultz, Pertusi. 



102 

Much more remarkable, he said, is what I have 
read in the fourth book of Plutarch's commentary on 
Hesiod : an onion-bed grows green again and puts 
out shoots when the moon is waning, but shrivels 
when it is waxing. d The Egyptian priests say that 
this is the reason why the inhabitants of Pelusium do 
not eat onions : alone of all vegetables its alterna- 
tions of increase and decrease are contrary to the 
changes of the moon. e 

that contract with the moon, and this peculiarity of the shrew 
(fivyaXrj) is alluded to also by Pliny, Nat. Hist. ii. 109, and 
Iamblichus, De Mysteriis, 5. 8. Probably here too Plutarch 
himself spoke of shrews, but it would not be right to alter 
the scholiast's jjlvcjv to fivyaXa>v. 

b The name of a plant is missing. 

c Frequently mentioned by Plutarch, e.g., Moralia, 658 f, 
917 f, and the note there. 

d Cf. Be hide, 353 e. 

• H. Schultz, Die handschriftliche Uberlie/erung der 
Hesiodscholien, p. 68, associated this passage with the scho- 
lion on 765-768. 

211 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

*103 
Scholia, 770-771. 

WpCOTOV €VY] T€Tpds T€ Kal i^SoflT] UpOV rjfJLCLp' 

rfj yap y A7r6X\a)va xpwdopa yeivaro Ay)toj. 

Ttjv 8e avv aviepov AlyvirTioi <f>aoiv s otl jjll^€gl 
yaip€.i KpVTTTO\i£vr)s vtto tov rjXiov rfjs oeXrjvrjs. 

Kal fJLrJ7TOT€ Kdl TOVTO TO £cpOV, OJS yQoVLOV KQA 

yevvrjoeoi x a ^pov, otKelov ioTi irpos ravrrjv etKorojs 

fldAlGTOL TTJS 0€OV TTJV OVVoSiKTjV (fxiGLV, 1 f\V TTpOS 

rjXiov Xoyov %X eLV ^ OrjXeos irpos dppevd <f>aai. 
[fJL€TCL Se ravrrjv . . . eiraivel ra? rpels' ttjv evrjv 
. . . rrjv T€rpd8a ttjv ejSSd/z^v, Kal rrdoas Upas Ac- 
yojv], ttjv 8e ifiSofjLrjv /cat cos* 'AnoXXcovos yevedXiov 
vfjuvcov, 8lo Kal 'AdyvaloL ravT7]v ojs ' ArroXXojviaK7]v 

TlfJLWOl 8a(f>V7}<f>OpOVVT€S Kal TO KaVOVV €7nGT€<f)OVT€S 2 

Kal vp,vovvT€S tov deov. 



104 

Ibid. 780-781. 

firjvos S* LGTafjuevov TpLOKaiSeKarrjv dXeaodai 
OTrepfiaros aptjaadav <f>vrd S' evOpeipaoOai dpiorrj. 

KaAcSs" €7T€GT7]a€v 6 UXovTapxos on to cnreZpai 
Kal to <f>VT€Voat oz>x vtto tcov avToyv €olk€v dxfreXei- 
odai. to fiev yap cnreppba 8ei KaTafiXrjdev Kpv<f>- 
dfjvai irptoTOV eiooj ttjs yfjs Kal aanrjvat Kal ovtojs 
iavTov StaSovvat, ttjv SvvafAiv ei? ttjv 7T€piKpvifjaoav 

1 R : 6aolv AZBL </>vaw QT. 
2 Scaliger : airoarptyovres. 

212 



FRAGMENTS : OTHER NAMED WORKS 

*103 

Holy the new moon, fourth day, and the seventh, 
When Leto bore Apollo, golden-glaived. 

The Egyptians say that the pig is unholy because 
it enjoys copulation when the moon is hidden by the 
sun. And may it not be that this animal, being of 
the earth and enjoying procreation, is connected par- 
ticularly with that conjunctive phase of the moon- 
goddess, who they say is related to the sun as female 
to male ? [After this he praises the three days, the 
new moon, . . . the fourth, the seventh, calling them 
all holy], and singing the praises of the seventh also 
as Apollo's birthday, for which reason the Athenians, 
too, honour this day as Apolline by carrying branches 
of bay and garlanding the sacred basket and singing 
the god's praises. 

Pertusi, doubtfully. 



104 

Avoid the thirteenth day of waxing moon 

For sowing : yet it's best for making trees grow. * 

Plutarch well observed that it seems that the same 
conditions are not favourable both for sowing and 
for planting. The seed, after being cast on the 
ground, needs first to be hidden in the earth and to 
rot and then to transfer its power into the earth 

° C/. Moralia, 292 f, 391 f, 717 d, 738 d. 

6 The meaning of this phrase is uncertain. By <f>vrd 
Hesiod probably intended mainly fruit-trees and vines. h>- 
dpcipaadai is taken by Evelyn- White, Mair, and Sinclair to 
mean " plant, " but the scholiast seems to have understood 
it as " cause to grow M ; Mazon believes the meaning is 
44 cultivate." 

213 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

avro yrjv, tv* i£ ivos Trvpov tv^ov rj Kpidrjs yevrjrat, 
ttXtjOos. Sto /cat verov Seiodcu /cat Trdxvrjs avro <j>a- 
ai ttjv apxr)v tti€^6vtu)v kcra) /cat yeovTUiv tols iv 
avrco <j)VoiKas Suva/xets'. to 8k (f>vrov pt^wdev j8Aa- 
GTrjaat XPV Kat dva8ovvac tov iv rfj pi^rj Kpvirro- 
puevov Xoyov, olov Sioixdeior) 1 Sea <f>a)TOS' *w<jt 
€lk6tojs ttjv TOtcr/catSe/caT^y Trpos p<€V to oireipeiv 
aveTTiTrjheiov elvai, npos Se to (f>VT€V€iv eVtT^Setav 
8lo /cat to " ivdpeifjaodou " ot/cetoj? e^et Trpos ttjv 
<f>VT€tav to yap irpoKaXioaodai 2 tov pi^iKov Xoyov 
/cat et? €ttL8ooiv dyetv /cat f$XdaTr)v iorjfJLrjve Sta tov 
ovojjloltos, 777909 a owreAet TrXelov ov to e/c T779 o~e- 

XrjVT)S iv TaVTTJ (/)COS* 

105 

Ibid. 782-784. 

€ktt] S' rj fjbiaar] pudXa ovpi<f)op6s z ioTi <j>VTolaiv t 
dv8poyovos S' dyadrj* Kovprj 8' ov ovpL<j)op6s €gtlv, 
ovtc yeviaOai irpcjjT ovt dp ydfiov avTifioXfjoai. 

Trjv e/c/catSe/car^v p,earjv €kttjv elircbv (hcfyiXifiov 

€LVai TOLS (f>VTOLS (f>rjGLV St' fjV €L7TOp,€V OlItLOLV' TO 

yap <f>cos depfiov ov to aeXrjvcuov /cat vypbv irpo- 
/caAetrat 4 ttjv fiXdcrT7]v clvtcov. tlov 8' dvOpcoircov 
appeal jxev oiripixaoi ov{JL(f>opov OrjXeoi 8' aovjX(f>o- 
pov aiTiov Se tovtcjv otl to puiv eort tjrjpoTepov to 
8' vypoTepov tcov GTrepfJLaTOJV, oh /cat avTO to 
dppev Sta^e'pet tov OtfXeos' /cat Sta TavTa <f>aoi /cat 

1 BtoixQetvy F. H. S. : SioixydeLcrr) (Stot^^ar/ L). hiox^v- 
delarj Gaisford : Sioi/ojflcicrfl Duebner. 

2 Wyttenbach : irpooKakiaaodai. 

3 /xaA' aovfjL<f)op6s mss. of Hesiod. 

4 Gaisford : TTpooKaXeiTcu. 

214 



FRAGMENTS : OTHER NAMED WORKS 

that has covered it, a so that from a single grain of, 
say, wheat or of barley there may come a quantity. 
Hence they say it needs rain and frost at first, to 
exert pressure on the natural powers inside it and to 
cause them to flow out. A tree, on the other hand, 
after being set, must put out shoots and send up the 
principle of structure hidden in its root, when that 
is unlocked, so to speak, by light. *So it is reason- 
able that the thirteenth should be unsuitable for 
sowing but suitable for planting trees. It follows 
that the phrase " for making trees grow " is appro- 
priate to their planting ; by it the poet meant calling 
forth the principle contained in the root and bringing 
about increase and leaf-growth, to which the brighter 
moonlight of this day contributes.* 



105 

The middle sixth is helpful for the trees, 6 
And good to get a man c : but bad for girls, 
Both to be born on, and for wedding-day. 

The sixteenth day, which the poet calls the 
" middle sixth," he says is useful for trees, b for the 
reason we have given : the light of the moon, being 
warm and moist, encourages them to put out shoots. 
But in the case of human beings it is helpful for male 
seeds, the reverse for female. The reason for this is 
that male seeds are dryer, female moister, a charac- 
teristic difference of male and female , d And they 

° The seed is supposed to fertilize the earth, by an analogy 
with the supposed fertilization of an animal's womb by the 
semen. b See note b on the previous fragment. 

c Although the scholiast clearly thought conception to be 
meant, Hesiod had birth in mind. 

d Cf. Quaest. Conv. 650 b. 

215 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

ras avJ^Xrji/jeis rag p>*v fiopeltov Trvevfxdrcjv ovrtov 
ywofJLevas etvcu dppevoyovovg rag 8e voricov OrjXv- 
yovovg. /cat /jl€Vtol /cat rag ScapOpcjaetg rcov 
drjXecov ififipvcov fipaSvrepag ylveodai rj rcov dppe- 
vcov Slol to rrXijOog €K€t rrjg vyporrjrog, firj paSicog 
KparovfAevrjs vtto rrjg Srjfiiovpyovarjs ev rfj depfxo- 
rrjTi (j>VGecx)s. <f>VGiKOJS ovv eiprjTCu rrjv e/c/catSe/ca- 
rrjv dppevoyovov p,ev apiarov etvai drjXeai S* aw/x- 
<f>opov €X€t 8e rtva KCLL TTpOS ydp,ovg evavricooiv, 
rrjg creXrjvrjg TrdfnroXv rod rjXlov Siearcbcrqs. 8lo 
/cat 'AOrjvcuoL rag irpog ovvo8ov r)p,€pag e^eXeyovro 
rrpog ydfjuovs /cat rex Qeoydpua ireXovv tot€, <f>vcn- 
kcos etrat TrptoTov olofJbevoL ydfxov rrjv creXrjvrjg Trpos 
tjXiov 1 ovvo8ov. 



106 

Ibid. 790-791. 

parjvog 8* oySodrrj Kairpov /cat fiovv ipipbVKov 
raixvefxev, ovprjag 8e SvcoSeKarrj raXaepyovg . 

Tr)v 6y86rjv rov firjvos rod YLoaeiSco vog lepdv cog 
em rpia 8iaordoav Trpcorrjv rep rpiawovyo) deep 
7rpoorjK€LV elKorcog Xeyovot /cat rpLrrjv %(x)pav Aa- 

XOVTL 2 TCOV iv KlVTjGei OTOLX€LCOV. 8l6 /Cat TOVS TCLV- 

povg avrco <f>€povreg dvrJKav cog opfirjTLKOvg /cat rovg 

1 rr)v . . . tJXlov F. H. S. : rrjs . . . r)Xiov. After aeXrjvrjs 
ZBT add ovcrqs. 

2 rpirrjv x<i>pa.v Xaxovn F. H. S. after Pertusi : rpt^trcovt rpicov 
apxovri. Pertusi reads rpirrjv x^pav Xaxovn Kal rptcov apxovn, 
comparing De hide, 381 E, r) 8e rod HoaeiB&vos rpiaiva ovpfioXov 
ion rrjs rpirrjs Ycopa? rjv ddXarra /carcyei p,€ra rov ovpavov /cat 
rov dipa rcraypuevr). 

216 



. 



FRAGMENTS : OTHER NAMED WORKS 

say that this is why conceptions taking place when 
north winds blow result in male births, while those 
taking place when south winds blow result in female 
births. Moreover, the articulation of female em- 
bryos is slower than that of male, because the quan- 
tity of moisture in them is not easily mastered by the 
formative power contained in the heat. So there is 
a scientific explanation for the statement that the 
sixteenth day is excellent for getting males, but un- 
suitable for females. It also has a certain opposition 
to marriage, the moon being then very far removed 
from the sun. Hence the Athenians, too, chose the 
days near the conjunction of sun and moon for 
marriages, and celebrated the Theogamia a then, 
thinking that in nature the first marriage is the con- 
junction of the moon with the sun. 

Bernardakis. 

106 

Upon the eighth day boar and bellowing bull 
Castrate, laborious mules upon the twelfth. 

The eighth day of the month is sacred to Posidon ; 
they say that, being the first day of which the number 
has three factors, it appropriately belongs to the god 
of the trident, 6 who has been assigned the third 
place among the three elements that are in motion. c 
Hence they brought and dedicated to him both bulls 

a Nothing more is known about this festival. For guesses 
see Pfister, K.E., s.v. 

6 Cf Be hide, 354 f, and Life of Theseus, chap. 36 ; in 
both places the first cube (8) is associated with Posidon. 

c The text is uncertain. Unemended, it gives Posidon the 
unique and unintelligible epithet " of the three tunics." The 
three moving elements are fire, air, and water, which occupies 
the lowest or third place and is Posidon's realm. 

217 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

Kairpovs* afJL(f>a> yap ota 0v[jl6v a/ca#€/cTot yivovrai t 
TrpavvovTCu 8e iKTfJLrjdevTes. €lk6tcds ovv npos 1 rrjv 
tco KivrjTtKco deep TrpoarjKOvaav rjfjuepav — os /cat tt)v 
aKivryrov yrjv /ctvet 'Evoat^aw KaXovfievos — toKelco- 
oav 2 ravra ra £<pa opfArjTiKa oVra* /cat /x^7tot€ tov 
p,ev ravpov co? rrjs vypds ovolas /ctv^Tt/ca), 3 tov 8e 
Kanpov cos rrjs ^/ods*. tov S' avrov iart to Ktvelv 
/cat rjp€fi€lv ra? aordrovs toov KLVOvfxevcov op/xas\ 
Sto /cat 6 Beds ovtos ov puovov 'Evoat^^cDV aAAa /cat 
'Acr^aAetos" v/jlv€itou' /cat ol tovs aetafjuovs iravtiv 
ideAovres HoaecSoovi dvovoiv. e^ct S' apa /cat 77 
Trpavvovoa Sta ttJ? TOfifjs ra £a>a ra ot/c€ta ra> #ea> 
TTpd^is OLKeLorrjra npog ttjv Upav rov HooecScovos 
ravrrjv rffjuepav. 

107 

76td. 791. 

Ta? rj/JLtovovs ot/cetouat T77 acA^^* Sto /cat rtve? 
auT^v <f>aaiv ic/S rjfJLiovcav oyziodai. /cat yap o fxev 
ItTTTOS rjAtOLKOV €OTl £,opov d)S evSpofjLov, 6 S' ovos* 
xOovlov d)s 5 Tv(/>oovi <f>i\ov /cat ovvovoiaoTucov** rj 
Se creA?^ jitecr^ ajJL^oZv, yfjs puev exovaa to gkotl- 
£,€0000,, rjXtov 8e to oIkziov elArj^evat cf)tos. Sta 

TOVTO jJL€V OVV 0)/C€tO)Tat 7 TTpOS CLVTTJV 7] rjfJbiOVOS. 

1 TTpos added by Pertusi. 
2 olK€La)oav Schultz. 

3 F. H. S. : KLV7JTLKOV. 

* 6 & ovos added by Schultz. 
6 Pertusi : kcu. 
6 Tv<f><jjvi <f>iXos <*)S x@° VL °s KaL avvovoiaoTiKos Schultz. 
218 



FRAGMENTS : OTHER NAMED WORKS 

and boars, as being impetuous ; both are so spirited 
as to become uncontrollable, but become gentle by 
castration. So they had good reason to associate 
these animals that are impetuous with the day that 
belongs to the god of movement — he moves even the 
unmovable earth, and is called Earth-shaker. (Is it 
possible that the bull was associated with him as 
mover of the moist substance, and the boar as mover 
of the dry ?) The same power that can set in motion 
can also bring to a standstill the impetus and in- 
stability of what is in motion ; hence this god is 
addressed in hymns not only as " Earth-shaker " but 
also as " Lord of Security/' and men sacrifice to 
Posidon when they wish to put a stop to earthquakes. 
So the action which makes gentle, by castrating them, 
the animals that are associated with the god has an 
association with this day that is sacred to the god. 

Pertusi. 



107 

They associate mules with the moon ; hence some 
say that she rides in a mule cart. The reason is that 
the horse is a solar animal, as being a swift runner, 
whereas the donkey belongs to the earth, as being 
dear to Typhon a and given to copulation ; the moon, 
however, is intermediate between sun and earth, 
having the earth's characteristic of being darkened, 
and the sun's of having its own light ; so there is a 
natural association between the moon and the mule. 

Pertusi. 

a Cf. Sept. Sap. Conv. 150 f, De hide, 371 c. 



7 Pertusi : oiVeiWcu AZBTL gjkciWo Q. 

219 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

108 

Ibid. 797-799. 

7T€</>vAa£o oe 6vp,cp 
T€TpdS i dXevaoOai (f>divovros 6* lora\iivov re 
dXyea dvfiofiopetv. 

Tovs irpo rovrcov reoaapas 1 orl^ovs ovSe fjLvrjjjLrjs 

6 HAoVTCLpXOS rj£t<A)(J€V, COS S.V flTj <f>€pOjJL€VOVS' TOV- 

rovs §' iijrjyovfJLevos dtjiol p,r) iyKaXeiv rep 'HcridSa) 
cos av yeXolcos elnovri fir) xpfjvai Xvrras iavrco 
Ktvelv iv ravrais, cos Siov iv dXXais rial rovro 
TTOietv ov yap rovro Xeyetv, dAA' cos lepcus ravracs 
/jbdXtcrra rds Xv7rrjpds drrocrKevdl^ead at ivepyelas, 
as el Kal dXXore Set cos dvayKaias alpeiodai, iv 
ravrais ov 8eov. 

\as oe rerpaoas afKpco etvau cepas, rr)v fiev cos 
fidXcora ro oeXrjvalov €K<f>aLvovoav <f>cos y rrjv S' cos 
rovrov e^ovoav rrpos rrjv rpta/caSa 2 Xoyov, ov r) e/?- 
Sofjbrj 77/009 rrjv vovp/qviav Kal yap r) rerdprrj /cat 
etKOorrj ip&ofJLrjv e^et rd^tv rrpos rrjv icrxdrrjv* 

109 

Ibid. 805-808. 

fieoarj S' epSopbdrrj . . . 

vXorofJbov re ra/xetv daXafxtjca 8ovpa. 

1 tt4vt€ Pertusi. 
2 rpia/caSa F. H. S. : rerpdda, npcorrjv rcrpaSa Wyttenbach. 

° Possibly meaning 3 J ; Pertusi emends " four " to 
" five," supposing that Plutarch's text had lost 792-796 
through the homoeoteleuton of rakaepyovs. But although the 
lemma of the scholion is ne^vXa^o hk 0u/za), Plutarch may have 

220 



FRAGMENTS : OTHER NAMED WORKS 

108 

Bear in mind to shun 
Fourth day of waning, or of waxing, moon 
For heart-devouring sorrow. 

Plutarch did not deign even to mention the pre- 
vious four ° lines, as if they were not in the text ; but 
in explaining these he claims that Hesiod should not 
be criticized, as if he had absurdly said that one should 
not stir up sorrow for oneself on these days, with the 
implication that one should do so on some others. 
That is not what he meant, but that on these days in 
particular, since they are sacred, one should eliminate 
painful activities ; if such activities, as being neces- 
sary, have to be undertaken at other times they 
should not be undertaken on these days. 

*Both fourth days are sacred, the one because it 
especially displays the moon's light, the other be- 
cause it has the same relation to the thirtieth day 
as the seventh has to the day of the new moon ; for 
the twenty-fourth day is seventh in order from the 
last day of the month. 5 * 



109 

On middle seventh . . . 

And woodman cut the timber for a room. 

taken those words as an adjunct of the previous sentence, and 
so passed over four complete lines, 794-797. 

b Hesiod divides the month into three equal periods each of 
ten days (waxing, middle, waning) ; hence the fourth day 
of the waning moon is the 24th of the month, and this is 
(by inclusive reckoning) 7th from the 30th or last day. He- 
siod states that the 7th is a sacred day (v. 770, see Sinclair's 
note). 

The statement that the fourth day " especially displays 

221 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

To fjuev ovv vXoTOfielv rrjviKavra ovp,f$aw€L tols 

€[JL7Tpoad€V iv OLS €LTT€ TOT€ XPV VCLL r °VTO TTOielv 

orav apxqrai to fJueroTrajpov 

TfjfJLOS d8r)KTOTOLT7] TTtXeTai TfirjOeloa oihrjpco, 
fJLerpicos irjpcov ovtojv tcov £vXojv vypor-qros re 
twos ovk €7tl8€(a)v. rj yap dpx'fj 1 T V S <A>P a S evKoupos 
/cat p,7)vos rj €7rraKai8€Kdrr) xprfv^os, ore to fiev 
<f>cbs rrjs oeXrjvrjs npooOeoLV ovkIt e^et TravoeXrjvov 
yeyovvias , eVt/c/xa 8e rrcos ion rd £vXa /cat Sid rrjs 
eXarrcooeoJS rov c/)Ojt6s iXarrovTai to vypov dfi 
ov ovfJbfiaLveLv eicodev rj ofjifjts. 

*iiQ 

Ibid. 809. 
rer/oaSt S' dpx^odac vfjas uryyvvoQai dpaids. 

Kat tovto cru/xj8atWt tols rrepl ttjs T€Tpd8os 
d£ta>/xacrty el yap OTLypbij p,ev rj fjiovds dvdXoyos 
ypa/JLfJbfj 8' rj 8vds €7TL7Te8oj S' rj Tptds, 8fjXov OJS Tip 

OT€p€<p 7Tp007JKOL aV Tj T€T0aV elKOTOJS OVV €7TIT7]- 

8eia TTpos ovfi7rrj^LV twv vedv. el 8e /cat 7rpd)Trj to 
loaKis loov ex €L Kai TtpojTri irdvTas tovs appLOVLKOvs 
Trepiix ei Xoyovs, ojs 2 €L7rofMev, /cat TavTj] irpos to 
elprfixevov epyov evKatpiav 3 8l8cooiv. ov8ev yap 

1 Post : avrr) AZBQLR. rj T€ ovv a>pa avrrj /jl&XAov to>v dXXwv 
T. ? i) yap avrr) atria 8t* r)s r) apx?) rrjs copas. 

2 Bernardakis : /cat. 3 Gaisford : eu/ccupa ihlav. 

the moon's light " is surprising ; one would have expected 
this to be said of the " second fourth " or 14th, the day of the 
full moon. But perhaps the fourth day was thought to be 
that on which the moon first gives any appreciable amount 



FRAGMENTS : OTHER NAMED WORKS 

To fell timber on that day agrees with the earlier 
passage in which he said that one should do it when 
autumn begins : 

Then iron tools fell timber that's least gnawn. a 
The wood is moderately dry at that time, while not 
lacking a certain moisture. The beginning of the 
autumn is a good time to choose b and the seventeenth 
day of the month is a useful one : at that time the 
light of the moon gets no more increase, since the 
full moon is past, while the wood has some sap in it, 
and with the diminution of its light comes a diminu- 
tion of the moisture that is the usual cause of rotting/ 

Pertusi. 

*110 

On fourth day start to build the narrow ships. 

This, too, fits our propositions about the number 
four. If the number one is analogous to the point, 
two to the line, and three to the surface, it is clear 
that four would fit the solid d ; so it would be suitable 
for building ships. And if it is the first number to be 
a multiple of equal factors and the first to contain all 
the harmonic ratios, as we have explained, 6 in this 
way too it provides a good time for the aforesaid 

of light : thus some people who believed in the desirability 
of sowing seed while the moon was waxing advised doing it 
from the fourth day onwards, Geoponica, ii. 14. 

« V. 414. 

6 The Greek is corrupt. 

c Compare frag. 61. Geoponica iii. 1 on the other hand 
recommends cutting at moonless times in January. 

d Cf. Be E Apud Delphos, 390 d, but this is a common- 
place. 

• S on 769-771 ; ± f, f 

223 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

ovtcjs apfjbovias Selrac rcjv epycov, ojs vavs fieX- 
Xovaa /cat depos Kivrjaei /xa^eta^at /cat daXdoarj 
rroXXfj, /cat fjiovrjv eyovoa rrjv drro rrjs appuovias 
porjdeiav rov ooj^eodai, rdya /cat *0\Lrjpov Sta 
rovro fiovov KaX4oavTos e AppLovi8rjv rov vavrrrjyov 
el 8e ras vavs ojs Kov<f>as dpaids e/caAeae (Set ydp 
avrds etvou Kov<j>as emTrXeZv pueXXovoas) , 8rjX6s ion 
/cat avrds rrjv fiev ttvkvojolv fiapvrrjros alriav rrjv 
8e fjbdvcuaLV Kovcj>6rrjros vnoXapwv. 



Ibid. 814-816. 

Travpoi S' avr taaat rpioeivd8a pirjvos dpiarrjv 
ap^aodai re rrldov /cat errl £vyov avyivi deZvai 
fioval /cat rj/juovoiOL /cat Ittttois d)Kvrr68€ooi. 

[Tplrrjv elvdSa 1 rrjv eiKoorrjv etirev ivdrrjv, rjv 
oXiyovs etSeVat dpiorrjv ovoav dvoiyeiv rridovs 
/cat Kara^evyvvvai jSoas* /cat rjpuovovs /cat Ittttovs^] 
<f>rjol yap 2 rrjs oeXrjvrjs dpxopbevrjs aTTOKpirrreod ai 
8ok€lv 3 /cat ra dvpuoecSeorepa rcbv dXoycov dfifiXv- 
veiv rov Ovjjlov /cat purj opuoicos dvdioraodai roZs 
8ap,d£,ovoi,v, dodeveorepa yivofieva. /cat ro rrepl 
rrjv dvoitjiv rod ttlOov </)Volk6js e'tprjKe' pudXtora ydp 
<f>aai rrepl ra? rravaeXrjvovs e^ioraodai rov olvov 
Sta rrjv drro rrjs oeXrjvrjs vypdv Oeppaqv, war* €t/co- 

1 Tpiocivaha L, perhaps rightly. 

2 Maes adds 6 HAovrapxos. 

3 Schultz : So/cet. 

a harmonia means " jointing," particularly of carpenter's 
work, as well as " musical scale." 

224 



FRAGMENTS : OTHER NAMED WORKS 

work. No work needs harmony a so much as a ship, 
which will have to contend with the movements of 
the air and great seas, and the only thing that can 
help it is its harmony ; perhaps it was for this reason 
alone that Homer called his shipwright Harmonides. & 
And if Hesiod called ships araiai c as being light (for 
they must be light if they are to float), it is clear that 
he too took denseness to be the cause of heaviness 
and rarefaction to be that of lightness. 

Bernardakis. 



*111 

Few know the triple-ninth d day is the best 
To start a jar, or harness to a yoke 
Oxen or mules or the fleet-footed horse. 

[He called the twenty-ninth day " third ninth," 
saying that few know that it is best for opening jars 
and yoking oxen, mules, and horses.] For . . . 
says that it is believed that when the moon begins 
to be hidden even the more spirited brutes have 
their spirit blunted and, growing weaker, do not 
so much resist those who are breaking them in. 
And what the poet says about the opening of the 
wine jar has a basis in nature ; for they say that wine 
is most liable to spoil at the time of the full moon 
because of the moist heat from the moon, so that it 

* Iliad, v. 60. 

c The word araios has several senses : Hesiod probably 
meant narrow when he applied it to ships, but this note sup- 
poses him to have intended a later use, loose in texture, 
which would imply light. 

d The scholion clearly supposes this to mean 29th, but the 
alternative 27th is more plausible. 

225 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

reus orav yJKiara rovro rrpo^dXrj KeXevec rov irldov 
dVot'yetv /cat tov olvov ireipav Xapb^dveiv . 



112 
Ibid. 819. 

T€Tpd8l S' oty€ TTldoV. 

*Trjv fiewqv rerpdha ravrrjv Xeycov rrjv 1 reaaapecr- 
KaiSeKdrrjv iiraivti /cat <bs irLOoiyov /cat <bs ttcLgiv 
dpLGrrjv /cat yap to <f>(x)s rrjs oeXrjvqs ttXovoiov 
cifjLa rep rjXicp KaraSvofJLevo) dvareXXovarjs* . . . 

Kat tis Alyvnrios pLvdoXoyet puvdos rov "Oaipiv 
Tooavra errj fSaoiXevocu ottogos iarlv 6 rtov ^/xe- 

pa)V TOVTCxJV dpidfJLOS, *iv8€lKVVfJL€VOS (1)9 iflOL 8oK€L 

navrcov avrov etvai rcov yevvrjrcov 8rnJuovpyov /cat 
reXeatovpyov, fierd rtov aeXrjviaKcov d/crtVcov t^X v T\ 
revxovra rrjv yeveaw ru>v re avtjrjTiKcov /cat tujv 
fieccDTLKwv, Iva /cat ydvrjTai rd rfj8€ /cat (frdeLprjTai* 



EIS TA NIKANAPOY 0HPIAKA 
lis 

Scholion on Nicander, Theriaca, 94. 

'Ev 8e x € P 07 rXr)drj Kapirov veoOrjXea 8olvkov 
XeiaLveiv TpiTTTr\pi. 

1 t^v LT, omitted by AZBQR. 

The 28 days of the lunar cycle, De hide, 367 f. 

6 Gow and Schofield, ed. Nicander, prefer a variant men- 

226 



FRAGMENTS : OTHER NAMED WORKS 

is reasonable for him to recommend us to open the 
jar and try the wine when the moon emits this heat 
least. 

Maes, who would supply " Plutarch " as the subject of 
" says." 

112 

Open your jar upon the fourth . . . 

*By this he means the " middle fourth," and thus 
praises the fourteenth day, both for jar-opening and 
as best for all purposes. And in fact the light of the 
moon is rich when it rises at sunset.* . . . 

And there is an Egyptian myth which relates that 
Osiris was king for as many years as is the number of 
these days a ; *it indicates, to my mind, that Osiris 
is the craftsman who brings all generated things to 
their completion, contriving their birth by his skill 
with the aid of the rays of the moon, both those that 
bring increase and those that bring decrease, so that 
things on this earth may come into being and also 
perish.* 

Pertusi. 

ON NICANDER'S ANTIDOTES TO 
SNJKE-BITE 

(Lamprias Catalogue 120) 

113 

A handful of fresh-growing parsnip b seed 
With pestle grind. 

tioned by the scholiast, havxfiov, which A. S. F. Gow, Class. 
Quart., N.S. i (1951), p. 100, shows to mean " bay tree.'* 

227 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

[AavKOV • 8vo yevrj rrjs ftordvrjs rj puev KprjriK'q, rj 
8* 9 AaiaTiKrj.] UXovTapxos nXetova fiev (/>T]cnv 
yevT] avrrjs etvai, to 8e koivov rrjs Swdfjuecos tSto>/z,a 
Spifjuv /cat TTvp&hes, <hs /cat 1 rj yevacs aladdverai 
/cat rj 2 6<j<f>pr)(ns , /cat 7T€ipa)[A€vov z SrjXov etvac /cat 
yap €fJL[A7]va KLvel a<f>68pa /cat StaAuet arp6<f>ovs rfj 
dep/MOTTJTL, /Cat Tcbv 7T€pl tov dojpaKd <nrXdyyyo)V 
KadapriKov /cat TTpoaeri ye jatjv Xztttvvtikov e^et 
oOevos** 

114 

Scholion (Ambr. C. 32 sup.) on Nicander, Theriaca, 333 
(Studi classici e oriental^ vi [1956]). 

AevKOil o' dpyivotooav €7Tiao€Vovrai €<f>r)Xw. 

'0 UAovrapxos tgls irucpas dp,vy8dXas </>r]al rd? 
twv 7Tpoaa)7T<x)v ££aip€LV 5 e^AtSas". 

115 

Stephanus of Byzantium, s.v. Kopoirrj. 
Nt/cavSpo? £v QrjpiaKois* 

fj €V 6 'A7roAAa>v 
fAavrelas 7 fcopoiralos eOrjKaro /cat defjuv dvSptov. 

Ot Se v7TOjJLvr)/JLaTLaavT€S avrov Qecov /cat IIAov- 
rapxos /cat ArjfirjTptos 6 XXtDpos 8 </)cl(jc NiKavSpos 
" ^OpoiraZos " /cat " l^opoiraios *A.tt6X\o)v "• dyvo€t 

1 Keil : kol <Ls or <bs. 

2 7) added by Bernardakis. 3 Trcipojfidvw Warmington. 

4 dwpaKCL Kal oirXayyva. rraOwv KadapriKTjv /cat XcTrrvvrtKTjv 
€x*t> Svvaiiiv G(ottingensis). 

5 i(alp€iv ms., as at 624 d. 6 Nicander : alkv. 

7 fiavToavvas Nicander. 8 Wyttenbach : OaXrjpevs. 

228 



FRAGMENTS : OTHER NAMED WORKS 

[Parsnip. There are two varieties of this plant, one 
Cretan, the other Asiatic] Plutarch says that there 
are several varieties, but that their common charac- 
teristic is to be pungent and fiery, as both taste and 
smell perceive ; and that if put to the test, this is 
clear, since by their heat they give a strong stimulus 
to the menstrual flow and also remove colic, and have 
the power to purge, and indeed also to reduce the 
size of, the organs situated in the chest. 



114 

Leprous eruptions spread a chalky rash. 

Plutarch says that bitter almonds remove blotches 
from the face. a 

115 

Nicander in his Tkeriaca : 

. . . and there Apollo 
Of Corop6 set up his oracle 
And laws for men . . . b 

His commentators Theon, c Plutarch, and Deme- 
trius " the Pale " d say, " Nicander : ' Oropaean ' 
and * Coropaean ' Apollo. He does not know that 

° Cf. Quaest. Conv. 624 d. 

6 Theriaca, 613-614. 

c Theon, grammarian, perhaps of the first century b.c, 
wrote commentaries on several Alexandrian poets. Wendel, 
R.E. v a 2054-2059, J. Martin, Histoire du texte des Pheno- 
menes d'Aratos, pp. 196-199. 

d Not later than early first century b.c. (Susemihl, Gr. Lit. 
d. Alexanderzeit, ii. 20) ; the origin of his nickname is not 
known, 

229 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

S' on 1 ' AfJL<f>iapdov lepov, ovk 2 'AttoXXojvos ecm. Ae- 
yerai 8e kclt eXXeixftiv rod i Ko/oo7rato9 3 * Koponrj Se 
©ecraaAta? ttoAis. fSeXriov Se U7rovo6tv on rjjjidpTrj- 
rcu. 4 feat ypdcfrerai *0po7raios' *OpoTrrf yap ttoXis 
EujSotas', oVof 'AttoAAojvo? hiaorjfjiOTaTov Upov. 



RATA HAONHS 

Wi/amowtte, Hermes, /vm (1923), p. 84, is clearly right 

*116 

Stobaeus, iii. 6. 49 (iii, p. 297 Hense). 

YlXovrdpxov €K rov Kara rjSovrjs' 

"On rd acopbara dvirjacv rj rjSovrj kclO* rjpbepav 
iKfjuaXdrrovaa rals rpv(f)cus, d>v rj ovviyeia rrapai- 
peirai rov rovov ara^aAcocra ttjv loyyv avrcjv ££ 
(hv pqoTOJvr) p,ev voacov paarcovrj Se KafJbdrwv, irpo- 
pi€X€TCL)fjL€vov 8* iv veoTrjri* yr\pas . 

*117 
Stobaeus, iii. 6. 50 (iii, p. 297 Hense). 
£jV ravrco • 
Qrjpiov iarl SovXaycoyov rf rjSovrj, dAA' ovk dy- 

1 Salmasius : 8e to. 2 oi)/c added by Salmasius. 

3 rov k 'OponaZos Holsten. 

4 Wilamowitz places this sentence after c<m, and continues 
/ecu ypa7TT€ov 'OpOTTCuos /car* eXXeu/jiv rod i avrl 'OpomaTos ' '0/>o- 
irla yap, ktX. See also I. Cazzaniga, Maia, N.S. 1 (1965), p. 60. 

5 ypd(f)€Tcu koll t Op6ir€Los' *Opoir€ia scholion on this line of 
Nicander. 6 Gesner : ^gottjtl LA : luaorrjTi M. 

230 



FRAGMENTS : OTHER NAMED WORKS 

the shrine there belongs to Amphiaraiis, not Apollo. 
(The form of the word is ' Coropaean,' without an 
i,° and Corope is a town in Thessaly.) But it is better 
to suppose that a mistake has been made. 6 There is 
also a reading * Oropaean/ Orope being a town in 
Euboea, where there is a very famous shrine of 
Apollo/ ' c 

AGAINST PLEASURE 

(Not in Lamprias Catalogue) 

in denying the authenticity of these fragments, on the grounds 
of hiatus and the " nauseous affectation " of their style. 

*116 

Plutarch, from the work Against Pleasure : 

He says that pleasure relaxes our bodies, softening 
them day in, day out, with luxuries which, if con- 
tinued, take away their energy and relax their 
strength ; there ensues an easy path for diseases, 
an easy path for pains, and a rehearsal of old age in 
youth. 

*117 

In the same work : 

Pleasure is a beast that makes us its slaves, but it 

° Possibly meaning " not ' Coropiaean.' " 

6 It is uncertain how much of this greatly confused note, 
discussed by Wilamowitz, Euripides Herakles 1 , i. 190 141 
(where he rejects the ascription in Grammatici graeci 9 iii, p. 
188, to Herodian), derives from Plutarch. 

c This town was called Orobiae. The shrine of Amphi- 
araiis was at Oropus in Boeotia. On these places see R.E. 
xi. 1436, xviii. 1133, 1175. 

7 iv Tatfra* omitted by L. 8 17 added by Hense. 

231 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

piov eWe yap rjv (fravepojs dV 7roXefiovaa ra^ecus 1 
edAar vvv 8e /cat ravrrj paarjTorepov, 6Vt /cAeVret 
rr)v €x9pav V7To8vop,€vr) gx^ji^cl evvoias. cucrre St- 
X&S 2 aTTorpoTraiov /cat &v j3Aa7TT€i /cat &v i/jevSe- 
rai. 



*118 

Stobaeus, iii. 6. 51 (iii, p. 298 Hense). 

JliV TCLVTO) ' 

Ta? /xev o& St/catas* ^Sovd? ovkct av rjSovas 
ovre KaXeaaifxev ovre vopbLoatpbev* dAAd OzpaTrtLas. 
b'oai Se 7rapd ravras iraaai vfipets rreptTTat 5 etat 
7r€7r\rjpajfjL€va* jSta^o^tevat, /cat rat? iroiKiXiais /coAa- 
Kevovaai Xavdavova ^Xdrrrovaai. 6 Se ets* ra 
rjfjLerepa vojjlos 6 /cat 7 rcov dAdyaw £>cpcov, ots* puera 
to aKeoaoOai ras imdvpLtas ovSevos ope^is, dAAd 
Kopos tcov 9 €7T€Ly6vTa)v dj3tdoTCH9 ^Sovats. 



*119 

Stobaeus, iii. 6. 52 (iii, p. 298 Hense). 



£ii 



Mtj Tis 7Tpo86ras irraivet; tolovtov ianv r) 

1 av L : omitted by MA yap Br. yap av Herwerden. Iva <f>a- 
vepws TToXcfiovaa Cobet. 

2 oixtos Buecheler : St^o) L Sixfj MA. 

3 iv ravra) omitted by L. 

4 vofiL(jai(X€v F. H. S. : tcr/Ltcv. 

6 7T€pirrai should perhaps be placed after ravras. 

232 



FRAGMENTS : OTHER NAMED WORKS 

is no savage beast. Would it were ! If it warred 
upon us openly, it would quickly be detected. But 
as things are, it is the more hateful for the very reason 
that it hides its hostility by assuming the guise of 
good will. It is therefore doubly abominable, for its 
harmfulness and for its falsity. 



*118 

In the same work : 

Legitimate pleasures we should cease to call plea- 
sures and should not think of them as such, but as 
curative processes. All others, apart from these, are 
unnecessary violations of nature, that bring force to 
bear on the satisfied, and are not recognized to be 
harmful because they cajole us with their variety. 
But the law for us should be the same as governs the 
irrational animals ; with them there is no appetite for 
anything, once their desires have been assuaged, but 
satiety with regard to what stimulates them, since 
they are not constrained by pleasures. 



*119 
In the same work : 
Surely no one praises traitors ? But that is what 

6 F. H. S. : 7T€7rrjpa)fjL€vaL. TreirX-qpay^iivai Gesner. 

7 Kara Jacobs. 

8 ots added by F. H. S. (<Lv Jacobs), fiera yap Bernardakis. 

9 ? Tals rdv iirayovraiv, 

10 omitted by L. 

11 rj added by A. 

233 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

r/Sovrj, 7rpo8i8a)oi ra rfjs 1 aperfjs. [x-q tis fiaaavi- 
oras; tolovtov eoTi to rjoeodai, ^aaavi^ei ra rrjs 1 
oa><f>poovvr)s . /X77 tis <j>iXapyvpiav ; drrX'qpajTov 

ioTIV €K(lT€pOV. TL T7]XlKOVTO) X<UpO/X€V drjpltp, O 

koAolk€vov 7] fids dvaXloKei; 



*120 
Stobaeus, iii. 6. 53 (iii, p. 299 Hense). 
ejV ravrcx) ■ 

17 S' OV TTCLVTixiV 6p(x)VTO)V dpp7]T€V€lS / dAA(X Kdl 

aavrov alSovfxevos <f>evyeis, vvktl /cat a Korea tols 
dfJbaprvpoLS Triarevcov ttjv tifipw; ovSels yap rcov 
kolXcov epyajv a kotos TrpofSdXXei, to (f>a)s olvtois 
puapTvpelv aloxvv6p,evos' aAA' oXov a/xa tov kogjjlov 
rjXcov yeveodai irpos a KdTopdol fiovXoiT av. 
aVacra 8e /ca/a'a opaoOai yv/Jbvrj (/>vXaTT€Tai , aKeirrjv 
7TpopaXXofi€vrj ra 7rd6rj. dnoKoifjavTes ovv avTas 4, 
yvfjivds jSAeVco/zev ra? rjSovds' fieOvovaiv els dvai- 
adrjolav, Xayvevovoiv els alcova, 5 KaOevSovocv els 
epya, 6 ovk ernoTpe^ovTai noXecov, ov (fypovTi^ovoi 
yoveojv, ovk oloyyvovTai vojjlovs. 

1 rrjs added by A. 

2 Omitted by L. 

3 Bernardakis : apiortveis LM apprj orevtis A. aKparcvcis 
Gesner (? better dit/parevei). 

4 aura Gesner. ? Read tout', avras and delete rag rjbovds. 

5 fjLcopiav Jacobs arovtav Meineke avoiav Haupt fiavtav Hense 
Zoo Usener. 

234 



FRAGMENTS : OTHER NAMED WORKS 

pleasure is ; it betrays our virtue. Surely no one 
praises torturers ? But that is what it is to feel 
pleasure ; it puts our self-control to the torture. 
Surely no one praises avarice ? Pleasure is as in- 
satiable. Why do we enjoy this great monster, that 
consumes us as it cajoles us ? a 



*120 

In the same work : 

Why do you not perform your unmentionable acts 
for all men to see, but hide away, ashamed even of 
yourself, and entrust your excesses to night and dark- 
ness, where there are no witnesses ? No one makes 
darkness a cover for his noble deeds, ashamed that 
daylight should witness them ; a man would wish 
that the whole universe might become a sun to see 
what he does aright. But every vice takes care not 
to be seen naked, sheltering behind a screen of feel- 
ings. Let us cut them away, then, and look at 
pleasures in their naked selves (?). b Men get drunk 
until they are insensible, they are lecherous all their 
lives, they sleep when they should be at their work, 
they take no care of their cities, have no thought for 
their parents, and feel no shame before the laws. 

a Hense suggests that this fragment preceded the previous 
one. 

6 The required sense seems rather to be " Vice shelters 
behind a screen of feelings of pleasure. Let us cut this away 
and look at vices in their nakedness. " But I can find no 
plausible way of emending the Greek. 

6 apyiav Duebner ay&vas Post ka-nipav Usener. 

235 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 



KAT ISXYOS 

121 

Stobaeus, iv. 12. 14 (iv, p. 344 Hense). 

UXovrdpxov €K rod /car' laxvos * 

Tt 84 gol toiovtov dyadov evTUX^jrat; dXX rjrv- 
XrjTou 1 fi&XXov, cos eVe/ca rovrov fJLrjrpvidv fiev 
toov dvdpooiroov fjLrjrepa ok toov dXoyoov ^oooov yeye- 
vfjaOcu rrjv <j>voiv, fjueyedovs /cat ooKvrrjTos 2 /cat d£t>- 
amtW xdpiv; r) o' dvOpoorroov iSios laxvs 6 ifn>XVS 

€CTTt XoyiGfJLOS, OS* KCLL L7T7TOVS 6^aAlVO>a€ KCU jSoaS" 

dpoTpots vne^ev^e /cat €X4(f>avTas vtto SpvjJidv etXe 
noSdypais* /cat ra ivaepta 5 Kareanaae KaXdpLois /cat 
ra ftvdt,a oeou/cora St/crvots dv^yaye* tout' ecrTtv 
loxvs- rj o' €Tt fJL€il^ojv, orav yr)s nepioSovs /cat 
ovpavov fxeyedrj /cat darepoov kvkXovs StooKOvaa p,r) 
Kafir), tclvt rjv f Hpa/cAeou? d£ta. Tt's yap ovk dv 

jSouAotTO fA&XXoV '08vOO€VS €IVCU r) Ku/cAa)l/f ,* 

1 eurocrat ; aAA' ^ru^rat F. H. S., #K. $T. : euTU^etrai. 

2 Hense, as Wyttenbach translated : o^vrrjros. 

3 os Elter : o. o> Gesner. 

4 Gesner : irohapyais {irohdypq. A). 

5 Trincavelli's edition : eV dc/ua S cV aepi MA. 

a Philo, Postf. Cam. 162 (see also 161), puts this metaphor 
down to ol hoKLfiwraroL ra>v irdXat, Aoytcav, cf. Cicero, De Re- 
publica, iii. 1-2, and E. Norden, Jahrbucher fur hi. Philologie, 
suppl. xviii, pp. 304-306. E. Bignone, Riv. fil., N.S. 14 



236 



FRAGMENTS : OTHER NAMED WORKS 
A DEPRECIATION OF STRENGTH 

(Not in Lamprias Catalogue) 

121 

Plutarch, from his Depreciation of Strength : 

What good fortune can you see in a good of that 
sort ? It is truer to say that you have come off badly, 
so that so far as this goes Nature has been a step- 
mother to men, but a mother to brute animals , a that 
is to say where size and speed and sharpness of vi- 
sion are concerned. But the proper strength of man is 
his mind's power of reason, which has bridled horses 
and yoked cattle to his ploughs, and in the forests cap- 
tured elephants in traps, 6 and fetched down the birds 
of the air by fowlers' rods and brought up in nets 
the denizens of the deep. There you have strength. 
But there is a strength greater still, when the mind 
tirelessly investigates the earth's geography, the vast 
distances of the heavens, or the revolutions of the 
stars. These were tasks worthy of Heracles ; for who 
would not rather be Odysseus than the Cyclops ? c 

(1936), p. 232, suggests a source in Aristotle's Protrepticus, 
Ziegler, R.E. xxii. 723, in Democritus. For the passage in 
general cf. De Fortuna, 98 c-f. 

6 Perhaps, as Duebner suggested, part of a hexameter, if 
Bpvfiov can be so scanned on the analogy of Spvud : elsewhere 
we find hpvfios. 

c i.e., an explorer than a giant. 



237 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

OMHPIKAI MEAETAI 
122 

Aulus Gellius, iv. 11. 

Plutarchus quoque, homo in disciplinis gravi auc- 
toritate, in primo librorum quos de Homero com- 
posuit Aristotelem philosophum scripsit eadem ipsa 
de Pythagoricis scripsisse, quod non abstinuerint 
edundis animalibus nisi pauca carne quadam. verba 
ipsa Plutarchi, quoniam res inopinata est, subscripsi : 
> ApiGTOT€Arjs Se iirfrpas /cat Kaphias /cat a.KaX'qcftrjs 
/cat tolovtcov Tivcov a\\(x)v ameyeoQai (frrjat tovs 
YlvdayoptKovs, xpfjcrdat 8e tols aAAots 1 . 

123 

Aulus Gellius, ii. 8. 

Plutarchus secundo librorum, quos de Homero 
composuit, imperfecte atque praepostere atque in- 
scite syllogismo esse usum Epicurum dicit verbaque 
ipsa Epicuri ponit : f O Odvaros ovSev 77/009 rjfJids' to 
yap SiaAvOev avaiaOr^rei, to Se avaioQryrovv ovSev 
npos rjfJL&s. " nam praetermisit," inquit, " quod in 
prima parte sumere debuit, rov Odvarov ttvai fox^s 
/cat acbfiaros SidAvaw tunc deinde eodem ipso quod 
omiserat quasi posito concessoque ad confirmandum 
aliud utitur. progredi autem hie," inquit, " syllogis- 
mus, nisi illo prius posito, non potest." 

I have been unable to see H. Schrader, De Plutarchi 
Chaeronensis 'OfirjpiKats McAerai?, Gotha, 1899. 

238 



FRAGMENTS : OTHER NAMED WORKS 

HOMERIC STUDIES 

122 

Plutarch, too, a weighty authority in matters of 
scholarship, wrote in the first of his books on Homer 
that the philosopher Aristotle made the same state- 
ment about the Pythagoreans, namely that they did 
not abstain from eating animals, except for a few 
particular meats. As this is unexpected, I add Plu- 
tarch's own words : "Aristotle says that the Pytha- 
goreans abstained from the pigs paunch, the heart, 
the sea-nettle, and some other things of the sort, but 
ate everything else. ,, b 

123 

Plutarch, in the second of his books on Homer, says 
that Epicurus made an imperfect, absurd, and clumsy 
use of the syllogism, and quotes Epicurus' own words : 
" Death does not concern us ; for what is dissolved 
is without sensation, and what is without sensation 
does not concern us." c " For he passed over," he 
writes, " what he ought to have posited to begin 
with, namely that death is a dissolution of body and 
soul ; then he proceeds to use this omitted premise, 
as if it had been stated and agreed, to establish 
another proposition. But unless that premise is first 
stated, the syllogism cannot proceed." 

b Frag. 194 ; cf. Quaest, Conv. 670 c, Porphyry, Vit. 
Pyth. 45, Diog. Laert. viii. 18-19. W. K. C. Guthrie, History 
of Greek Philosophy, i. 187-191, translates and discusses the 
principal texts concerning Pythagorean abstention from 
animal food. 

c Kvpta Ao'fa 2. 

239 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

124 

Aulus Gellius, ii. 9. 

In eodem libro idem Plutarchus eundem Epicurum 
reprehendit quod verbo usus sit parum proprio et 
alienae significationis. ita enim scripsit Epicurus : 
"Opos tov fxeyedovs tlov rjSovcov r) ttclvtos tov aA- 
yovvTOS vTT^^aipeois . " non," inquit, ttclvtos tov 
dXyovvTos sed ttclvtos tov dXyeivov dicere oportuit. 
detractio enim significanda est doloris," inquit, " non 
dolentis. ,, 

125 

Galen, Hippocratis et Platonis Dogmata, iii, p. 265 M tiller 
(v. 300 Ktihn). 

'Ev ots iyco Liev kKTrXyyTTOiiai ttj LieyaXoipvxiCL 1 tov 
y^pvoLTTTTOV 2 ' 8eov yap cos avdpcoTTov aveyvcoKOTa 

TOGOVTOVS TTOlT)Tc\s KCll yiVCOCTKOVTCL <JCL<f)CQS cXttcloi 

tols SoyLiaaiv avTov 3 /JuapTvpovvTas <zAAot€ /car' 
aAAa tcov incov, cooTrep kcll IlXovTap^os ineSeL^ev 
iv toXs tcov 'Olltjplkcov LieXeTCov, eKXeyeiv* fiev i£ 
clvtcov oaa puapTvpel tco CTTrovSa^oLievcp Trpos clvtov 
Soy [MOLT i. . . . 

126 

Scholion on Euripides, Alcestis, 1128. 

^Fvxa-ywyoL Twes yorjT€s b iv ©erraAta 6 ovtlo /ca- 
Xov/xevoi, OLTcves KadapfjLols tlcjl kcll yor)T€iais tcl 
€l8loXcl eTTciyovoi T€ kcll i£dyovaiv ovs kcll Aclklo- 

V€S Ll€T€TT€LufjCLVTO, TjVLKCL TO HcLVGCLVLOV €l8coXoV i£- 

1 M tiller : rrjs fieyahoifivxtas. 
240 



FRAGMENTS : OTHER NAMED WORKS 

124 

In the same book the same Plutarch criticizes Epi- 
curus again for using an unsuitable word with a 
meaning foreign to the context. Epicurus wrote, 
" The limit of quantity in pleasures is the removal 
of all that feels pain/' a " He ought not," objects 
Plutarch, " to have said, ' of all that feels pain,' but 
1 of all that is painful/ For the required meaning," 
he says, " is the removal of pain, not of what is 
pained. " 

125 

Here I am astonished at Chrysippus' magnanimity. 
A man who had read so many poets and knew that 
in various passages of their poems they clearly gave 
their testimony in support of all his doctrines, as 
Plutarch has shown in his Homeric Studies, should have 
selected such passages as support the doctrine he 
favours. . . . 

126 

Certain so-called spirit-summoning magicians in 
Thessaly, who by certain rites of purification b and 
magic practices both call up and banish ghosts. They 
were sent for by the Spartans, too, when the ghost of 

° Kvpta Ao'f a 3. 

6 On the blurring of the distinction between purificatory 
and propitiatory rites see Rohde, Psyche, ii. 79 ; on control of 
spirits, ibid. ii. 87 2 ' 8 . 

2 Laur. lxxiv. 22 : rov Xpvaiinrov Hamilton 270 (whose 
readings I owe to P. de Lacy). 3 avrov] avrovs Miiller. 

4 Laur. lxxiv. 22 : iicXiyei Hamilton 270. 
6 yor)T€s omitted by A. 8 ? OtyaAta Mittelhaus. 

241 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

erdpatje rovs irpooiovras rep vaco rfjs XaA/ctot/cot;, 
<hs IvTopei UXovrapxos €v rats 'QpLrjpiKaZs ^teAe'rats. 

127 
Scholion on Iliad, xv. 624 ; Etymologicum Magnum, s.v. 

aV€[lOTp€<l>€S. 

Ta yap U77€vSta /cat /caracr/cta^o/z^va rcbv 8ev- 
Spajv evyevrj 1 p,€V /cat Xelov rov opTrrjKa rroiel, d- 
odevrf 8k /cat /jlclXclkov /cat dyv/JLvaorov avahihcoaiv 

61s 8e 7rpOG7TL7TT€L Tpa^VS OLTJp KCU dv€p,U)8r)S, TOLVTCL 

rat? tcov TTvevpLdrcov TpifiojJLeva irXriyais evrovov /cat 
8vo6pvTTTOV 2 €^€t TTjv aTepporrjra, cos* (f>rjat TLXov- 
rapxos iv /xeAerats* 'OfJLrjpiKcus. 

OTI KAI TYNAIKA nAIAETTEON 

This work is not listed in the Lamprias Catalogue. 
Several instances of hiatus in the fragments, and their lack 
of relevance to the title, caused Ziegler to doubt whether they 

128 
Stobaeus, iii. 18. 27 (iii, p. 520 Hense). 
YiXovrdpxpv €K rov on /cat yvvoxKa TTacSevreov 
Ta> Alovuoo) vdpOrjKCL /cat Xtfdrjv cruyKadiepovaiv, 

1 €VT€vij Wyttenbach, but c/. Geoponica, v. 87. 2, Aelian, 
V.H. ii. 14, Philo, Vit. Mos. i. 22 (and Kohn's index). 

2 hvodpavorov Schol. Ven. 

° Pausanias starved to death in the temple of Ath&na of 
the Bronze House at Sparta. At De Sera Numinis Vindicta, 
560 e, the exorcists are said to have come from Italy. Mittel- 
haus, R.E. xix. 2084, suggests that " Thessaly " and " Italy " 

242 



FRAGMENTS : OTHER NAMED WORKS 

Pausanias alarmed visitors to the shrine of the Lady 
of the Bronze House/ 1 So Plutarch records in his 
Homeric Studies. 

127 

Trees situated in sheltered and shady places send 
up shoots that are well grown and smooth, but also 
weak, soft, and flabby ; those, however, that are 
exposed to a harsh, windy atmosphere have a stiffness 
that is elastic and resists breaking, the result of being 
battered by blows from the winds, as Plutarch says 
in his Homeric Studies. h 



A WOMAN, TOO, SHOULD BE 
EDUCATED 

come from the alleged source , or are by Plutarch at all. But 
the hiatus may be due to an eoccerptor, and four of the frag- 
ments have parallels in genuine works. For the title compare 
Musonius* Et irapairXTjcrtcos Traihtvriov ras Bvyaripas rots viols. 

128 

Plutarch, from the work A Woman, too, should be 
Educated : 

They dedicate the cane c to Dionysus and along 

are both corruptions of Phigalia, a town in Arcadia, where 
Pausanias himself consulted ipvxaytoyot (Pausanias, iii. 17. 9). 
See also W. Burkert, Rh. Mus. cv (1963), p. 49. 

h The scholion is on the phrase " wind-bred wave," but 
Plutarch was commenting on the application of the same 
epithet (dv€^orp€<f>€s) to a spear at Iliad, xi. 256. 

e Both this fragment (another version of Quaest. Conv. 
612 c ; cf. also De Cohibenda Ira, 462 b) and the next have 
probably been abbreviated. The Dionysiac thyrsus was the 

243 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(I)S p>r) Seov fJLvrjfiov€V€iv rtov iv oivco TrXrjfjifieXr)- 
devrcov dXXa vovdeaias 7rai8iKrjs Seofievcov. to 1 
avvdSei /cat to " pnaico 2 fjuvapuova avpLTrorav," 3 6 
8 9 EvpnTtSrjs rtov aroircov ttjv Xrjdrjv ao<f>rjv €ipr]K€. 

129 

Stobaeus, iii. 18. 31 (iii, p. 521 Hense). 

UXovrdpxov €K rod on /cat yvvauKa TratSevreov 

'AfJLaOirjv, cos </>r]cnv 'Hoa/cAetTos", /cat dXXcos Kpv- 

ttt€iv epyov iorlv iv oivco Se x a ^ €7T( * )T€ P ov ' K0LL 

HXdrcov Si (fyrjortv iv oivco rd rfif) (f>av€pd yiveodai, 

C007T€p KOL "OfJLTJpOS' 

ov8e r pane ^7] 
yvcorrjv dXXrjXcov. 



ISO 
Stobaeus, iii. 18. 32 (iii, p. 522 Hense). 



Tov 



avrov • 



Ho(f)OKXrjS ifJL€fJL</>€TO AtO^vAo), OTL fJb€0VCOV €ypOL- 

</>€• /cat yap et ra oeovra 7TOi€L, (prjOLV, aAA 
ovk €iotos ye. 

1 Gesner : coy. 

2 Bernardakis : /xtacD. 

3 Gesner, Hense : \ivr\[Loovvav ttotov. 

stalk of the giant fennel, tipped with ivy. This stalk was also 
used in school as an instrument of correction : for illustra- 
tions see J. D. Beazley, Am, Journ, Arch,, 2nd ser. xxxvii 
(1933), p. 400. 

244 



FRAGMENTS : OTHER NAMED WORKS 

with it forgetfulness, in the belief that one ought not 
to remember offences committed while drinking, yet 
needing the disciplinary action appropriate to chil- 
dren. Consistent with this is the phrase M I hate a 
boon companion with a good memory." a And Euri- 
pides said that forgetfulness of bad events was wise. 6 



129 

Plutarch, from the work A Woman, too, should be 
Educated : 

Stupidity, as Heraclitus says, is in any case difficult 
to hide, c but harder than ever over the wine. Plato 
also says that men's characters are brought to light 
over the wine, d and similarly Homer has : " They 
knew not one another at table." e 



130 

The same author : 

Sophocles criticized Aeschylus for writing under the 
influence of wine^ " Even if there is nothing wrong 
with his poetry," he explained, " that is not because 
he knows what he is doing as he writes." 

° Diehl, Anthologia lyrica, ii, p. 160 (anonymous) ; Page, 
Greek Melic Poets, adespota 1002. 

b Orestes, 213. 

c Heraclitus, frag. 95, is quoted elsewhere by Plutarch 
(Mor. 43 d, 439 d, 644 f) in the form dfiaOl-qv dp.€ivov Kpvirr€iv, 
" it is better to hide stupidity.'* 

d Laws, 650 a. 

e Odyssey, xxi. 35, quoted also at Quaest. Conv. 645 a. 

f Cf. Quaest. Conv. 622 e, 715 d ; the anecdote is due to 
Chamaeleon (Athenaeus, 22 b, 428 f). For the sentiment cf. 
Plato, Rep. 598 e. 

245 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

131 

Stobaeus, (a) iv. 1. 140, (6) 31. 46 (iv, p. 89, v, p. 749 
Hense). 

TlXovrdpxov €K tov on /cat yvvatKa ncuSevTeov 

Mr) 7rat8l pudxcupav, r) 7rapot/u'a <f>t)oiv iy<h 8e 
(fxxirjv av " jjutj ttcliSI ttXovtov fJbrjSe dvSpl arrai- 
Sevrco Swacnrclav" 



132 

Stobaeus, iv. 32. 15 (v, p. 784 Hense). 

YlXovrdpxov €K tov on /cat yvvatKa TTCuSevreov 

*Apxvras dvayvovs tov 'ILparoodevovs 'Epfxrjv, 
tovtov iirriveyKe 1 rov orixov 

Xp€t(x) iravr cotoafe* n o ov XP €LO) K€V wevpoi; 

/cat tovtov 2 ' 

opdov- /cat ydp z puaXXov 4, €7ra)8ivovoi fj,€pifAvai. 



133 

Stobaeus, iv. 52. 43 (v, p. 1085 Hense). 

UXovTapxov €K tov on /cat yvvatKa TTaihevTeov 

Tpo<f>wvtos /cat ' AyafJLijSrjg TrotrjoavTZS iv AeA- 
<f>ois vaov tJtovv irapd tov 'AttoXXcovos tov jjlioOov 
o o aurot? €977 oa)cretv 177 epoofirj rffxepa' /cat 777 

1 €7T^veo-€ Cobet. 

2 Meineke : rovro. 

8 A : opOov yap kclI SM : opBpov yap /cat Meineke. 

4 /x€tov Bergk. 

246 



FRAGMENTS : OTHER NAMED WORKS 

131 

Plutarch, from the work A Woman, too, should be 
Educated : 

Don't give a child a knife, says the proverb/* I 
would say, " Don't give a child wealth, nor an un- 
educated man political power." 



132 

Plutarch, from the work A Woman, too, should be 
Educated : 

Archytas, 5 having read Eratosthenes' Hermes, 
quoted the line 

Need teaches all ; what could not Need invent ? 
and also 

Arise ! the birth-pangs of your problems grow. 



133 

Plutarch, from the work A Woman, too, should be 
Educated : 

Trophonius and Agamedes, having built a temple 
at Delphi, asked Apollo for their reward. He replied 
that he would give it them six days later ; and six 

• Leutsch, Paroemiographi graeci, i. 276, iL 528. 

6 The poet Archytas of Amphissa ; these are frags. 3 and 
4 in Collectanea Alexandrina, ed. J. U. Powell, who thinks, 
however, that they may have been quotations from Philetas' 
Hermes. Cobet's emendation (" praised " for " quoted ") 
would make the lines part of Eratosthenes' poem, for which 
see Coll. Alex., p. 58. The first line is quoted again by 
Plutarch, frag. 147. 

247 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

ip86/JL7) dnedavov. en Se KAeojSts 1 /cat BtVan>, Kv- 
8i7T7rr]s rrjs [Arjrpos avrcov evtjafievrjs rrj "Hpa, 8ov- 

VOO, TOIS TTCLIOIV 07T€p dv €17] KoXXlOTOV y OTL iaVTOVS 

vno^evtjavTes rrjv [ArjTepa els to lepbv dvr\yayov y rov 
fiiov napaxpfjiia Karearpeipav els ovs /cat roi6v8e 

TLS eTTLypaflfia 7Te7TOl7)K€V 

ol8e Bltcdv KAeojStS" r eirl acbpLaaw oIkziomjw 

£,evyXav £ev£dp>€Voi fjurjrepa f)v dyerrjv 
"Upas els lepov Xaol 8e p,iv e^rjXajoav 

evreKvias TraL8cx)v. rj 8e ^apetaa Bed 
evijaro TTCuSe Tuyjeiv rov dpiarov 8aip,ovos a'toys, 

ovveK irLfjurjaav fjurjrepa rr\v a(f>ereprjv. 
avrov 8* evvrjdevre Xlnov fiiov iv V€ott]tl, 

J)S rdS' dpiGTOV eov /cat /jbaKapiarorarov . 



IIEPI EPftTOS 

134 

Stobaeus, iv. 20. 34 (iv, p. 444 Hense). 

YlXovrdpxov €K rod ire pi epcoros' 

Tcx)v M.evdv8pov Spapbdrajv o/xaXcos diravrajv ev 

OVV€KTLKOV €OTLV, 6 €pO)S, oloV 7TV€VfJia KOIVOV 8ld- 

Ti'efoirrjKcbs. 1 ovr 2 ovv fidXtara diaaooTrjv rod deov 
/tat opyLaarrjV rov dv8pa av/X7ra/)aAa^j8dVa>/X€i> 3 els 
irjv tpfiTiqoiv, errel /cat XeXdXrjKe irepl rod irdOovs 
<f>iXoao(f>CL)T€pov . dtjtov yap elvai davpLaros (frtfcras 4, 

1 Bernardakis : 8ia7T€<l>vKa>s. 8iaK€xvKa>s Meineke. 

2 Bernardakis : ov. Deeper corruption is possible. 

3 Wyttenbach (-ot/xcv) : au/iTrepiAa/zjSavo/zev (-o>/*€v Meineke). 
4 Jacobs : <j>ijaai. 

248 



FRAGMENTS : OTHER NAMED WORKS 

days later they died. Again, Cydippe, the mother of 
Cleobis and Biton, prayed to Hera to give her sons 
whatever might be her finest gift, because they had 
harnessed themselves and drawn their mother to the 
goddess's temple ; they immediately passed away/ 1 
Someone has composed an epigram on them as fol- 
lows : 

Here lie Biton and Cleobis, who placed a yoke on their own 
shoulders and drew their mother to the shrine of Hera. The 
people envied her for having such fine children for her sons, 
and she in her joy prayed to the goddess that her sons might 
be allotted the best of fortunes, since they had done this 
honour to their mother. And thereupon they laid them 
down to sleep and departed life in their youth, showing this 
to be the best and most blessed thing there is. 



ON LOVE 

(Nat in Lamprias Catalogue) 
134 

Plutarch, from the work On Love : 

One thing regularly gives cohesion to all Men- 
ander's plays — Love, which pervades them like a 
universal spirit. 6 Let us then associate with us in 
our inquiry this leading celebrant and devotee of the 
god, since he has also talked about the passion quite 
philosophically. Having said that the experience of 

a Both these stories are told by Ps.-Plutarch, Consolatio ad 
Apollonium, 108 e— 109 a, Cicero, Tusc. i. 113-114; the 
latter by Herodotus, i. 31. 

b Plutarch uses the language (" give cohesion,'* ** per- 
vade," " universal spirit ") applied by the Stoics to their 
God, immanent in the world. 

249 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

TO 7T€/0t TOWS' ip&VTCLS, 0)01T€p iaTLV (X/ZcAet, 1 tlr 
a.7TOp€L /Cat E,7}T€L TTpOS idVTOV, 

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yjpojv KpLGtv yap to pXeneiv tcrqv %X €lt 
aXX rjSovtj tls tovs ipcbvTas eirdyeTai 
avvovoias ; ttcos ovv eTepos TavTTjv 'iytov 
ovSev rreirovdev, aXX aTrrjXOe KaTayeXcbv, 

€T€pOS S' 2 a7ToAcoA€; KaipOS €<7TLV rf vooos 

ipvyfis' 6 Tr\r]yels o' ets* aKfirjv* Tt,Tpa)OK€Tai." 
raura tiv €otI OKeificofieda' Kal yap e^€t tl Kpov- 

GTLKOV /Cat KLVrjTCKOV alTlOV 6 €p(JL>S, €t Kal pjTjT€ TTJV 

oipcv 5 jj,tJt€ ttjv cruvovoiav airlav etvat iriQavov ioTt 9 
apxcd yap aurat 6 Tives lgcds, rj S' loxvs Kal pi^ojois 
tov Trauovs ev €Tepois. r) o airooei^is €Aa<ppa /cat 
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cbarrep ovSe to yeveadat. Kal yap oipcs oxjjecos Kal 

OLKofjS OLKOTj (f>VCF€L T€ [JL&XXoV hirfpOpOJTai Kal T€)(Vr) 

ovyyeyvfJbvaaTai irpos ttjv tov KaXov Sidyvajoiv, 
ev p,€V apfAovtats Kal fieXeoiv at tcov jjlovctlkcov Iv 
8e jxop<f>als Kal Iheais at tcjv ^cpypdcfrajv** woirep 

€17T€LV 7TOT€ Nt/COjLta^OV XeyOVOl 77/00? dvdpOJTTOV 

ISlojttjv <f>rjcravTa pur) KaXrjv avTco <f>avfjvai ttjv 

1 F. H. S. : apa AaAct. 2 8* added by Dobree. 

3 763 b, and also below : carr) or ian. ianv $ Post. 

* F. H. S., cf. iv dKfxf} below: ciaco 8rj. to? eSct Grotius ct? 
o Set Wyttenbach cts ixuv Post (cf. Amatorius, 763 b, ciXrjTrTat, 
8* ets), after G. Hermann's eh 681. 

6 elfjL^Tc tt)v oipLv added by Halm, 6 tzpcos and /cat by F. H. S. 

6 A : aural S. 

7 lorjv added by Gesner. 8 Gesner : JaW <j>ptv€s. 

■ Frag. 568 Koerte, 541 Kock. The last line and a half 
are cited also at Amatorius, 763 b where there is a lacuna 

250 



FRAGMENTS : OTHER NAMED WORKS 

those who are in love is fit matter for astonishment, 
as to be sure it is, he goes on to puzzle and ask him- 
self: 

Of what are they the slaves ? 
Their eyes ? What nonsense ! All men would then love 
The same girl, since sight's judgement is impartial. 
Some pleasure then in intercourse draws men 
To love ? Then why does one, having this woman, 
Come off untouched and ridicule her charms, 
And yet another's lost ? No, this disease 
Comes when the heart is ready, and a man, 
Struck at the critical time, will get a wound. a 

Let us see what is to be made of these lines. Love 
certainly has some impelling, motive cause, even if it 
is not plausible either that sight or that intercourse 
should be responsible ; although these are things 
that may very well be origins of a sort, the strength 
of the passion has its roots elsewhere. The proof 
here given, however, has little weight, or is even 
false. It is not true that " sight's judgement is im- 
partial " any more than it is true of taste. One 
man's vision and one man's hearing is more de- 
veloped by nature and more trained by art to re- 
cognize beauty than another's : the hearing of the 
musician where scales and melody are concerned, 
the vision of the painter where it is a matter of shape 
and form. For example, there is a story that when 
some man with no professional knowledge of art 
told Nicomachus that he had not thought Zeuxis's 

for the corrupt words clato 817. Numerous emendations have 
been suggested, but the cure remains doubtful. Post 
translates his text : " Sickness of mind makes the difference. 
The one man smitten is wounded of his own free will," and 
cites Augustine, City of God> xii. 6, who proves, by using 
the same argument as is found here, that falling in love is a 
matter of free will. 

251 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

2a€v£i8os 'EXevrjv " AajSe yap/' ty 7 !* " rovs i/juovs 
ocfrOaAfAovs, /cat Qeos ooi </>avrjcr€Tai." 7toAv Se /cat 
fjbvpeifjol rrepl tcl oocfrpavra /cat v^ At' oxjjoiroiol 
7T€pl tcl yevora 8iarpif$fj /cat avvrjOeia 8ia<f>epovoav 
rjjjbcov Kpioiv exovGi. 7raAtv Se to ovvovoia rov 
iptovTOL 1 fir) KparetaOaL, Sta to tjj avrfj avyyzvo- 
fievov dAAov drraAAayrjvat /cat kcitcx/) povrj vat, tolov- 
tov ionv, olov €i Aeyoi ns fJbrjSe yyp,G)v rjSovfj 8e- 
8ovAcooQai (PtAotjevov rov 6ifjo(f>dyov , on rcov avrcov 
'Avnodevrjs yevodjjLevos ov8ev tirade tolovtov, 
fir]8 y vtto otvov fieOveiv 'AA/ctjStaS^v, on HcoKpdrrjs 

7TLVCOV TOV LVOV otvOV €V7](f)€V. 

'AAAd ravra fxev idacopbev, rd S' i<f)€£rjs, iv ols 
rj8rj rrjv avrov 2 86£av aVo^atWrat , GKOTrcopLev. 
" Kaipos ionv rj vooos fox^s ." eu /cat opdcos. Set 
yap dfia rod irdoxovros els ravro /cat rov ttoiovvtos 
drravTrjoiv yeveoOai, rrpos dAArjAd ttcos ixovrcov cos 
aKvpov els rrjv rov reAovs drrepyaocav r) 8paonKr) 
Svvapus, dv firj TradrjnKr) ,Sta0€crts' rj. rovro 8' €v- 
gtoxicls iarl Kaipov rep rraOelv iroipbcp 3 ovvdmov- 
ros iv aK/jifj to rroieiv 7r€(f>VKos. 4 

135 
Stobaeus, iv. 20. 67 (iv, p. 468 Hense). 
'E/c rcov HAovrdpxov on ov Kpiois 6 epcos* 

Of \ \ / 5 * >' * 0> » /) ' r £ x 

t p,€V yap voaov rov epcora ol o ernuvfjuav ol oe 

1 Meineke : epwra. 2 Meineke : avrov. 

3 Wyttenbach : ifioi ttws S : efioiye ttcos A . 
4 Trincavelli's ed. : tt€<j>vkcos. 5 Cobet : vovv. 

a The same anecdote is in Aelian, Varia Hist. xiv. 47. 
Nicomachus was a leading painter of the 4th century b.c. 

252 



FRAGMENTS : OTHER NAMED WORKS 

Helen beautiful, the painter replied : " Take my 
eyes, and you will think her a goddess/' a Perfume- 
makers, too, through practice and familiarity judge 
very much better than we do about the scent of 
things, and, if it comes to that, cooks about flavours. 
Then to argue that the lover is not mastered by 
the pleasure of intercourse because another man 
who has lain with the same woman makes off with- 
out giving her another thought, is like saying 
that Philoxenus b the gourmand was not enslaved 
to the pleasure of the palate because Antisthenes 
tasted the same food without its having any such 
effect on him ; or that wine did not make Alcibiades 
tipsy, because Socrates drank as much and remained 
sober. 6 

But let us drop these points and consider the fol- 
lowing lines in which he expresses his own opinion. 
" This disease comes when the heart is ready." 
Well and truly put ! There must occur the simul- 
taneous meeting at one point of agent and patient, 
related to one another in a particular way. The 
active power is incapable of producing the final result 
unless the passive condition is there ; and this is a 
matter of hitting the right moment that brings to- 
gether at the critical time what is of the sort to act 
and what is ready to be acted upon. 

135 

From Plutarch's argument that love is not a matter 
of decision : 

To some love seems to be a disease, to others a 

b Identified in antiquity, perhaps mistakenly, with Philo- 
xenus the writer of dithyrambs (c. 435-380 b.c). 
c Plato, Symposium, 213 e — 214 e. 

253 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(f>iXiav x ol 8e [lavlav oi 8k 0€l6v tl KLvqpLa rrjs ^X 7 )^ 
/cat Satfiovcov, oi 8* avriKpvs 0€ov dvayopcvovaLV. 
60ev 6p0a>s £vlols cSo^e to fi€v dpxdpievov eTridvpLiav 
etvcu to S' VTrepfidXXov fiaviav to S* dvTLGTpo<f>ov 

<f>t\iaV TO 8e Ta7T€LVOT€pOV appCOGTlOLV TO 8' €VTJ- 

puepovv ivOovGLaofiov. 8lo /cat 7TVp<f)6pOV OLVTOV ol 
re 7rocrjTal XeyovoLV ol re 77-AaoTat /cat ypa<f>€LS 
8r)jjuovpyovoLV , otl /cat tov irvpos to fi€v Xapunpov 

7J8iCrTOV loTLV TO 8e KOVOTLKOV dXy€LVOTCLTOV. 



136 

Stobaeus, iv. 20. 68 (iv, p. 469 Hense). 
'Ei> TCLVTO>' 

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£6pL€VOS. TLV€S 8* €t(TtV OL TOV epOJTOS OWX*S KCLL 

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1 ol 8€ <j>i\Lav added by F. H. S. 
254 



FRAGMENTS : OTHER NAMED WORKS 

desire, to others friendship, to others a madness, to 
others a divine or demoniac change in the soul, and 
yet others proclaim it a god outright. Hence there 
are those who have rightly thought its beginning a 
desire, its excess a madness, its reciprocation friend- 
ship ; in its abasement it is a malady and when it 
flourishes happily it is possession by a supernatural 
power. And so poets speak of Love, and sculptors 
and painters fashion him, as the bearer of fire, because 
fire, too, has a splendour that gives the greatest 
pleasure, but a power of burning that inflicts the 
greatest pain. 

136 

In the same place : 

Although when our friends are in their right minds 
it is best to show them their errors and correct them 
when they make a mistake, we usually do not struggle 
with them or contend against them when they are 
mentally deranged or delirious, but humour them and 
agree with them. Just so, we should speak freely to 
check and deter those who do wrong through anger 
or avarice, but show forbearance towards those who 
are in love, as if they were sick. 

And so it is best from the first not to harbour the 
seed or origin of such a passion. But if it is implanted, 
betake yourself to the altars of the averting deities 
as Plato advises , a betake yourself to the company of 
wise men, expel the wild beast from you before it 
grows teeth and claws. If you do not, you will find 
yourself fighting a fully-grown monster, through 
taking to your arms this child, this infant. And what 
are Love's teeth and claws ? Suspicion, jealousy. 
° Laws, 854 b. 

255 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

/cat dvdrjpov. a/xc'Aet /cat rj 1 Ti<f>lytj ef^ev eirayajyov 

TO TTOLKtX/JLa TOV 7TT€pOV, /Cat 

€t puev irpos avyds 2 rjXtov, y^pvoomov rjv 
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/cat ot/cous 1 /cat ydpuovs /cat r/yefjuovias, 5 ovk alviy- 
jLtara 7rpof$dXXa)v aAA' auro? atvLyfia hvaevperov 

COV /Cat SvaAuTOV, €t fiovXoLTO TLS 7TpOT€LV€LV TL 

fjuoet /cat </>lX€l, tl <f>€vyei /cat 8l<x)K€l, tl aTreiAel 
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/cat 8La(f>0€LpovaLV, dpx^LV deXovai /cat 8ovXev€LV 

1 rj added by second hand in A. 

2 lir]7rovs P. Oxy. 2459. 

3 vtyos P. Oxy. 2459. 

4 avTavy€L, corrected by second hand in A. 

5 Wyttenbach : riyepovas. 

6 rt added by Wakefield. 

7 rt . . . depanevei Kronenberg : rovro \vaai kcu depa- 
wevocu. 

256 



FRAGMENTS : OTHER NAMED WORKS 

But he has something gay and winning about him. 
No doubt the Sphinx, too, had something attractive 
in the changing colours of her feathers, and 

Gold gleamed the creature's coverts, turned she them 
To face the shining sun ; but cloudwise turned, 
A dark reflection shone, hued like a rainbow. 

So Love, too, has something about him that is graceful 
and not without elegance but full of wiles and blan- 
dishment. He robs men of their livelihoods, their es- 
tablishments, their marriages, their high commands, 
propounding no riddles, but being himself a riddle 
that would be hard to discover or solve, if one were 
to propose as a puzzle " what is it that hates and 
loves, flees and pursues, threatens and implores, 
feels anger and pity, wishes and does not wish to 
come to an end, finds the greatest joy and torment 
in the same source, and hurts the very thing it 
serves ? " The riddle of the Sphinx consists for 
the most part of what are really fictions : an old 
man is not in truth three-footed if he has taken a 
stick to reinforce his feet, nor an infant four-footed 
because it supports its weak and infirm steps with 
its hands. But there is nothing unreal about lovers* 
passions : they show affection and hate, long for the 
absent one, yet tremble at his presence, flatter him, 
abuse him, sacrifice their lives for him, murder him, 
pray not to be fond, while unwilling to cease being 
fond ; they discipline and tempt, educate and corrupt, 
wish to command and endure to be slaves. There 

° Nauck, Trag. Graec. Frag., adespota 541, now known 
to be from Euripides' Oedipus (P. Oxy. 2459). 

8 rt added by Gaisford. 

9 -rrdvT added by Piccolos to remove hiatus. 

10 Wyttenbach : trt)pG>aw. 

257 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

V7TOfM€VOVGL. TOVT CUTIOV yiyOV€ fldXlGTa TOV {ICL- 

viav V7roAr)<f>drjvai to ttolOos* 

Tjpajv to fj,aiveodcu 8' dp 9 rjv epcos fiporois, 
ipcoTLKOs dvrjp Ey/atmS^? $r\olv. 

137 

Stobaeus, iv. 20. 69 (iv, p. 470 Hense). 

Tou auTOU rrepl epojros* 

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7ravrd7TaoLV i^aTrrjXXaKrai rfjs faxfjs aAA' ivovno- 
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d7TaXAay€LG7]s t^i/09 iv rfj ifjvxj} 7rapapL€V€i ovvolkov 
ov8' opyrjs Tpa^eta? Treaovarjs , avoTeXXeraa? 8e 
/cat (^Xeypbovrj imOvpLias* irapexovorjs Tpayv KLvrjp,a* 
rd o' ipajTLKa S^y/xara, /caV dirooTfj to drjpiov, ovk 
i£avLr\ai rov lov, aAA* ivotSei 5 rd ivros oirapdy- 

1 Gesner : holXolkos. 2 ol added by F. H. S. 

3 Piccolos : crTcAAerai. 4 ? itndvyLias (f>X€yfiovrj. 

5 ivihpot mss. : corrected by second hand in A. 

° Nauck, Trag. Graec. Frag. y Euripides, frag. 161. Pos- 
sibly " they loved." 

b M. Pohlenz, Gbttinger Gelehrter Anzeiger, 1916, p. 548, 
argues that this passage has some echoes of a work on anger 

258 



FRAGMENTS : OTHER NAMED WORKS 

you have the very reason why this passion is conceived 
of as a madness. 

I loved : for mortals Love is to grow mad.° 
Those words are from a man who was susceptible to 
love, Euripides. 

137 

From the same, on Love : 

Love is not born suddenly and all at once as anger 
is, 5 nor does it pass away quickly, for all that it is said 
to have wings. It takes fire gently, almost melting 
its way in, as it were ; and when it has taken hold of 
the soul it long endures — in some men it does not 
sleep even when they grow old, but remains in its 
prime, still fresh and vigorous when their hairs are 
grey. c But if it does abate and dissolve, either dying 
away with the passage of time or being extinguished 
by some rational consideration, it does not remove 
itself finally and completely from the soul, but leaves 
charred matter and a hot trail there behind it, 
smouldering as thunderbolts do where they have 
fallen. When grief has gone or savage anger subsided 
no trace of them remains lodging in the soul ; the 
inflammation of desire, too, subsides, sharp though 
the disturbance may be that it causes. But the bites 
inflicted by love d do not rid themselves of his venom, 
even if the brute leaves go ; no, the internal lacera- 

by the Peripatetic philosopher Hieronymus, and that it is 
earlier than De Cohibenda Ira, where Fundanus (who may 
be taken as Plutarch's mouthpiece) rejects Hieronymus' view 
that anger is a sudden thing (454 f). 

c Cf. Amatorius, 770 c. 

d Cf. Xenophon, Symposium, iv. 28; Sophocles, frag. 757 
Nauck. 

259 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

fjbara, /cat ayvoeir ai ri rjv, 7tcjs aweary), rrodev els 
rrjv ipvxty eveireaev. 

138 

Stobaeus, iv. 21. 25 (iv, p. 492 Hense). 

UXovrdpxov €K rov nepl epcoros* 

Kat rovs kclXovs opdv fiev eTTirepireararov , axjia- 
a9ai 8e /cat XafSelv ovk aKivSvvov fidXXov 8e, ws 
(fyrjaiv 6 Eevo<£d)i>, ro p,ev irvp rovs cafjafjuevovs /caet 
jjlovov, ol 8e kolXol /cat rovs fiaKpdv earcoras v<f>- 
dirrovoiv t) yap oifsis Xafir) rod irddovs earl. 



nEPI ETrENEIAS 

The work from which Stobaeus drew these fragments may 
have been a dialogue, since one is for and two are against 
good birth. Whether it was in fact by Plutarch may be a 
matter for doubt c : the style of the latter passages is a strained 

139 

Stobaeus, iv. 29. 21 (v, p. 708 Hense) = Ps.-Plutarch, Be 
Nobilitate, chap. 10. 

UXovrdpxov €K rod Kara evyeveias' 

Tt yap aAAo vopbL^ofiev etvat rr)v evyeveiav, el /jut) 
TraXaiov TrXovrov rj 1 7raXcuav 86£av, ov8erepov e<f>* 

1 rj SM : rj koX A, Ps.-Plut. 

° Cyropaedia, v. 1. 16. 

6 €pdv is explicitly derived from opdv by Philostratus, 

260 



FRAGMENTS : OTHER NAMED WORKS 

tions swell, and no one knows what the trouble is, how 
it arose, or from where it came to attack the victim's 
soul. 

138 

Plutarch, from the work On Love : 

And it is a most delightful thing to look upon the 
beautiful, but to touch and hold them has its dangers. 
Or rather, as Xenophon says, a whereas fire burns 
only those who touch it, the beautiful kindle a flame 
even in those who stand well away. For it is sight 
that allows this passion to get its grip. 6 



ON GOOD BIRTH 

(Lamprias Catalogue 203) 

one, and the construction vo/jll&is on in frag. 140 unusual at 
the least, while in the same fragment av with ehvvaro and ihias 
with 7tcltpCSo$ appear to be solecistic superfluities. The frag- 
ments are included in a forgery De Nobilitate,/or which see 
Appendix A. 

139 

Plutarch, from the work Against Good Birth : 

What else do we take good birth to be but ancient 
wealth or ancient reputation ? Neither is ours to com- 

Epist. 52, but the play on words is much older, e.g., Agathon, 
frag. 29 (Nauck, T.G.F.). 

c Cf. Wyttenbach's edition of De Sera Numinis Vindicta, 
p. 85. 

261 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

r)puv ov, dAAd rd fi€v rvx^js aStfAov rd S 9 d/c/natas 1 
xdpcv avOpayriwrjs ; a)or €k Svelv dXXorpicov Kpe- 
jxarai ro 7T€(f)varjiJL€vov ovofx r) evyeveia. /cat d 2 
rrXovros p,ev ovx ojaolovs olvto) rovs yevvrjdevras 
note!, dAA' d i£ aperrjs yevvrjOels eLKovi^erai, rwv 

€7TL T7)S l/jVX'TJS SlKOLLCOV €t9 TOVS €KyOVOVS 8ta^€0- 

p,€va>v. /cat rovr eartv rj ovrojs evyeveca, opLolco- 
at? hiKaioovviqs . 



140 

Stobaeus, iv. 29. 22 (v, p. 709 Hense)=Ps.-Plutarch, Be 
Nobilitate, chap. 10. 

'Ev ravrcp' 

'Ap' ovv evyeveorepog rjv 6 Mt'Sov 7tAovtos rrjs 
'ApioretSov rrevias ; kclitoi 6 puev 3 ov8* ivrd<f)ia 
KaraXirrcov, rep Se Qpvyl rrdvr dv iSvvaro elvou 
ra<f)os. dXX ovk iv ttXovoi<x>* ro evyeves. rrupos 
e^et Tiva rporrov Traoa irovrjpia* dpb(f>6r€pa x^pls 
rpo<f>r\$ d^avit.erai ofievvupLsva. 5 rj Se HcoKpdrovs 
dSo^t'a, fialas 6 /cat ipjjboyXvcfrov irarpos, ovk rjv 
€vyev€OT€pa rrjs ^LaphavarrdXAov 86£rjs; p,r) ov ye 
vo/xt^ets" 7 on Zep^TjS evyeveorepos rjv l&vveyelpov ; 8 
/catrot d fxev virep rrjs tSta? rrarpiSog ovneKoirr) rrjv 
X^tpa, 6 S' vnep rov t,rjv ecf)vy€v, dvrl rrjs fJLeydXrjs 
jSaatAetas" pbeydXrjv TrepcKeifievos SetAtav. 

1 aKpioias S : aKpaoias MA, IV., Ps.-Plut. 

2 oTr., Ps.-Plut.: toSMA. 

3 ? add aTHEdavev. 

4 ? 7rAoura> or 7rAoiWot>, or a noun may be missing. 

5 nvpos . . . aBcvvvfjicva deleted by Grammius. 

8 Bernardakis suggested adding nyrpos. 

262 



FRAGMENTS : OTHER NAMED WORKS 

mand, but both are in part the gift of uncertain for- 
tune, in part that of human lack of judgement. So that 
this inflated name of good birth hangs on two alien 
pegs. And wealth does not create offspring like itself, 
whereas the man begotten from virtue grows in his 
father's image, since spiritual goods are transmitted 
to descendants. This is what true good birth is — as- 
similation to morality. 



140 

In the same work : 

Was then Midas' wealth better-born than Aristides' 
poverty ? Yet the latter did not leave enough even 
for his funeral , a while the Phrygian's tomb could have 
been anything in the world. Nobility does not lie in 
wealth. All badness has a certain likeness to fire : 
both, if they have nothing to feed on, are extinguished 
and vanish. 6 And was not the obscurity of Socrates, 
son of a midwife and a stone-mason, nobler than the 
renown of Sardanapallus ? Perhaps you suppose that 
Xerxes was nobler than Cynegirus ? c Yet the latter 
lost his hand in his own country's cause, whereas the 
former fled to save his life, in the trappings of a great 
coward instead of those of a great kingdom. 

° See Life of Aristides, chap. 27. 

b As the text stands, this sentence is irrelevant ; the con- 
text may have been abbreviated. 

c Sardanapallus, last king of Assyria, became a by-word 
among the Greeks for luxury and self-indulgence. Cynegirus, 
brother of the poet Aeschylus, and killed at the battle of 
Marathon, was a type of martial valour. 

7 vofiL^7]s M before correction, Tr., Ps.-Plut. 
9 M: KweiycLpov S. Kvvaiyeipov A, Ps.-Plut., Kwcuyvpov Tr. 

263 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

141 

Stobaeus, iv. 29. 51 (v, p. 722 Hense) = Ps.-Plutarch, De 
Nobilitate, chap. 1. 

UXovrdpxov virep evyevelas' 

"Attigtos rj twv ao(f)taTcov GVKO(f>avrta Kara rrjs 
evyeveias, el firjoe ra iv [xeacp /cat Tract yvcjpipia 

GKOTIOVGLV, OTL TTpOS TCLS O^etaS" TOVS evyevels WT- 

ttovs /cat Kvvas (hvovvrai /cat KLXptovrcu /cat 1 
djJL7TeXa>v evyevrj GTrepfiara /cat iXoutbv /cat rtov 
dXXojv SevSpcov, dvdpcorrov S' ovSev o<f>eXos vopLil^ov- 
glv evyeveiav els rds pbeXXovcas ocaooxds, aAAa 
tclvto 2 7T€tdovrai fidpfiapov etvcu /cat 'TLXXtjvlkov 
Grrepfia /cat ov/c otovrat XeXrjdvias rwds ap^as" /cat 
GTrepfiar 9 dperfjs crvy/carajSaAAea^at rot? yewa>- 
pbevois, toGirep rep TrjXep,d)(q) rod 'OovGGecos, €</>' 
ov /cat 7rdVu t T <? oVd/xart 3 d TroirjTrjs euprjKev 
iveGTCLKTai fievos r)v, 

ojs dv iv rat? GTreppbdrcov oXiyais GrayoGi /cat rwv 
dperfjs Gvppeovrcov dyadtbv.* 



IIEPI HMEPQN 

It is clear that some events mentioned in chap. 19 of the 
Life of Camillus were dealt with in the book On Dates, 
besides the two specifically referred to it. It is likely that 
264 



FRAGMENTS : OTHER NAMED WORKS 

141 

Plutarch, in favour of good birth : 

The sophists' denunciation of good birth has no 
plausibility ; without even considering the obvious 
and universally familiar facts that we buy or borrow 
well-bred horses and dogs for purposes of mating, 
and similarly seeds of good stock for vines, olives, 
and other trees, where man is concerned they recog- 
nize no value in good birth for future inheritance. 
They prefer to believe that Greek and non-Greek 
seed is identical and do not think that certain in- 
visible principles or seeds of excellence are contri- 
buted to the offspring, as they were to Odysseus' son 
Telemachus, of whom the poet said, choosing the 
word most appropriately, 

good strength has been instilled," 

as if with those few drops of semen there had flowed 
the good qualities of excellence as well. 



ON DATES 

(Lamprias Catalogue 150) 

some at least of those mentioned in Quaestiones Convivales, 
717 b-d, also found a place there. It is also possible that 
frag. 100 refers to this hook ; see the note there. 

a Odyssey, ii. 271. 

1 Meineke suggested adding irpos <j>vTovpyiav. 

2 Wyttenbach : dXX* avro. 

3 Something may be omitted, irdw Kvpiw Duebner. 



4 ? 



avppcovoujv apx<*>v. 



265 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

142 

Plutarch, Vita Camilli, chap. 19. 

Ot S' 1 a Adrjvalot, /cat rrjv Trepl Na£ov iviicajv vav- 
fjbaxiav, rjs XajS/otas 1 iarpar'qyei, rod Ho7]8pofiLO)vos 
rrepl rrjv iravaiX^vov , iv 8e SaAa/ztvt 7repl rds 
€LK(iSas, (jos rjjjuv iv rep 7T€pl rjpLepcov dVoSeoet/CTat. 

nEPI HSYXIA2 

No work entitled nepl rjovxtas is included in the Lamprias 
Catalogue, and some features of this fragment argue against 
Plutarchean authorship. It contains three instances of con- 
secutive re /cat ; but it is just possible that they are due to 
careless copying by Stobaeus or his source. There are no 
examples of Plutarch's favourite ditrochaic clausula ; but 
the piece is very short. Two instances of hiatus may be due 
to textual corruption. 

143 

Stobaeus, iv. 16. 18 (iv, p. 398 Hense). 

UXovrdpxov €K rod irepl rjavx^ds' 

Ho(f)6v €OLK€ XpfjfJLCL TO TTJS TjOVX^CLS TTpOS T d'AAa 

/cat els €7TcaTrjfjLrj£ 2 /cat <f)povrfoews fieXeTrjv Xiyco o' 
ov rrjv Ka7rrjXt,Kr)v /cat dyopalav dAAd rrjv fjueydXrjv, 

T)TIS i^OfJLOLOL 0€O) TOV aVTTJV avaXafSoVTOL . at IL€V 

yap iv rat? 7rdAeat /cat rots' rtov dvdpd)7ra>v o^Aots" 
ytvofievai /xeAerat yvfivd^ovort rrjv XeyofJLevrjv S/Dt- 
fjLVT7]Ta, TTavovpyiav ovoav (hare tovs ev avrcus 
aKpovs olov vno jxayeipajv tG)v iv rat? iroXeai 

Xp€LOJV 0LaTT€7TOlKLAlJL€VOVS TTOOCL JJL€V OfVt ** TTOOa 

1 8' added by Anon. 2 F. H. S. : cmor^/u^v. 

8 irooa ficv ovxl added by Wyttenbach. 
266 



FRAGMENTS : OTHER NAMED WORKS 

142 

The Athenian victory, under the command of 
Chabrias, in the naval engagement at Naxos took 
place in the month of Boedromion at the time of the 
full moon, that at Salamis about the 20th day of the 
same month, as I have shown in my work On Dates. 



ON QUIETUDE 

F. Wilhelm, Rh. Mus. Ixxiii (1924), pp. 466 ff., translates 
into German and accumulates a mass of illustrative material. 
He notes that the question of retirement from city life was 
in the air in the latter part of the first century a.d., as is 
shown by the discussions of Seneca, Epist. looviii, Epictetus, 
iv. 4, Bio Ghrysostom, xx, Quintilian, x. 3. 32 ff., Tacitus, 
Dialogus, 12 f 

143 

Plutarch, from the work On Quietude : 

How wise a thing, it would seem, is quietude ! In 
particular it serves for studying to acquire knowledge 
and wisdom, by which I do not mean the wisdom 
of shop and market-place, but that mighty wisdom 
which makes him that acquires it like to God.° 
Those forms of study that are practised in towns 
among the crowds of humanity exercise the so-called 
shrewdness that is really knavery. Hence those who 
excel in them have been diversified by the needs of 
city life, like so many fancy products of the culinary 
art, {and have become ready to do innumerable 

° A phrase originating from Plato, Theaet. 176 b. 

267 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

S' ovxl /cat hiaKOvrjixara Setvd 1 ipyd^eadaL; rj 8' 
iprjfALd, oo<j>ias ovaa yvfMvdacov, rjOonoios dyadrj 

KCLL 7rAaTT€t KCLL /JL€T€v6vV€L 2 TOJV dvSptOV TCtS" ^V^ds . 

ovSev yap clvtcus ip,7r68i6v iart rfjs avijrjaecos, ov8e 
TTpos 77oAAa /cat jMKpd vofiLfxa TTpooiTTalovoai /ca/x- 
TTTOvrai €i>6v* Kaddnep at rat? noXecnv ivaTreiXr]^" 
jjbevcu \\ivyar aAA' iv depi Kadapcp kcu rd noXXd eijaj 
Starra^tevat 4 rcov dvd pcorrcov dviaoiv* opdal /cat 
TTT€po(f>vovGiv, dp86jj,€vou rep SLavyecrrdra) T€ /cat 
Xeiordrco pevpuarc rrjs rjov^ias, iv to rd re fiaOrj- 
jitara rod vov OeoecSearepa 6 kcll Kadapcorepov Spa. 7 
Sid tovto tol /cat rcov deajv ra iepd, ocra €K tov 
dpxoiLOV 7raAat 8 v€v6pLLoraL y rols iprnjuordroLS X 60 " 
ptot? ivlSpvcrav 9 ol irptbroL, jL-idAtara Se MovacDv re 
/cat llanos' /cat Nv/jl(/)Cl>v /cat 'ATrdAAawos' /cat oaot 
pbovcTLKfjs rjyepLoves Oeol, ota/cptVavr€s*, (bs oIjjloll, 

A^ 10 
a 

/cat fJLLaptov tlvcov. 11 



HEPI KAAAOYS (?) 

The following three fragments are probably excerpted 
from the same book, perhaps a dialogue or a " disputatio in 
utramque partem,* 1 but its title is uncertain ; v-nkp KaXXovs, 

1 ? TaiT€Lva. 

2 fieyedwi Nauck. 

3 evOvs Wyttenbach, but hiatus makes probable some more 
serious error. 

4 Wyttenbach : SiatrayzcvcH. 

5 Meineke : aviduiv. 

6 A : 0€wS€<7T€,Oa SM. 

7 A : opdv SM. to 8pav Duebner to opdv (or ivopdv) Ber- 
nardakis to hiopav Hense. Wyttenbach adds tortv. 

268 



FRAGMENTS : OTHER NAMED WORKS 

wrongs) and indeed to perform innumerable dreadful 
services. But solitude, being wisdom's training- 
ground, is a good character-builder, and moulds and 
reforms men's souls. There is nothing to stand in 
the way of their development, nor are they straight- 
way distorted by collision with many small conven- 
tions, as are souls that are confined in towns ; living 
in a pure air and for the most part away from the 
haunts of men, they grow up erect and sprout their 
wings, watered by quietude's streams, so smooth and 
pellucid. Here the mind turns to diviner sorts of learn- 
ing and sees with a clearer vision. This, surely, is the 
reason why it was in solitary spots that man founded 
all those shrines of the gods that have been long 
established from ancient times, above all those of the 
Muses, b of Pan and the Nymphs, and of Apollo and 
all gods who are our guides in music ; to my mind, 
they kept the blessings of education away from the 
dreadful and abominable influences of the towns. 



ON BEAUTY (?) 

(Not in Lamprias Catalogue) 

attached to the first fragment, may be merely descriptive of 
part of its content. Style and rhythm speak against authen- 
ticity, even if one admits the probability that several sentences 
have suffered mutilation. 

° A reference to Plato, Phaedrus, 251 b. 
b Cf. De Curiositate, 521 d. 

8 F. H. S. : 7raAcu apxaiov. 

9 tvlhpvoav added by Wyttenbach (after irpcoroi). 

10 Meineke : ras Trathctas /card, ras irai&eias xal tcl Duebner. 

11 T€xv&v Duebner novcov Bernardakis oivwv Hense. 

269 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

*144 
Stobaeus, iv. 21. 12 (iv, p. 485 Hense). 
HAovrdpxov VTrep KaXXovs 9 

Tt yap; ov avvderov 1 <j>vois avdpamojv e/c ox6/xa- 
tos /cat ifwxfjs; rj Odrepov apKovv rjpuv; /cat ircbs 
olov re; to fxev yap ovk av etr] jjltj xpc6/X€voi> foxfj, 
U X <3 7 $* °v K & t" 7 ] H'V *X ovcra r ° ovvepetSov. ri 
ovv; oja7T€p i£ toov Koap,€LTat, e/cdVeoa tols ovy- 
yeveaiv, rj pXv SiKaioovvrj /cat aaxfrpoovvrj /cat <f>po- 
vrjoei, to o* tcr^ut /cat /caAAet /cat uyteta. /cat ttcos" 
oi) OavfJLaarov Xeyeiv ra rrjs ifjv%rjs /caAa, ra tou 
acofiaros V7repopcovra ; 

*145 

Stobaeus, iv. 21. 13 (iv, p. 485 Hense). 

'Ev ravrtp 9 

C H youv tou ocopuaros evfiopcftia i/jvxfjs eoriv ep- 
yov GcbjJLari x a P l ^°l l * V7 )S oo^av evpiopcfrias . ireoeroj 
yovv davdroj to ooj/xa, /cat T779 fax^s fiercpKiofievris , 
ov Graces, ov ^pco/xa, ou/c ocfidaXpuos, ov $o)vr)> ov- 
8ev eVt KaraXeiirerai rwv epaofALtov, TrpoSeSofjuevov 
8' op&s 2 V7TO rtov apxaiojv olKrjropoov chore /cat rrjv 3 
ipvxvjv ovvvf}pLt,€is Xavddvcov, rjs eoriv dvOpconov 
KaXXos. 

*146 
Stobaeus, iv. 21. 22 (iv, p. 491 Hense). 
nAouTapxotr 
'AAAa p>r\v, a)07T€p e^rjVy ovSev tqjv dXXa>v /caA- 
270 



FRAGMENTS : OTHER NAMED WORKS 

*144 

From Plutarch, In Defence of Beauty : 

What ? Is not man's nature a thing compounded 
of body and soul ? Or is one enough for us without 
the other ? How can it be enough ? The former could 
not exist without the aid of a soul, and soul could 
not exist if it had nothing to bind it together. Well 
then, they are both equally, so to speak, adorned by 
their cognate virtues, the soul by justice, self-control, 
and wisdom, the body by strength, beauty and 
health. Surely it would be a strange thing to record 
the beauties of the soul, but to overlook those of the 
body. 

*145 

In the same book : 

At any rate the body's comeliness is the work of 
the soul, which bestows upon the body its appearance 
of comeliness. Why, the body need only collapse in 
death, and the soul having migrated from it, neither 
its stance nor its colour, neither its eye nor its voice, 
nor anything else remains of all that was lovely : 
{you see) it forsaken by its ancient inhabitants. So 
you fail to notice that in insulting the body you insult 
the soul, to which all the beauty in a human being 
belongs. 

*146 

From Plutarch : 

But see, as I said, of all beauties that of the body 

1 ovv9€tos A. 

2 8* op&s added by F. H. S., ex. gr. 

8 ttjv added by Duebner. 

271 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

Xcov 1 klvSvvcov yeveois earcv, dXXd jjlovov rod oco- 
[aoltos. to. fjbev yap rrjg ipvx^js kolXXt] /cat ocorrfpias 
iXirihes etat, cppovrjats, evae/Seta, hiKaioTrpayia* /cat 
to iraiheias €V7rp6oco7rov kolXAos olkov /cat iroXecos 
/cat iOvcov ddopvfios elprjvrj StareAet ycyvopbevq 2 ' rj 
8e yvvaiKcov €vp,op<j>La dcpoppbrj rols Trddeai /cat rats' 
€77-t0t>//,tats. 

nEPI MANTIKHS 

147 

Stobaeus, iv. 18 a. 10 (iv, p. 414 Hense). 

UXovrdpxov €K rod irepl fJbavrcKrjs' 

Tcov re^ycbv, cos eot/ce, rds fiev f) X/° eta avveaTr]- 
oev i£ ap^s /cat ^XP L v ^ v 8iacf>vXdoo€L — 

Xpetcb irdvr cSt'Sa^c, ri S' ov XP €L( ^ K€V dvevpot 
rcov dvayKaicov; — v<f)avrtKrjv oLKoSofjiiKrjv larpiKrjv 
/cat oaat irepl yecopyiav avaorpecj>ovrai' rag S' 
rjSovrj tis tt poorly ay ero /cat /caTea^e, rrjv rcov 
fjbvpeifjtov /cat rcov 3 6ifjo7Toccov /cat KOfjLficorLKrjv 77a- 
aav /cat av6ofia<f>iav.* eon 0' cov rrjv 7ndav6rrjra 
/cat rrjv d/c/n'jSetav /cat ro KaOapiov dyancovres 

€KfMaV0dvOVGL KoX 7T€pL€7TOVGLV, COS dpLdfJLTjrLKrjV Kal 

yecofierplav /cat KavovtKrjv rraoav /cat dorpoXoyiav, 
a? cprjcnv 6 UXdrcov /catVep apbeXovfievas, " j8ta vtto 
xdpiros avtjeodai." 

1 KoXX&v added by Bernardakis. 

2 Bernardakis : yevofievrj. 

3 r^v T&v Bernardakis. 4 A : avOopdOaav. 

a Cf. An Sent, 797 e. 
272 



FRAGMENTS : OTHER NAMED WORKS 

alone gives rise to dangers. The beauties of the 
soul, wisdom, piety, just dealing, give hope of secu- 
rity ; and the beauty of education, fair of face, always 
leads to undisturbed peace in the household and in 
societies, civilized or primitive. But the comeliness 
of women is an incitement to the passions and desires. 



ON THE ART OF PROPHECY 

(? Lamprias Catalogue 71 or 131) 

147 

Plutarch, from the work On the Art of Prophecy : 

Some of the arts, it seems, were originally de- 
veloped by necessity, and are preserved by it to this 
day, like the arts of weaving, of building, of medicine, 
and every art concerned with agriculture. 

Need teaches all ; what could not Need invent b 

— of what one cannot do without ? Other arts, how- 
ever, were introduced and maintained by some plea- 
sure, like the art of the scent-makers, the culinary art, 
all the arts of personal adornment, or that of the dyer. 
There are still others that men study to acquire and 
treat with honour because they love the logic, the 
precision, and the purity of thought that belongs to 
them : such are arithmetic, geometry, all the theory 
of music, and astronomy, arts which Plato says 
" flourish perforce by their own charm/ ' c even if 
neglected. 

b Archytas, fr. 3 Powell, Coll. Alex., quoted again, frag. 
132 ; see note there. 

c Republic, 528 c, quoted again, Non Posse Suaviter, 
1094 d. 

273 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

nEPI OPrHZ 

The work nepl opyrjs is not only in the Lamprias Cata- 
logue, but also recorded by Photius. The occurrence three 
times of re /cat, which Plutarch normally avoids, may be due 

148 

Stobaeus, iii. 20. 70 (iii, p. 555 Hense). 

UXovrdpxov €K rod 7T€pl opyrjs' 

"Oaa o' opyfj xpwfjbevot npdrrovoiv avOpconoi, 
ravr dvdyKrj rv(f>Xd elvai /cat dvorjra /cat rov ttov- 
ros dfiaprdveiv . ov yap olov r opyfj xpd)jJ,evov 
Aoyio/Atp xpfjodai, to S' avev Xoyiofjuov TTOiov\ievov 
irav areyyov re /cat Sieorpa/jufxevov . Xoyov ovv r)ye- 
fiova XP?) Troir)od\L€vov ovra>s eirixeipelv rols Kara 
rov jSt'ov epyots, ras eKaorore rrpooTTiTTrovoas Spy as 
Siajdovfievov 1 /cat Siavevovra, ojonep ol KvfiepvrjraL 
ra, KV/Jbara Trpoo$epop,eva. eon yovv ovk eXarrov 
to 8eos, opyrjs o' 2 dvTi7Tptppov KvXivSopLevrjs avrov 
re /cat ov\nravra oIkov eoriv dpSrjv aTroXeoai /cat 
dvarpeifjai* fir) 8ia7rXevoavra Se^teos. ov fjbrjv dAA' 
eTnpLeXelas els avrd Set /cat fieXerrjs r) A /cat jidXiora 
aXLoKovrai Kar* a/cpas. Karopdovoi he fidXiora 5 
ol TrapaSe^dfjuevoL rov dvfiov cos av/x/xa^ov dperrjs, 
drroXavovres ooov avrov xpv)oi\xov eorcv ev re 
7roXejJLU) /cat vr) At* ev rroXireiais , ro ttoXv 8' avrov 
/cat ro €7TL7roXd^ov 6 orrovSa^ovres 7 eKKpiveiv /cat 
eicfSdXXeiv rrjs iftvx 7 )** oirep opyr\ re /cat iriKpLa /cat 

1 Wyttenbach : hiopdov^vov. 2 5' added by F. H. S. 

3 Wyttenbach : avaorpiijjcu. 4 F. H. S. : #. 

5 KdTopOovcn, 8c fidXiora added by F. H. S. 

274 



FRAGMENTS : OTHER NAMED WORKS 
ON RAGE 

(Lamprias Catalogue 93) 

to modifications by Stobaeus. The text has suffered badly in 
transmission, and that printed here includes some uncertain 
conjectures to provide a possible sense. 

148 

Plutarch, from the work On Rage : 

All human actions that are done in a rage must be 
blind and senseless and entirely miss the mark. It is 
not possible to act with calculation when acting in a 
rage, and anything done without calculation is un- 
skilful and distorted. A man ought, then, to make 
reason his guide and so set his hand to life's tasks, 
either pushing aside his feelings of wrath whenever 
they assail him, or finding a way past, just as pilots 
avoid the waves that bear down upon them. Certainly 
there is no less cause for fear, but when a wave of 
rage comes rolling head on against a man, he may 
capsize and utterly destroy both himself and his 
.whole family if he does not steer his way cleverly 
through it. Not that success can be had without 
pains and training ; otherwise men meet with utter 
disaster. Those men do best who accept anger as 
virtue's ally, making use of it in so far as it is helpful 
in war ° and indeed in politics, but endeavouring to 
discharge and expel from their souls its abundance 
and excess, which we call rage or asperity or quick 

a Plato, Republic, 440 c — 441 a. But contrast De Cohib. 
Ira, 458 e. 

6 Wyttenbach : em7roAaiov. 
7 anovSd&vTcs added by F. H. S. 

275 



PLUTARCITS MORALIA 

SijvOvfJLLa 1 Xeyerat, voarjfMara 2 tJkiotol rats avSpelous 
i/jv^als Trperrovra, tls ovv iv tjAlkicl tovtojv yiyve- 
rai (JbeXerrj; ipuol fiev So/cet fidAiar' av cSSe yiyve- 
aOai, TToppwdev rjfjicov TTpo^eXerojvrcov /cat 7rpo- 
a7TavrXovvTCx)v z to* TrXeloTov, olov iv oiKercus re /cat 
TTpos yvvaiKas tols yapLerds. 6 yap olkol irpqos 
rjSKal fJLoaiq irpqos ttoXv jjl&XXov carat, tolovtos 

€v8o0€V /Cat V7TO TOJV OLKOL 7T€7TOLr)pL€VOS OLOS aVTCp 5 

rfjs avrov ifjvxfjs efvat larpos. 6 



IIEPI (or RATA) IIAOYTOY 

There is no such title in the Lamprias Catalogue, but 
Photius (Sopatros) gives irepl ttXovtov, Hartlich, Leipziger 

149 

Stobaeus, iv. 31 c. 85 (v, p. 765 Hense). 

YiXovrdpxov Kara ttXovtov 

<&vo€i fjiev yap SvoxaXivcorov opetJLS, TrpooXajSovoa 
Se /cat ttXovtov xopyyylav d^aAtVa>rov. 

• 150 

Stobaeus, iv. 31 c. 86 (v, p. 765 Hense). 

'Ev rauTor 

'AAA' drrXrjoTLa /cat air lotos ioTLV iv avTols 

1 kclI otjvdvjjLia Wyttenbach : Si' o^vOvfitav. 

2 Hense : vonlofiara. ovofxara Wyttenbach. 

3 F. H. S. (npoavrXovvrcov Piccolos) : TTpoa7rXovvra)v, 

4 t6 added by F. H. S. 

276 



FRAGMENTS : OTHER NAMED WORKS 

temper, disorders that are most unbecoming to manly 
hearts. Now what training for this can a grown man 
practise ? It would seem to me to be the most effec- 
tive method if we were to undertake our preliminary 
practice well in advance and rid ourselves beforehand 
of the greatest part of our temper, for example when 
dealing with our slaves a and in our relations with our 
wives. The man who is good-tempered at home will 
be much more so in his public life, having been made 
in his house and by his household such as to be the 
physician of his own soul. 6 



ON (or AGAINST) WEALTH 

(Not in Lamprias Catalogue) 

Studien, oci, p. 312, suggests that the extracts are from no, 
207 of the Lamprias Catalogue, irporptTn-iKos npds viov ttXovglov. 

149 
Plutarch, Against Wealth : 

Appetite is in itself hard to curb : if it acquires 
wealth to supply its needs, not hard but impossible. 

150 

In the same work : 

But there is in them an insatiate desire and a mad- 

° Cf. Be Cohib. Ira, 459 b-e, 462 a. 

b The Greek is corrupt, and the English translates make- 
shift corrections. 

5 otos avrtp Post : avraj. 6 larpos F. H. S. e.g. : ayados. 

277 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

[jLavia, tolovto) fiev ivdovacaoficp xPV a ^ aL 7T€ P L T V V 

KT7JGIV, COS €1 KTTjOCUVTO jJbrjK€TL KafJLOVjJb€VOVS, TOO- 

avrrj S' a/xeAeta 1 irepl ra XrjfiOevra, cos fJirj yevo- 
/jL€va. SvoepcoTicoGL oe rcov dnovTcov, virepopcovres 
cov exovow ovSev yap ovtcos dyaircooiv cos 2 iX- 
TTiCpvow. ovk olSa irorepov avrots djxtivov ioriv, 

€X €LV V TTpoaSoK&V €XOVT€S y6\p OV XP& )VTai > TTpOG- 
8oKCOVT€S 0€ KOLflVOVOL. TL OVV iTTOUVOVfieV TOLOVTOV 

dyadov, ov irepas iorlv ovoiv, dAA' a) 8 to X^Oev 
irepcov dpx^l 

151 

Stobaeus, iv. 32 a. 16 (v, p. 784 Hense). 
UXovrdpxov Kara, ttXovtov 

Ov8e7roT€ Aljjlos iyevvrjoe /xot^etW, ovSenoTe 
dnopla xP y ]\ L ^ TO)V docoTLav. fipaxeld ris ion oco- 

<f>pOOVVT) TO 7T€VrjT€V€LV y oXlyTf TLS €VVOfJLia TO (Z7TO- 

peladai. 



*152 

Stobaeus, iv. 32 a. 17 (v, p. 784 Hense), follows the pre- 
ceding fragment without lemma in S, with lemma 'Ap/cccriAdou 
in MA. 

'ApKealAaos ttjv irevlav Xwnpdv \xh> eXeyev elvau 
cooTrep kolI ttjv 'WaKrjVy dyadrjv Se KovpOTpo<f>ov, idt- 
t,ovoav ovv€lvcu Xltottjtl kcll KapTepia, /cat kolO- 
6Xov yvpwdoiov dpeTrjs €fJL7rpaKTOV. 

1 Gesner : Tocravrrj 8c d/zeAeta. 
278 



FRAGMENTS : OTHER NAMED WORKS 

ness that really passes belief : to be so ecstatic about 
making money, as if their toils would be at an end 
once they have made it, and to be completely careless 
of their acquisitions, as if they had never occurred. 
They suffer the pangs of frustrated love for what they 
do not possess, yet disregard what is in their hands ; 
for nothing gives them satisfaction to match their 
hopes. I do not know which is better for them, 
possession or expectation. When they possess, they 
make no use of their possessions ; when they expect, 
they exhaust themselves by their exertions. Why 
then do we praise a " good " of this kind ? It is 
never completed, but what has been got is a starting- 
point for getting more and more. 



151 

Plutarch, Against Wealth : 

Hunger never begot adultery, nor lack of money 
riotous living. To be poor is a humble form of good 
behaviour, to be indigent a limited observation of 
the law. 

*152 

Arcesilaiis said that poverty was, like Ithaca, rough 
but a good nurse of men, 6 accustoming them to live 
with simplicity and endurance, and generally speak- 
ing an effective school of virtue. 

° A saying ascribed to Socrates, Stobaeus, iv. 32 a. 18. 
b Odyssey, ix. 27 ; Moralia, 583 d. 

2 ibs F. H. S. : <Ls 8c SMA. ws Si Gaisford, introducing 
a hiatus. 

3 Duebner : o. 

279 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 
IIEPI TOY AIABAAAEIN (?) 

It is uncertain whether there was a book so named ; what 
appears in Stobaeus to be a title may be no more than an 

153 

Stobaeus, iii. 20. 59 (iii, p. 551 Hense). 
UXovrdpxov €K tov irepl hiafioXrjs 1 ' 
01 V€(i)vr)Toi SovXoi irvvdavovrai 2 ovk el SeicriScu- 
[jlcdv t) <f>dovepos 6 heoTTOTiqs, dXX el SpyiXos. 

154 

Stobaeus, iii. 38. 31 (iii, p. 714 Hense). 

UXovrdpxov e/c tov Trepl tov 3 StajSctAAetv. 

Tov (f>66vov evioi rep KaiTvcp elKat^ovat' rroXvs yap 
ev toZs dpxofievois ojv, otclv eKXdpbifjcooiv d<f>avi- 
t.erai. rJKLGra yovv rols Trpeofivrepois <f>6ovovoiv. 

155 
Stobaeus, iii. 38. 32 (iii, p. 715 Hense). 
UXovrdpxov* €K rov Trepl tov 5 SiajSaAAciv 
'lamas' Xeyei 8vo etvac <f)66vovs' tov puev Slkcuov, 

OTCLV TIS TOt9 KCLKOLS <t>6ovfj TLLtOJLieVOLS' TOV S* 

1 €K tov irepl 8ta/3oA^9 MA, omitted by S Br. 

2 nvvddvovTai placed after <f>9ov€pos by S. 

3 7repl rod added by Hense, who also suggested reading 
kclto, tov for €K tov. €K tov SiajSaAAciv is omitted by S, and 
may have been added by MA from the lemma of the next 
item in the anthology, frag. 155. 

280 



FRAGMENTS : OTHER NAMED WORKS 

ON CALUMNY (?) 

(Not in Lamprias Catalogue) 

indication of the subject-matter of the fragments, none of 
which seems to preserve Plutarch's own wording. 

153 

Plutarch, from the work On Calumny : 

Newly-purchased slaves do not inquire whether 
their master is superstitious, or jealous, but whether 
he is quick-tempered. a 

154 

Plutarch, from (the work On) Calumniating : 

Some people h compare envy to smoke ; there is 
much of it at the start but when once a man's flame 
is well alight it disappears. Certainly old men are 
very little envied. 

155 

Plutarch, from (the work On) Calumniating : 

Hippias d says there are two kinds of envy — the 
legitimate, when one envies or begrudges bad men 
their honours, and the illegitimate, when one envies 

a Cf. T>e Cohibenda Ira, 462 a, which may be the source 
of this fragment, as Patzig argues. 

b Ariston, see Praecepta Gerendae Reip. 804 d (S. V.F. i. 
402). 

c Cf. An Seni, 787 c, perhaps the source of the fragment, 
as Patzig again argues. 

d Diels-Kranz, Frag. d. Vorsokr. 86 b 16. 

4 MA : tov avrov S (no lemma in Br.). 
5 TT€pl tov added by Hense. 

281 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

clSikov, otolv rols dyadols. kcli SinXd r<hv aXXojv 
ol (f>6ov€pol KdKovvrai • ov ydp jjlovov rols ISlols 
KaKols axOovrai, axmep €K€Ivol, dXXd kcll rols 
aXXorploLS ayadols* 

156 

Stobaeus, iii. 42. 10 (iii, p. 761 Hense). 

UXovTapxov €K tov rrepl rod 1 Sia^aXXeLV 

'iTTirias (f>rjolv on Setvov iariv r) Sia/JoAia, ovrcos 
ovofjudl^cov, otl ovSe Tipmjpia tls /car' avrcjv ye- 
yparrrai iv tols vofxoLS, ojanep tcjv KXenrtdv. KairoL 

dpLGTOV OV KT7]jJ,a T7JV <f)LXLaV kX€7TTOVOLV, (Ji)OT€ 7j 

vfipLS KaKovpyos ovoa &LKaLOTepa iorl rrjs SLafioXfjs 
8lo\ to fJLTj d<f)avr)s elvaL. 



nEPI TON EN IIAATAIAIS AAIAAAON 

The first of these two fragments treats mythology as a 
cover for physical doctrines. In the manner of the Stoics 
Hera is identified with the Earth or with air, Zeus with fire, 
Apollo with the sun. As was observed by P. Decharme, 
Melanges Weil, pp. lllff., this is inconsistent with Plu- 
tarch's usual view, namely that a god is a transcendent 
being, whom it is wrong to identify with any physical body, 
which may nevertheless be his symbol (Pyth. Orac. 400 d) 
or vehicle (De Facie, 942 d). Although there are passages 
where the distinction is not made (Quaest. Conv. 659 a, De 
Facie, 938 f), Decharme was probably right in thinking that 
the views of this fragment can hardly have been expressed by 
Plutarch in his own person, but must have been put in the 
mouth of a character in a dialogue. He found further 

1 7T€pl tov added by Hense. 
282 



FRAGMENTS : OTHER NAMED WORKS 

the good. And envious persons suffer twice as much 
as those who are not, since they resent not only their 
own troubles, like others, but also other men's 
prosperity. 

156 

Plutarch, from {the work Oil) Calumniating : 

Hippias ° says that calumny (which he calls dia- 
bolia) is a dreadful thing, because there is no penalty 
prescribed in the laws for slanderers, as there is for 
thieves. Yet they steal the best of possessions, 
friendship, so that violence, damaging though it is, 
is more honest than calumny, because it is not under- 
hand. 



ON THE FESTIVAL OF IMAGES 
AT PLATAEA 

(Lamprlas Catalogue 201) 

evidence that the work was a dialogue, with its scene near 
Mt. Cithaeron, in the word ivravda, " here," in chap. 3 init. 
and fin. One may also point to the second person plural 
fiddoLT dv in chap. 5 init. Decharme's opinion is shared by 
R. Hirzel, Der Dialog, ii. 218, and Wilamowitz {below). 

According to Pausanias, ix. 3. 35 there were Lesser Daedala 
every seventh year and Greater Daedala every sixtieth. At 
each Lesser Daedala an oak-tree, miraculously indicated by a 
bird in a grove near Alalcomenae, was cut down and shaped 
into an image, called a daidalon. At the Greater Daedala 
fourteen such images that had been so prepared were assigned 
to various Boeotian towns, dressed and given a bridal bath 
in the Asopus, and placed on carts with a bridesmaid. They 
were then taken in procession to the top of Mt. Cithaeron, 
° Diels-Kranz, Frag. d. Vorsokr. 86 b 17. 

283 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

where they were burnt with other sacrifices on an altar. This 
strange rite, of which the story told in chap. 6 is an aetio- 
logical myth, is discussed by M. P. Nilsson, Griechische 
Feste, pp. 50 ff., Farnell, Cults, i, pp. 189 ff., Wilamowitz, 
Glaube der Hellenen, i, pp. 239 ff. 9 Jacoby, F.Gr.Hist. /// 
b, p. 182. 

157 

Eusebius, Praeparatio EvangeW, iii, Prooem. 

Aaj8toi> avdyvcoOi tov XcupaWcus IlXovrdpxov 

TCLS 7T€pl TCOV 7TpOK€ifM€VO)V (frcOVOLS, €V CUS G€flVO- 

Xoywv 7Taparp€7r€L tovs fivOovs icfS as (frrjaw elvai 
jjLvarrjpicoSeis SeoXoyias, as 8r) €KKaXv7TTa>v tov jxev 
Acovvoov ttjv pbeOrjv elvai <f>rjoiv . . . ttjv Se "Hpav 
rrjv yapajXiov avopos /cat yvvaiKos ovjjl^lwolv eld*, 
wowep eTTiXeX-qaiiivos rrjs a7To86o€a)s, irepav i£rjs 
irnovvdipas loTopiav ttjv "Hpav ou/ce'rt ojs to 77700- 
repov dXXd ttjv yr\v oVojua£et, XrjOrjv Se /cat vu/cra 
ttjv Atjto)* /cat TrdXiv ttjv avrrjv rfj Arjrot (frrjoiv 
elvac rrjv "Hpav etr' eVt tovtols etcrayerat avTcp 
6 Zeus els ttjv aldepiov Svvafxiv dXXrjyopovpievos. 
/cat tl jLte Set ravra rrpoXaiifSdveiv , avrov irapov 
d/couaat tov dvSpos cSSe' 7ra>s iv ols iireypai/jev 
Ilept Ttov iv nAaratats" AatSdAaw tol XavOdvovra 
tovs ttoXXovs rrjs aTroppryrov 7T€pl Oetbv <f>voioXoyias 

€K<f>aiVOVTOS . 

1. "Ort [lev odv rj 7raAata cf>voioXoyia /cat trap 
"EAArjcrt /cat fiappdpocs Xoyos r\v <f>vaiKos ey/ce/ca- 
XvpLfJuevos 1 p/vdoiSy Ta 7roAAa St' alviyfidrajv /cat 
vttovoi&v €TTLKpv<f>os > 2 /cat pLVOT7]pia)8rjs OeoXoyia, rd 

1 iyK€KaXvfifj,€vo9 Vigerius : cV/ce/caA- most mss. eyyeypap,- 
pivos A. 2 a7TOKpv<f>os A. 

284 



FRAGMENTS : OTHER NAMED WORKS 

The second fragment is not ascribed by Eusebius to any 
particular work of Plutarch, but in view of its proximity to 
the first fragment and the nature of its subject-matter, there 
is high probability in assigning it to the same source. 

Both fragments are reproduced, with references to modern 
literature relevant to them, by A. Tresp, Die Fragmente der 
griechischen Kultschriftsteller, pp. 117-123. 

157 

Take up Plutarch of Chaeronea and read his state- 
ments about our subject, statements in which he 
majestically converts the myths into what he says 
are " mystic theologies " ; purporting to reveal these, 
he says that Dionysus is intoxication . . . and Hera 
the married life of husband and wife. Then, as if he 
had forgotten this interpretation, he tacks on directly 
afterwards a different account : contrary to his pre- 
vious view he now calls Hera the earth, and Leto 
forgetfulness and night . a Then again he says that 
Hera and Leto are identical ; next on top of this 
Zeus is introduced, allegorized into the power of the 
aether. Why should I anticipate all this, when we 
can listen to the fellow himself ? In the work he en- 
titled On the Festival of Images at Plataea he dis- 
closes what most men are unaware of in the secret 
natural science that attaches to the gods, and does 
so as follows. 

1. Ancient natural science, among both Greeks 
and foreign nations, took the form of a scientific 
account hidden in mythology, veiled for the most part 
in riddles and hints, or of a theology such as is found in 

° This seems to be the origin of Theodoretus, Cur. Graec. 
Affect, iii. 54 (Bernardakis, frag, incert. 134). 

285 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

T€ XaXovfieva tcjv oiycofievcov doa^eorepa 1 rols 
ttoXXols exovaa 2 /cat ra acycopLeva rcov XaXovfievcov 
viroTTTorepa, Kardh-qXov ioriv rot? 3 'OpcfriKols eVeat 
/cat rols AlyvTTTiaKols /cat QpvyLois Xoyois* /xaAtora 
S' oi Trepl ras reXerds opyiaopbol /cat ra Spcofieva 
GVjJbfioXiKaJs iv rals iepovpyiais rrjv rcov TraXaLcov 

€[JL<f)aLV€l OLOLVOLOLV. 

2. Olov, tva fjurj jxaKpdv rcov €V€gt7]k6tojv Xoywv 
j3aSt^a>jLtev, ov vo\iitpvoiv ouS' a^iovoi Kotvcoviav 
elvai Trpos Alovvoov "H/oa* ^vXdooovrai ok ovfi- 
[juyvvvai ra Upd, /cat ras * KQy\vr)oiv iepeias dirav- 
rcboas <f>aolv dAA^Aatc jxrj Trpoaayopevetv, ^S' 

SXoJS KLTTOV els TO TTJS "YLpCLS eloKOfJLl^eodoLl T€- 

fjuevos, ov Sta rds pivdiKas /cat (frXvapwSeis t,rjXorv- 
7TLas, aAA' otl yaiMrjXcos /xev rj Oeds /cat vv(/,<f)aya)y6s, 
aTrperres Se to p,€0v€cv vvfi(f>LOLS /cat ydfiocs dvap- 
/jloototcltov , a>s c/>rjoLV 6 UXdrcov aKparoiTooia yap 
rapa^v 4 ip,iTOL€L /cat i/jvxcus kcu ocbpLaoiv, v(f> y fjs 
aVAacrra /cat TTeTrXavrjfjLiva pi^ovrau /ca/ccos 1 ra <J77€t- 
p6jjb€va /cat KvioKOfieva. irdXiv oi dvovres 'H/oa 
7"r)v ^oA?)v ov Kadayi^ovaiv dXXd KaropVTrovai 
irapd top PoofAov, d)s Siov ddvjjbov /cat a^oAov /cat 
Kadapevovoav opyrjs /cat TTiKplas arracks rrjv yvvai- 
kos koX dvSpos etvat ovfJLf$LO>oiv. 

3. Tovto 8rj 5 to ovfifioXcKov etSos iv rols Xoyois 

1 Reitzenstein : aa^c'orepa. 

2 Wyttenbach : exovra. 

3 tois A : iv rols most mss. 

4 All mss. but A add d>inai before rapavni/. 

5 hk A. 

° C/. Zte hide, 362 b ; F. Jacoby, Diagoras 6 dOeos, Abh. 
Akad. Wiss. Berlin, 1959, p. 28 and n. 231. A (frpvyios \6yos, 
first appearing in the third cent. b.c. anonymously, was later 

286 



FRAGMENTS : OTHER NAMED WORKS 

mystery-ceremonies : in it what is spoken is less clear 
to the masses than what is unsaid, and what is unsaid 
gives cause for more speculation than what is said. 
This is evident from the Orphic poems and the ac- 
counts given by Phrygians and Egyptians. But 
nothing does more to reveal what was in the mind 
of the ancients than the rites of initiation and the 
ritual acts that are performed in religious services with 
symbolical intent. 

2. To take an instance that will not lead us far 
from what we have been talking about, it is traditional 
that there is no association between Hera and Dio- 
nysus and it is not thought right that there should be 
any. Care is taken to keep their rites distinct, and 
it is said that the priestesses of the two divinities at 
Athens do not speak to one another if they meet, 
and that ivy is never introduced into Hera's precincts. 
The reason is not to be found in the nonsense of 
mythological stories of jealousy, but in the fact that 
Hera is the goddess of marriage and leader of the 
bridal procession, whereas it is unseemly for the 
bridal pair to be tipsy and, as Plato says, most un- 
suitable for a wedding. b Heavy drinking, he says, 
causes a disturbance both in mind and in body, as a 
result of which what is sown and conceived, being un- 
formed and unsettled, has but poor roots. Again at 
sacrifices to Hera the gall-bladder is not offered to 
her but buried by the altar, because the life shared 
by husband and wife should be without anger or gall, 
and uncontaminated by any ill-temper or bitterness. c 

3. Now this symbolical aspect occurs more often 

ascribed to Democritus, Diels-Kranz, Fragmente der I'orso- 
kratiker, 68 b 299. 

b Laws, 775 b-d. 

e Cf. Fraec. Coniuy. 141 k. 

287 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

ACCU TOLS [JLvOoiS p,&XX6v icTTlV 1 ' oloV LOTOpOVOl TTjV 

"Hpav iv rrj EujSota rp€(f)Ofi€V7]v en irapdivov vtto 
tov Aids K\a7rfjvcu, /cat Sta/cojiucrfleto-av ivravda 

KpV7TT€(jdai, l&ldaip&VOS aVTols flVXOV €7TLGKl6v 

rtva 2 /cat 6dXap,ov avrocf>vrj irapaoxovTOS' iXOovorjs 

8k T7JS MdKptSoS KCLTO, ^TjTTJOLV (tJv Sc "Hpa? Tt" 

Orfvrj) /cat fSovXopLevrjs ipevvdv, ovk idv tov Kt0at- 
pcova 7ToXv7Tpayfjbov€LV ov8e rep ycapicp irpoodyeiv, 
ojs tov Aids €K€l rfj Atjtol ovvavaTravopuevov /cat 

OVvSldTplfioVTOS. dlT€.XdoV07]S 8k TTJS Ma/CptSoS", 

ovtoj Tore pukv SiaXadeiv rrjv "Hpav, varepov 8k rfj 
Atjtol X^P IV OL^opbvrjfMovevovGav 6pLof3ojfj,iov 6io9ai 
/cat ovwaov ware /cat A^rot Mi^ta Trpodveodai* 
Tivks 8k Nux^av Xlyovai. cr^/xatWrat 8* iv eKardpep 
tcov ovofjudrajv to Kpvcf>iov /cat SiaXeXrjdos. evioi 8k 

TTJV "HpaV aVTTjV €K€L Tip All Xddpa OVVOVOCLV /Cat 

Xavddvovaav ovtoj <f>aol Atjtoj 3 Ni^tav 4 TTpoorj- 
yopevaOai' <j>av€ptov 8k tojv ydfxojv yevopuevojv /cat 
7rept tov Kt#atpa>va rrpcjTov ivTavda /cat tols nAa- 
Tatas 1 ttjs opuXtas dvaKaXv<f>6e terms', "Hpav TeAet'av 
/cat TapLTjXiov avTrjv Trpocrayopevdrjvai. 

4. Ot 8k <J>v&ikojs fA&XXov /cat 5 irpeTrovTOJS vtto- 
Aa/xj8avovT€? 6 tov p,vOov ovtojs els tolvto ttj Atjtol 
ovvdyovoi ttjv "Hpav. yrj p,£v ioTiv rj "Hpa 
KaQdirep eiprjTaiy vv£ 8* r) Atjtoj " XtjOoj " tis ovaa 
tojv els vttvov TpeTTOfJbevcov. vvi; 8* ov8ev ioTiv dXXo 

1 iarlv fidXXov A. 2 A : iirlaiaov two. ilv\ov most mss. 

3 A : Atjto) <f>a<n most MSS. 

4 Muxtaf van Herwerden. 

5 ? Kal fidXXov, 6 v7ro\apovT€S A. 

a Either a personification of the mountain or a mythical 
king of Thebes (Pausanias, ix. 1. 2). 

288 



FRAGMENTS : OTHER NAMED WORKS 

in stories and mythology. For example, they record 
that when Hera was still a girl, being brought up in 
Euboea, she was kidnapped by Zeus, transported to 
these parts and here concealed, Cithaeron a providing 
them with a shaded nook to form a natural marriage- 
chamber. Macris (she was Hera's nurse b ) came to 
look for her ; but when she wanted to make a search 
of the place Cithaeron prevented her from interfering 
or approaching the spot by a tale that Zeus was sleep- 
ing and dallying with Leto there. Macris went away 
and thus Hera escaped discovery ; later, to record 
her gratitude to Leto, she shared her altar and her 
temple with her. That is why preliminary sacrifice 
is made to " Leto of the Nook " (mychios), although 
some say " of the Night " (nychios). Either name, 
however, signifies the clandestine preservation of 
secrecy. But there are some who say that Hera 
herself was given the name of " Leto of the Night " 
as she there lay with Zeus secretly and undetected ; 
but when their marriage became public and their 
association was brought to light — which first hap- 
pened here on Cithaeron and at Plataea — she was 
named " Hera of Consummation " and " Hera of 
Wedlock.'' * 

4. But those who prefer to understand the story in 
a scientific and seemly sense identify Hera and Leto 
in the following way : Hera is the earth, as has been 
said, and Leto night, being an oblivion (letho d ) ex- 
perienced by those who give themselves to sleep, and 

5 At Moralia 657 e Hera's nurse is called Euboea, for 
which Macris was another name, Callimachus, Hymn iv. 
20 etc. 

• Farnell, Cults, i, pp. 195, 244-246. 

d Plato, Cratylus, 406 a suggests a derivation from lethe, 
" forgetting." 

vol. xv 289 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

rrArjv GKia yrjs* orav yap rrArjoidoavra 1 rats 8vo- 

fJLCUS aTTOKpVlfjT) TOV jjXtOV, dvaTrAaTVVOfJLevrj fJ,eAaiV€l 

tov aepa' /cat tovt eon to €kX€L7ttik6v oAioQrjfxa 
Ttov rravoeArjvojv , orav rrjs oeArjvrjs 7repL<f>€pofievrjs 
r) GKia rrjs yrjs emifjavorj /cat 8iadoAojorj to <f>eyyos* 
5. *Ort S* ovk dAArj rls eon rrjs "Hpa? r) Arjraj, 
fiddoLT 9 dv ev0ev8e. rrjv "Aprefiiv 8rj7TOv z dvyarepa 
Arjrovs KaAovp,ev, aAAd /cat EtAetflutav rrjv avrrjv 
6vop,d£o[JL€v ovkovv rj re "Hoa /cat rj Arjrcb 8vo 
elol puas Oeov n poorjy 'optat. 7rdAiv €/c fiev Arjrovs 
6 'AttoAAojv €k S' "Hpas 1 6 "Aprjs yeyove' fiia S' 
eorlv djJ,(f>OT€pa)v 8vvap,is, /cat KeKArjrai "Aprjs p>ev 
ojs " dprjyojv " rots Kara ]8tW /cat [*>dx r l v vvpmroj" 
p,aow, AttoAAojv o ojs arraAAarrajv /cat ano- 
Avojv " rojv rrepl acofMa vocrrjiAariKcbv* iraOwv tov 
dvdpcuTTOv. 816 /cat rcbv epmvpoirdrojv dorpojv /cat 
7Tvpi<fjAeyeardrojv 6 p,ev rjAios * AttoAAojv KeKArjrai 
6 8e 7rvpo€i8r)s* "Aprjs errojvojxaarai, /cat ovk arro 
rpoiTov* earl rrjv avrrjv Oeov Tap/rjAiov Aeyeodai /cat 
\irjrepa ElAeiOvias /cat c HAtoi> vopbil^eodar ydfiov 
p,ev yap reAos yeveois ion, yeveois 8' r) els rjAiov 
/cat (/>tos €/c gkotovs rropeia' /cat koAojs €<f>rj 9 6 
TTOirjrrjs, 

avrap €7rei8rj tov ye puoyooTOKos EtAetfltua 
e£dyaye 7rpo<f>6a)o8e /cat rjeALov i8ev avyds. 

ev 6 TTOirjrrjs rfj p,ev rrpodeoei rrjv ovvOeoiv ovv- 
eOAii/jev, 1 ep,<fjalvojv to fiefiiaofJLevov rrjs oj8lvos, reAos 

1 F. H. S. : irXqaidaaaa. 2 van Herwerden : rjBrj ttov. 

8 voo7)fidrwv koL Bernardakis. 

4 TTvppoeiSrjs A. ? Hvpoeis Bernardakis. 

5 Gaisford : wnorpoircDv. 

6 AI omit €^17. ? delete koX . . . noirjTys. 7 F. H. S. : ZOXu/tev. 

290 



FRAGMENTS : OTHER NAMED WORKS 

night is nothing but the earth's shadow. For the 
earth hides the sun when it has reached the west, 
and then its shadow spreads upwards to darken the 
air. And this is the reason for the disappearance of 
full moons in eclipse ; at that time the shadow of the 
earth falls upon the moon as it moves in its orbit, and 
darkens its light. 

5. You can gather the identity of Leto and Hera 
from the fact that we call Artemis daughter of Leto 
(do we not ?), but also give her the name of Eileithyia. 
So Hera and Leto are two names for one goddess. 01 
Again Apollo was born of Leto and Ares of Hera, but 
they both have one and the same power : and Ares 
has his name as giving succour (arSgon) in the violent 
accidents of battle, and Apollo his as ridding (apal- 
latton) and relieving (apolyon) man of his morbid bodily 
states. Thus of the fiercest and most flaming heavenly 
bodies, the sun is called Apollo and the fiery planet 
has been given the name Ares (Mars). Nor is it 
inappropriate that the same goddess should have the 
title Patroness of Marriage and be regarded as 
mother of Eileithyia and of the Sun, since the 
purpose of marriage is birth, and birth is the journey 
out of darkness into the light of the sun. Homer 
wrote finely : 

When Eileithyia, goddess of birth-pangs, 
Brought him out to the light, and he saw the sun. 6 

It was excellent to force the compound into a single 
word with the preposition, in order to indicate the 
forced character of labour, and excellent to make 

° Eileithyia, the goddess of childbirth, was daughter of 
Hera: Iliads xi. 271, Hesiod, Theogony, 922. 

b Iliad, xvi. 187. 

c Zenodotus read irpo<t>6a>o§€ as one word, Aristarchus npo 
<j>6coahe as two. Eustathius took it as one word, signifying 

291 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

Se rrjs yeveaeats erroi-qaev rjXiov tSetv. ovkovv r) 
avrrj deos €TTOLrjG€ kclI ydp,ov avveXdeiv, Iva yiveoiv 
irapaoKevdar] . 

6. Act S' lotOS KOI TOV €V7)d£oT€pOV fJLvOoV €L7T€LV. 

Xeyerat yap 6 Zeus', ttjs "Upas avra> Sca^e popuevrjs 

Kal fJL7]K€TL (froLT&V els TaVTO ^OvXojMeVTjS dXXd KpV~ 

TTTOVorjs eavTTqv, ap,r)xava)v Kal irXavw^vos 'AAaA- 
/co/z.evet 1 to) avroxOovt ovvTvyeiv koX oioayQrp>ai 
vtto tovtov, ws €^a7raTr]Teov ty]v "Hpav GKrufjd- 
fjuevov yafietv irepav. ovvepyovvTos Se tov 'AAaA- 
KOfJLeveais* Kpv(f>a refMovras avrovs evKTeavov Kal 
TrayKaXrjv Spvv p,op(f)a)oaL r avrrjv Kal /caraaretAat 
vv(JL(/)tKcos, AaiodXrjv TrpoaayopevaavTas' et#' ovtojs 
dvapbeXTreod at p,€v tov vpievaiov, Xovrpd Se Kop,i£,€iv 
ras T pirojvioas Nvp,(f)as, avXovs Se /cat Kd)p,ovs rrjv 
Botarrt'av irapaGyziv TT€paivop,£va)v Se tovtojv 
ovk€tl tt)v "Hpav KapTepelv , dXXd KaTafiaoav e/c 
tov Ys.idaipa)vos , tcov nAaratariScov 3 avrfj yvvaiK&v 
Itto\l£vo)v , vtt* opyrjs Kal t^Xorvirlas deovaav iXdeZv 
rrpos tov Ata, /cat tov TrXdop,aTos <f>avepov yevo- 
puevov, StaAAayetcrav jLtera x a P^ KaL y^XojTOS avTrjv 
vvfi(f)aya)y€LV' tijmtjv Se ra> £odvtp irpoodelvai, Kal 
AatSaAa ttjv £opT7)v Trpooayopevoat, /cara/cauaat S' 
6 fiats avTO /catVep ai/jvxov ov vtto tpqXoTVTTias. 

7. *0 p,€V ovv fivdos toiovtos, 6 Se Xoyos avTov 
rotdaSe. "H/oas /cat Atd? oia<f>opd Kal oTaois ovSev 
aXXo ttXtjv GTOix^io)v ovoKpaoia Kal Tapa^os £gtlv, 

1 Roscher : dAaA/co/xcVei. 2 Roscher : dAaA/co/ncVous". 

3 Mras : 7rAaTcud8coi> A : tcDv 7rAaT€t8a>v most mss. 

Pp€(j>ovs irpoobov els <f>a>s. For Plutarch's view of the signifi- 
cance of the compound compare Longinus, De Sublimitate, 
X. 6 on V7T€K davdroio : rfj Se rod trrovs ovvOAlifiet. to irdOos aKpcos 
aTT€Tr\dcaTO. 

292 



FRAGMENTS : OTHER NAMED WORKS 

seeing the sun the consummation of birth. So the 
same goddess has also created the union of marriage 
in order to bring birth about. 

6. There is a more foolish story, and perhaps it 
should be told. It is that when Hera fell out with 
Zeus and would no longer consort with him but hid 
herself, he wandered around at his wits' end ; in 
this state he fell in with Alalcomeneus the aboriginal, 
who instructed him that he must trick Hera by a 
pretence of marrying someone else. Alalcomeneus 
assisted him in secretly felling a lovely straight- 
grained oak-tree, which they shaped and dressed 
like a bride, giving it the name of Daidale. Then, 
these preparations made, the wedding-song rang out, 
and the Nymphs of the river Triton b brought the 
water for the bridal bath, and Boeotia provided pipes 
and revelry. As all this went forward, Hera could 
stand it no longer, but came down from Cithaeron, 
with a retinue of women from Plataea, and ran in 
anger and jealousy to confront Zeus. The counter- 
feit being exposed, she was reconciled to him and 
herself led the bridal procession with joy and laughter ; 
she gave honour to the wooden image, by naming the 
festival Daidala, but for all that she burnt it up, life- 
less though it was, in her jealousy. 

7. Such is the story. Its meaning is something 
like this : the discord and quarrel between Zeus and 
Hera is nothing but a disturbance of the elements and 

a Alalcomeneus was not only aboriginal, but also the first 
of all men, according to a poet whose lines are preserved by 
Hippolytus, Refutation v, p. 134 ; Page, Greek Melic Poetry, 
adespota 985, Bergk, Poetae Isyrici uraeci, iii, adespota 84. 

6 A river running into Lake Copals. 

293 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

otolv aAAtfAois \xrr\K€.ri ovp,p.€TpfJTcu /caret Koap,ov, 
dAAd /cat dvojpLaAlas /cat TpaxvTrjTOs eyyevopbevrjs 
ovafj,axtf<JOLVTa Avery rrjv kowcovlclv /cat (f>dopdv tcov 
SAtov aTT€pydor)Tai. aV p,ev ovv 6 TLzvs, tovt€otlv 
yj deppurj /cat TTVpojorjs 8vvap,is, alriav Trapaoyr\ rfs 
8ia<f>opas, 1 avxfios rrjv yrjv /caraAa/^/JdVet • idv 8e 

7T€pl TTjV "HpCLV, TOVT€GTL TTJV Vypdv /Cat 7TV€Vp,aTl- 

ktjv <f>voiVy vfipis tis fj TrAeovaopuos yevrjTcu, pevfia 
fjAde rroAv /cat Gway/Jippioe /cat /carc/cAvcrc ra Travra. 

TOLOVTOV 8e TWOS y€VOfl€VOV /Cat 7T€pl TOVS TOT€ 

Xpdvovs, /cat jitaAtara r^s Boiam'a? fivO code lor] s, 
d)S TTpchrov aveov to 7re8lov /cat 07 7rAr)p,pbvpa cAcu- 

</>7}G€V, 6 fJL€V ££ €v8laS KOOpbOS TOV 7T€pL€)(OVTOS 

ofAovoia /cat StaAAay^ tcjv Oewv iAexOr}- 7rpa>TOV 
8 9 dvecrx €V ^ K rfs yrjs tcjv c^vtcov* rj 8pvs, /cat tolv- 
tt]v rjya7n]oav ol avOpamoi, Tpo<f>r)v z jSt'ou /cat oxo- 
Trjpias 8iapbovr)v irapaaxovoav . ov yap piovov toIs 
evvefieoiv, ojs 'HcrtoSos' <f>r)oiv y dAAd /cat rot? vtto- 
Aet<£0€tcrt ttjs <j>dopas, 

aKpf) piev T€ (f>€p€t fiaAdvovs, pbeoorj 8e /xeAtacra?. 

158 
Eusebius, Praepar. Evang. iii. 8. 1. 
Acyet 8' ovv HAovTapxos cSSe tttj /caTa Ae£w 

C H Sc ra>v ijodvwv 7TOL7)cns dpxcuov €olk€v clvai 
rt /cat TraAatov, €ty€ £uAtvoi> p,ev r)v to irptoTOV els 

ArjAoV V7TO 'EpVOLxOoVOS 'AtToAAcxJVL 7T€p,<f>dkv* €7TL 



1 F. H. S. : hia<f>dopas. 

8 F. H. S. : €K T&v <f>vra>v rrjs yrjs* 

8 F. H. S. : rpo<f)rjs. 

4 ir€fi(f>d€v added, exempli gratia, by Bolkestein. 

294 



FRAGMENTS : OTHER NAMED WORKS 

their failure to blend, when they no longer preserve 
their balance in an orderly fashion but, as irregularity 
and turbulence arise among them, enter on a bitter 
struggle in which they dissolve their union and work 
universal destruction. If Zeus,° that is to say the 
hot fiery force, provides the cause of the discord, 
drought falls on the earth ; if Hera, that is to say the 
wet and windy matter, gets out of hand and over- 
abundant, there comes a great flow of water to deluge 
and inundate everything. Something of the kind 
happened in those old days : Boeotia in particular 
was submerged, and when as the flood subsided the 
plain first reappeared, the good order in the atmo- 
sphere that followed the calm weather was spoken of 
as the concord and reconciliation of the gods ; the 
first plant to rise from the earth was the oak, and 
men welcomed it as having provided food to live on 
and the means by which their preservation would 
endure. 

Its twigs have acorns and its trunk the bee b 

not for the god-fearing only, as Hesiod tells us, but 
also for the survivors of the catastrophe. 



158 

Plutarch, anyway, writes as follows, to quote his 
own words : 

The making of wooden images seems to be an 
ancient and early practice, if wood was the material 
of the first statue sent in honour of Apollo by Ery- 

a These identifications are Stoic, e.g., Cicero, Nat. Deor. 
ii. 66. 

b Hesiod, Works and Days, 233. 

295 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

tojv Oeojpicbv dyaXpua, ^vXivov 8e to ty)s TloXidSos 
vno tcjv avToxOovcov ISpvdev, o p>exP l v v v y A0T]vcuoi 
hia^vXarrovaiv . "Yipas 8e /cat HdjxioL i;vXwov et^ov 
eSos*, 1 6')s (f>rjGL KaAAt/xa^os', 

ovirto 2jK€AfJLiov epyov evgoov, aAA em reufAov 
Srjvouov yXvcf)dva>v a^oo? 3 rjaOa oavis. 

aioe yap ISpvovro 6eovs Tore* /cat yap *A.drjvqs 
ev AlvSo) Aavaos AtroV edrjKev e8os. 

Xeyerat 8e Uelpas 6 rrptoros 'ApyoAiSos "Hpas 
lepov eladfAevos rrjv eavrov Ovyarepa KaAAt'0i>tav 
iepeiav Karaorrjoas , €K tcjv irep\ TlpvvOa 8ev8pojv 
oyyyv\v repbcbv evKTeavov, "Upas dyaXfia jxop^coaai, 
irerpav pbev yap els Oeov Koirreiv et/coVa GKXrjpav 
/cat 8vaepyov /cat difjvxov ovk efiovXovro, xpuaoV Se 
/cat apyvpov rjyovvro yrjs aKaprrov /cat 8ie<f)6ap- 
[JL€vr]s xp(xy\iara voacoSrj /cat KrjXlSas e^avOetv tborrep 
p,d)Xoj7Tas vtto TTVpos paTTioOeiorjs' eXe^avn 8e irai- 
t.ovres p>ev eo9* ottov Trpooexp&vro tto t/ctA/xart 
yXv<f)rjs. 5 

1 Bentley: c?8o<r. 

2 Bentley : elao^oava or els £6avov, 

3 Srjvatov Gaisford y\v<f>dvojv Toup a£oos Bentley : Srj- 
vai6yXv(f)ov (or 817 v€o*y\v<f>ov) a>va£ deds. 

4 Isaac Voss : Xidov or XcTov. 

5 F. H. S. : Tpv<f>rjs. ypa<j>7)s Wyttenbach. 

a Son of Cecrops ; see Pausanias, i. 18. 5. 
6 Frag. 100 Pfeiffer, from Book iv of Aitia. 
296 



FRAGMENTS : OTHER NAMED WORKS 

sichthon a to Delos for the festivals there, and also 
of the statue of Polias set up by the aboriginals, a 
statue which the Athenians preserve to this day. 
The Samians, too, had a wooden icon of Hera, as 
Callimachus tells b : 

Thou wast not yet the polished work of Scelmis, c 
But an unchiselled plank, by ancient rule. 
Such gods men set up then : thus Danaus 
At Lindus placed Athene's simple icon. d 

It is said that Peiras, the founder of the temple of 
Hera at Argos, who appointed his own daughter 
Callithyia to be her priestess, cut down a straight- 
grained pear from among the trees near Tiryns and 
shaped it into an image of Hera. e In old times men 
did not choose to hack a stone into a hard, awkward, 
lifeless representation of a god ; gold and silver they 
thought of as pigments due to disease in corrupt, in- 
fertile earth or as disfiguring excrescences, swelling 
up like weals where it had come under the lash of fire ; 
as for ivory, they did on occasion use it light-heartedly 
to lend variety to their sculpture/ 

c Scelmis (?), alias Smilis (Schol. Pausanias, iii. 4. 4), 
otherwise unknown sculptor who turned a plank, previously 
the idol, into the first anthropomorphic statue of Hera at 
Samos, cf. Clement, Protrepticus, iv. 46. 3, 47. 2 ; E. Buschor, 
Ath. Mitt. Iv (1930), p. 4. 

d Apollodorus, ii. 1. 4. 6. Athena instigated Danaus' 
escape with his daughters from Egypt. See C. Blinkenberg, 
V Image (TAthana Lindia, K. Danske Videnskabsselskab, 
Hist. fil. Meddelelser, 1917. 

e Cf. Clement, loc. cit., who gives the maker's name as 
Argus, on the authority of the second book of Demetrius' 
Argolica. 

f On the importance of early Greek work in ivory, 
occasionally combined with wood, see R. D. Barnett, Journ. 
Hell. Stud, lxviii (1948), pp. 1 ff. 

297 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 



IIEPI OIAIAS EniSTOAH 

Plutarch's name is attached by Stobaeus to two only of 
these extracts ; the others have merely the title of the book. 
0. Hense, R.E. ioc. 2570, approves Wyttenbach's acceptance 
of them all 9 observing that Stobaeus also omits Plutarch's 
name when quoting from Septem Sapientium Convivium. 



159 
Stobaeus ii. 81. 82 (ii, p. 215 Wachsmuth). 
'E/c tt)s TTepl <f)iAias imaToAfjs* 
ri Tratoeta kclv firjoev erepov ayauov €X71> to ye 
avfj,<f)oiTav St' 2 avrrjv vvktos /cat rjiiepas e/caa^£et 8 
kolkLcls, ols av rj tis atScos" /cat ttoXXol o<f>as avrovs 
/cat aXXovs * * 

160 
Stobaeus, ii. 46. 15 (ii, p. 262 Wachsmuth). 
'E/c rrjs 7T€pl <f>iXias emcrToXfjs' 

*£ls fl€VTOL Aap,7Tp6v ioTLV €V TTOieiV, OVTOJS d/Lt€t7T- 

reov,* Iva firj [xovov dx^piorias 6<f>Xrj ns SIktjv, 
dXXd /cat fSXdfiovs kolvov t&v ev 7retaofJb€vwv elaav- 

9 IS* €T€pU)V dvaKOTTTJ TTpOS €V€py€OlCLV. 

1 Meineke : c^oi. 

2 Bi 9 added by F. H. S. 

3 Usener : cf a>. ef oj rlOrjat Duebner. 

298 



FRAGMENTS : OTHER NAMED WORKS 
A LETTER ON FRIENDLINESS 

(Lamprias Catalogue 132, ? 83) 

The extracts have little to do with "friendship " in the 
narrow sense of the word. Several are concerned with good- 
will and concord in social or political fields. This is a possible 
meaning of the Greek word and it may be that the letter was 
directed to such aspects of the subject. 

159 
From the Letter on Friendliness : 

Even if education provides no other benefit, the 
very fact of attending school with others for educa- 
tion's sake keeps those pupils who have any sense of 
shame out of the way of wrong-doing whether by 
night or by day. Many {have restrained (?)) both 
themselves and others . . . 



160 

From the Letter on Friendliness : 

Yet inasmuch as to confer benefits is a splendid 
thing, so one ought to make a return, to avoid being 
condemned not merely for ingratitude but also, by 
reason of the discouragement given to others' bene- 
volence, for doing a general injury to those who 
might receive benefits in the future , a 

a Text uncertain. 

4 Duebner added tovs €v ttoiqvvtols before d/xciTrrcW ; Usener 
supposed a lacuna after it. 

5 Wyttenbach : els avrovs. 

299 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

161 

Stobaeus, iii. 2. 34 (iii, p. 186 Hense). 

'E/c Trjs ernoToArjs Trjs irepl <£tAtas" 

Raza'a? avrtov 1 TrXdaoovrai 2 rives prj/juaTcov evirpe- 
7761a, to [lev (friAootbjJuaTOV (friXoKokov, to §' dypoi- 
kov 3 arrAovv, to Se (friAapyvpov 7rpop,r)des aVo/caAou- 
fjbevoi. 

162 

Stobaeus, iii. 2. 35 (iii, p. 186 Hense). 

EjV TOLVTtp' 

TloAvfiovAov elvac /cat 7ToAvTp07rov, evda Set 4 /cat 
T€X V7 ]S /car' aAAocfrvAtov 7roAep,LO)v, xprjoip,ov /cat 
dvayKalov errifSovAov S' rjOos /cat /ca/cojLt^^avcorarov 
Sta TravTos 1 e^et^ /cat /cara ttolvtcdv, ov tjj tcop 
ojyyivouyv, ios Tives otovTat, ttj Se toi; TrovrjpoTaTOV 
fjbepiSi TrpoaTidrjiM. 

163 
Stobaeus, iv. 5. 68 (iv, p. 221 Hense). 
'E/c r^9 emoToArjs rrjs rrep\ ^tAtas 5 * 
Mapru9 S' apioTOS 6 fMrjdev jjuev ev nadcov, and 
Se Trjs els dAAovs evvoias Kpivcov. 

164 
Stobaeus, iv. 7. 42 (iv, p. 258 Hense). 
nAourap^ou e/c Trjs ernoToArjs Trjs rrepl <j>iALas 9 
'HfjbepOTrjTi Toivvv /cat evepyeoia puaAAov rj (f>6^cp 

rrpos evvoiav viraKTeov. 

300 



FRAGMENTS : OTHER NAMED WORKS 

161 

From the Letter on Friendliness : 

Some people disguise their own vices under specious 
names, calling sensuality (love of beauty, rudeness) 
simplicity, and avarice foresight. 

162 

In the same work : 

Where trickery is needed against a foreign foe, it is 
useful and indeed necessary to be full of device and 
resource. But to have a designing character and to 
plot mischief at all times and towards all men counts, 
in my view, not as a sign of quick wits, as some people 
think, but of complete depravity. 

163 

From the Letter on Friendliness : 

The best witness is the man who has received no 
favour but forms his judgement on the basis of a 
general goodwill to others. 

164 

Plutarch, from the Letter on Friendliness : 

One must induce goodwill, then, by gentleness and 
helpfulness rather than by fear. 

1 Wyttenbach : avra>v. 

2 TTcpnrXaoaovTai Jacobs. 

3 <f>i\oKakov to 8' dypoLKov added by Hense. 

4 ? evd* dnaTTjs Set. 6 No lemma in S. 

301 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

165 

Stobaeus, iv. 7. 43 (iv, p. 258 Hense). 

*Ev ravTCp' 

*Hwlovs ovv etvcu Set fxera rod e^povos 1 els ro 
Kowfj XvcnreXes* 

166 

Stobaeus, iv. 12. 11 (iv, p. 344 Hense). 
'Eac rrjs emoroXrjs rrjs rrepl <j>iXias' 

"En Se KoXdoecos aTrapairr]rov 2 <f>6fios curios 
iortv anovoias* 6 yap oXeBpov avrov rrpoXafStbv 

OjJLOOe X^pd KtvSvVOLS. 



167 

Stobaeus, iv. 28. 8 (v, p. 678 Hense). 

*Eac rrjs emoroXrjs rrjs rrepl <f>iXias z ' 

Tdfjios yap drro [lev <j>iXias Scrrrjs Kpdoetos* /JeA- 
tlojv, erepcos 8e ocf>aXep6s* 



168 

Stobaeus, iv. 31. 126 (v, p. 778 Hense). 

'Ek rrjs emoroXrjs rrjs 7T€pl <j>iXtas' 

UXovrcp [levroi xprjoreov ojs vXrj riv6s,° ovk* em 
iravros ofioicjs* 
302 



FRAGMENTS : OTHER NAMED WORKS 

165 

In the same work : 

One should act kindly, but also intelligently, to 
secure what is to the common interest. 

166 

From the Letter on Friendliness : 

Further, a fear of unmerciful punishment is respon- 
sible for desperation, since a man who foresees his 
own destruction will take dangerous courses. 



167 

From the Letter on Friendliness : 

A marriage is better if it arises from the blending 
of affection on either side ; otherwise it is liable to 
go wrong. 

168 

From the Letter on Friendliness : 

Wealth should, however, be used as the raw ma- 
terial for something, not indiscriminately. 

1 €fj.<f>povas Elter. 

3 F. H. S. : aTrapaiTrjTOS. 

8 S has the lemma belonging to the next passage, viz., 
UXovrdpxov €K rGiv yafUKtov napayyeXfjidTCov. 

4 OTTOV . . . Kp&GLS PiCCOloS. 

6 ? twos dyadov Duebner (pcXrtovos Hense). 
8 ? <iAA* ovk Hense. 

303 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

169 

Stobaeus, iv. 31. 127 (v, p. 779 Hense). 
huv ravro)' 

'Aperrjv oSv tols uaoi fiaXXov ei)KTeov i) ttXovtov 1 
avorjTots o<f>aXepov vtto yap xprj/xaTajv av^erat 
KaKia. kcll ooco res av a<f>pa)v fj, roaovrcp rrXeov 
e£vPpi£ei, to XvoocbSes avrov 2 tcov rjSovwv eKTrXr)- 
povv e\ojv. 

170 

Stobaeus, iv. 33. 20 (v, p. 805 Hense). 

'E/c rrjs €7TiaroXrjs tt)s Trepl <f>iXias' 

5 Ev Trevia \iev tls SiereXeoev evSatfJbwv, <bs z tJki- 
gtol 8e ttXovtcov* kclv 5 dpx<us . 

*171 

Toaovrov VTrepaipet Trevias dyadov, coot aloxpov 
ttXovtov vofufjuos dvr)p dXXd^aiT av Treviav el ye 
fir) tcov ttot 'ABrjvatcw 6 TrXovoitoTaros dfielvajv 
r)v 'AptoTeiSov Kal UtoKparovs* ev Trevia rrjs aperrjs 1 ' 
6 8e ttXovtos eKetvov* Kal avros i£iT7]X6s re Kal 
dvayvvfios. <f>avXco ydp dp,a tco Oavdrco iravra 
avvoixerai, to Se KaXov altoviov. 

1 ttXovtov top Schwartz. 2 Meineke : avrov. 

3 Gesner : oj. 4 8' iv ttXovtco Boissonade. 

6 Schwartz : Kal. 

6 ©e/utoTo/cAiJs' o NcokAcous deleted by Valckenaer after Zcu- 
Kpdrovs. 7 ? after dperrjs add, e.g., avrcxofiivajv. 

8 avrov deleted by Duebner after ckclvov. ? 6 8e nXovros 
avrov Kal avros €K€lvos. 

a In the mss. of Stobaeus this is continuous with the pre- 
304 



FRAGMENTS : OTHER NAMED WORKS 

169 
In the same work : 

So all men should pray for virtue rather than for 
riches, which are dangerous to the foolish, since 
faults are made worse by money. And the more un- 
intelligent a man is, the more extravagant are his 
excesses ; there is a madness in his pleasures, and 
he has the means to gratify it. 

170 

From the Letter on Friendliness : 

It has been known for a man to continue happy in 
poverty, but to be far from happy when rich and in 
positions of authority. 

*171 ° 

So much does it (?) lift a good man above poverty 
that a law-abiding man would prefer poverty to 
shameful wealth. Unless indeed the richest Athenian 
of all time b was a better man than Aristides and 
Socrates for all that he was poor in virtue (?). But 
that man's wealth is itself, like him, extinct and 
nameless, for an inferior man's possessions all depart 
with him at his death, but what is truly fine is ever- 
lasting. 

ceding fragment. Meineke saw that there is no connexion 
between them. Since a lemma must have been omitted, this 
fragment may not be drawn from Plutarch (so Duebner) ; 
certainly its present form of disjointed platitudes is not 
characteristic of him, nor is the consecutive tc /cat of the pen- 
ultimate sentence. 

b Valckenaer supposed Callias to be meant (Teles, p. 48. 3 
Hense), although the author implies that the man's name 
was forgotten. 

305 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 
IIEPI OYSEQS KAI IIONQN 

If this is a genuine title, it is unique in Photius' list (p. 
2), in that there is appended to it a brief account of its 

172 

Photius, Bibliotheca, 161 (103 a Migne). 

. . . Tlepl T€ <f>VO€iA)S /Cat TTOVLUV, 0770)9 T€ 7ToAAot 
7ToX\(LKlS 7T0VO) T7JV <f>VGLV OVK €V (f>€pOpb€VrjV COpOcx)- 

aav, €T€poi 8e kclAws exovaav i£ dfieAelas Scecfrdei- 
paVy ottcds re evioi iv jxev veots fipaSeis ivecopcovro 
iraai /cat davveroi, dKjjuaadvrcov Se els to rayy koX 
avverov avrols rj <f>vat,s itjeAapsiftev. 

IIEPI TYXHS 

Three certain fragments of this book survive, and two 
others are assigned to it with some probability. These two 
are preserved by Stobaeus, in whose mss. they are ascribed to 
a work rrepl i/fvxfjs by Themistius. Wyttenbach in his edition 
of De Sera Numinis Vindicta (1772), p. 129, claimed them 
for Plutarch on the convincing grounds that their style is 
characteristically Plutarchean and that they are extracts 
from a dialogue featuring his brother Timon a and a relation 
by marriage, Patrocleas (see L.C.L. vii, p. 575). If anyone 
were disposed to think that Themistius might have imitated 
Plutarch's style and made use of his relatives in a dialogue of 
his own, such a fancy could not survive a discovery made by 
M. R. James (C.R. ociv [1900], p. 23). He showed that 
phrases from one of the fragments are quoted, without 
naming the author, by Clement of Alexandria (Eel. Proph. 

° He may have had the leading part, as Lamprias does in 
De Facie (so R. Hirzel, Der Dialog, ii, p. 216). 

306 



FRAGMENTS : OTHER NAMED WORKS 

ON NATURAL ENDOWMENT AND 
HARD WORK 

(Not in Lamprias Catalogue) 

content ; if it is nothing but the description of some extract, 
it is unique in not being a true title. 

172 

On Natural Endowment and Hard Work, how many 
men have often by hard work corrected an inadequate 
natural endowment, while others have spoiled a 
good one by neglect ; also how some men have in 
their youth given everyone the impression of being 
slow and unintelligent, but when they reached their 
prime, a sudden development of personality made 
them quick and intelligent. 

ON THE SOUL 

(Lamprias Catalogue 209) 

34, 35), who elsewhere made free unacknowledged use of 
Plutarch, and who lived long before Themistius. 

Opinions differ about four other short fragments (203- 
206) elsewhere assigned by Stobaeus to Themistius, Trepl 
*ltvxrjs. If Stobaeus, or a predecessor, excerpted a work en- 
titled n€pl *f>vxfjs, which was really by Plutarch but which he 
believed to be by Themistius, these fragments, too, will belong 
to Plutarch. b But there may be some other reason for the 
assignment to Themistius of the two certainly Plutarchean 
fragments ; for example, a genuine extract from Themistius' 
Kepi iftvxfjs (if such a work existed) may have fallen out to- 

b F. Bucheler, Rh. Mus. xxvii (1872), p. 524, translates a 
Syriac version of a Greek ms. that contained works by both 
authors. 

307 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

gether with the correct lemma for the first extract from 
Plutarch : in that case it would need some other argument 
to prove that the four short fragments were not taken from 
Themistiu8. ° In this uncertainty I have not included them 
here. It may be doubted whether it was right to include even 
the two fragments from Stobaeus that are indubitably by 

173 

Origenes, Contra Celsum, v. 57. 

IlaoaSo^a 8e Trpdyfiara tois dvOpojTrois €Tri<f)aL- 
veodal 7tot€ kolI tcjv ^XXtjvojv laroprjaav ov [XOVOV 

OL V7TOVO7]0€VT€S OV <1)S [J,V0O7TOIOVVT€S dXXa KOLl OL 1 
TToXv €7ri8€l^dfl€VOL yVT)OLOJS <f)l\oOO<f>€lv KOLL <j)l\- 

aXrjdojs eKTideadai rd els avrovs (f)6doavra. roiavra 
S' dveyvcofxev irapd . . . ra> Xatpcovet UXovrdpxco 
ev rots 7repl ifjvxTJs- 

174 

Aulus Gellius, i. 3. 31. 

Super hoc eodem Chilone Plutarchus philosophus 
in libro irepl iftvxfjs primo verbis his 2 ita scripsit : 
XeiAaw 6 7tolAcu6s, aKovaas twos Aeyovros firjSiva 
€)(€iv iftdpov, rjpcorrjoev el firjSeva </>iAov e'xei, vop,L- 
£ou> i£ dvdyKrjs eiraKoXovdeiv /cat ovvefMrrXeKeadai 3 
<f>iXiais direxOelasf 

175 
Aulus Gellius, xv. 10. 
Plutarchus in librorum quos Trepl ifjvx^ inscripsit 

1 ot Guiet : olov. 2 his A : omitted by RPV. 

308 



FRAGMENTS : OTHER NAMED WORKS 

Plutarch, since it is only a hypothesis that they come from his 
work entitled ncpl ipvxrjs ; but it seemed convenient to retain 
their traditional place, which may after all be correct. 

There is a translation of fragments 177, 178 by A. 0. 
Prickard, Plutarch, Select Essays, vol. ii (1918), pp. 214 ff. 

173 

That extraordinary events are sometimes mani- 
fested to men has been recorded not only by those 
Greek authors who might be suspected of inventing 
stories but also by those who have made a great 
display of a genuine pursuit of philosophy and of a 
regard for the truth in setting down what evidence 
reached them. Such accounts I have read in . . . 
Plutarch of Chaeronea in his work On the Soul. b 



174 

In the first volume of his book On the Soul the 
philosopher Plutarch wrote in these words about this 
same Chilon : Chilon of old, hearing someone say 
that he had no enemies, asked whether he had no 
friends, holding that enmities necessarily follow upon 
friendships and are interwoven with them. c 

175 
Plutarch, in the first of the books he entitled On 

° O. Hense, Rh. Mus. lxxiii (1920), p. 301. 

6 Origen is here opposing pagan scepticism about the 
Resurrection. 

c The same anecdote is told in De Capienda ex Inimicis 
Utilitate, 86 c and Be Amicorum Multitudine, 96 a. 

3 Duebner : ovvcvnXtKtodan,. avfnrXcK- 86 c, 96 A. 
4 Hosius : <7<£tAiacra7r€X#€icu(7. 

309 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

primo cum de morbis dissereret in animos hominum 
incidentibus, virgines 1 dixit Milesii nominis, fere quot 
turn in ea civitate erant, repente sine ulla evidenti 
causa voluntatem cepisse obeundae mortis ac deinde 
plurimas vitam suspendio amississe. id cum accideret 
in dies crebrius neque animis earum mori persever- 
antium medicina adhiberi quiret, decrevisse Milesios 
ut virgines, quae corporibus suspensis demortuae 
forent, ut hae omnes nudae cum eodem laqueo quo 2 
essent praevinctae efferrentur. post id decretum 
virgines voluntariam mortem non petisse pudore solo 
deterritas tarn inhonesti funeris. 



176 

Eusebius, Praepar. Evang. xi. 36. 1. [Theodoretus, Cur. 
Gr. Aff. xi. 46, gives an abbreviated version.] 

Hvyyevfj 8e tovtols koX 6 TlXovrapxos <5oV 7ttj ev 

Tip irpiOTCp 7T€pl tfjVxfjS loTOp€l' 

'AvTvXXco 8e Tovrcp /cat avrol 7rapfjiJ,€v aju,a 3 2a>- 
aireXei koI r Hpa/cAea>w St^you/xeVa). 4 voacbv yap 
evayxos ajStcora)? e^etv cSokcl tols larpols' avevex" 
dels 8e jjuKpov €K twos ov /?€j8cuot> 5 Karacfropas , aAAo 
fjuev oif8ev ovr eirpa^ev oiir elire irapaKwrvTiKov > 

1 uirgines y : uirginem h : uirginum Hertz. 
2 quo T (a florilegium) : qui y8 (" an recte " Hosius). 

8 Theodoretus : dXXa Eusebius. 

4 Theodoretus : hi^yqaoy^Ba or Strjyriao pai Eusebius. 

5 Eusebius (or ftefiaias) : jStatou Theodoretus. 

This story is also told in Mulierum Virtutes, 249 b-c. 
The point may be that concern about the fate of the body 

310 



FRAGMENTS : OTHER NAMED WORKS 

the Soul, when discussing the diseases that attack 
men's minds, tells this story , a The unmarried 
daughters of the citizens inhabiting Miletus at that 
time almost without exception took a sudden whim 
to commit suicide, without there being any obvious 
reason for it, and subsequently many ended their 
lives by hanging themselves. Such incidents became 
daily more frequent, and when no cure was to be had 
for this demented persistence in dying, the Milesians 
introduced a regulation that all girls who died by 
hanging themselves should be carried naked to burial, 
retaining the identical noose that had been round 
their neck. After this regulation had been made the 
girls no longer committed suicide, deterred by no- 
thing but the shame of such a disgraceful funeral. 



176 

Plutarch, too, records happenings akin to these 
(sc. Plato's myth of Er) much as follows in the first 
book On the Soul : 

We were ourselves present on the occasion when 
Antyllus here recounted to Sositeles and Heracleon b 
how he had shortly before been ill and the doctors 
had thought he would not live. On partially coming 
out of a kind of unsettled trance he showed no sign 
by act or word that his mind was affected except that 

after death is logical only if a soul will survive that could be 
distressed at any indignities the body suffers. 

b Heracleon from Megara recurs in De Sollertia Animalium, 
965 c, and as a character in the dialogue De Defectu Oracu- 
lorum, where he is not readily satisfied, 412 e, 418 d, 421 e. 
The other two are unknown, unless Sositeles is a mistake for 
the poet Sosicles from Coroneia, Quaest. Conv. 618 f, 638 b, 
677 d, and Lamprias Catalogue, no. 57. 

311 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

eXeye Se reOvdvai /cat irdXiv d<f>elodai /cat pur) reOvq- 
tjeadai to rrapdrrav vrro rr)s appojorias e/cctV^s*, 
aAAa /cat /ca/cco? aKrjKoevai rovs ayayovras avrov 
vtto rod Kvpiov rrep^^Qivras yap irrl Nt/cai>SaV, 

ai)TOV 7]K€LV OVT €K€LVOV KOfJLL^OVTCLS . O Se Nt/CaV- 
Sa? T^V OKVTOTOpLOS, dXXoJS 06 TCUV 6l> TTaXaiGTpCUS 

yeyovorojv /cat 1 7roAAots" avvrjdrjs /cat yvtbpipbos. 
60ev oi veavioKoi irpoaiovres eoKwrrrov avrov qjs 
aVoSeSpa/coTa /cat hie^dapKora rovs eKeldev vrrrj- 
peras' avros fievroc SfjXos r)v evdvs vwodparropuevos 
/cat Svax^patvojv reXos 8e rrvperov rrpooTreoovros, 
i£ai(f)vr)s drredave rpiralog. ofiros S' aVejSta) /cat 
nepUarcv evye rroccov, rjfjuv £evu)v emeiKeoraros . 



177 

Stobaeus, iv. 52. 48 (v, p. 1087 Hense). 

Qepaoriov €K rod 2 rrepl faxes' 

Taura rod Tifiajvos elrrovros, vrroXaftaiv 6 II a- 
rpoKXeas, " o /x€v Aoyos , / > elnev, " ovx r)rrov loyvpos 
r) TTaXaios, e^et 8' ojita)? airopias. el yap r) 86£a 
rfjs d<f>dapoias TTap,7rdXai6s ion, rrtos av rrdXiv to 

1 Wilamowitz omits /cat. 
2 £k rod omitted by S. 

a Lit., " was one of those who had been in the wrestling- 
schools " ; but these were places of learning as well as exer- 
cise, cf. 749 c, <f>i\ooo<f>ovvT€S eV rats TraXaiGTpais. A plausible 
emendation would give the meaning " had many friends 
among the educated." 

6 Wilamowitz, Hermes, lxi (1926), p. 291, thinks that 
Antyllus really dreamed this dream. It would be safer to say 
that probably he, and certainly Plutarch, recounted the story 

312 



FRAGMENTS : OTHER NAMED WORKS 

he said that he had died and had been released again, 
and that he was not going to die of his present illness 
at all ; on the contrary, those who had fetched him 
had been reprimanded by their master for returning 
with him instead of the Nicandas for whom they had 
been sent. This Nicandas was a shoemaker, but for 
all that he had had some education ° and had many 
friends and acquaintances. So the young lads would 
go up and make fun of him for having cut and run or 
bribed the officers from the other world. Nicandas, 
however, thought it no joke ; from the first he was 
uneasy and clearly did not like the affair. The end 
of it was that a fever attacked him, and two days 
later he died suddenly. 6 But our friend here was 
restored to life and is still with us, I am glad to say, 
as we have no kinder host. 



177 

Themistius, from his work On the Soul : 

These remarks of Timon were taken up by Pa- 
trocleas. " Your argument," he said, " is as powerful 
as it is ancient, yet it involves some difficulties. For 
if the belief in immortality is of remote antiquity, 

in good faith. H. J. Rose, Proc. Camb. Phil. Soc. 1926, p. 
13, points out that St. Augustine must have credited the vision 
he reports in De Cura Pro Mortuis, chap. 15 ; the same must 
be said of Bede and the vision he reports in Hist. Eccl. iii. 19. 
Such stories, current in real life (Aristotle, De Somno, 456 b 
12), provide the basis for literary developments like the 
myth of Er or Plutarch's own inventions in De Genio Socratis 
and De Sera Numinis Vindicta. For further examples see 
Proclus, In Rempublicam, ii. 113-116 Kroll, and for a 
modern case Proc. Soc. Psych. Research, viii (1892), p. 180 
(a reference I owe to Professor C. D. Broad). 

313 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

rod davdrov 8eos ttolvtcov irpeafivTaTOV eiKos 1 ewai 
Ttov <f>6f$0)v el pur) vr) Ala Kal udvTas r)puv tovto 
tovs aXXovs iyyeyewrjKev ; ov yap veapov ov8e 
7rp6a<f}ar6v iarc 2 to /cAatecr^at tov redvqKora, Kal 
ravra 8rj tol OprjvcoSrj /cat 8vo(f)rjpba tcjv ovofidrcov 
€7Ti\eyeadai y tov adXiov Kal tov olKrpov." 

' 'AAA' OVTCO fl€V," €(f>7] 6 TljJbO)V, " Aoyi£,6jJL€VOl 3 

Kal tcl d(f>0apra So£a£owt 4 ovvSiaXveoOaf toIs* 
(frOeipofievoLS. cm p,ev ovv to /xerryAAa^eVat /cat 
fMedlaraodaL Kal ot^ea^at rov TedvrjKOTa Svax^povs 
ov8evos dnXcbs, dpuelifjeajs 8e twos r) p,€Taf}oXfjs 
VTTOvoiav oloojow, ovk aorjAov ecrrr ottol o avrrj 
ylyverai rot? fieraXXdrrovatv rj pLeTafioXr), /cat 
irorepov els x € W ov V jSeATtov, €/c ra>v aAAcov 6vo- 
pbdrajv <7/co7rcojLtev. avro rolwv to rod Oavdrov 
nptoTov ox>x vivo yrjv €oik€v ov8e /cdVoj SeiKvvvai* 
Xojpovv to fjberrjXXaxos aAA' dvo) </>€pop,€Vov Kal 
Oeov 8co 9 8r) Kal Xoyov €^€t KaOdnep €/c Kap,7rrjs 10 
twos dvelorjs olov itjaTTew 11 Kal dvadew 12 ttjv ifrvxty 
aiTOTrveovTos tov acopuaTos avarrveovoav avTrjv Kal 
dvaijjvxovoav . opa 8k to dvTiKelpuevov OavaTO), ttjv 
yiveaWy <x>s tovvovtlov 8rjXot porrrjv Twa /cara> /cat 
vevaw errl yrjv €K€wov tov rrepl ttjv TeXevrrjv ndXw 
avaOeovTos* fj 13 Kal yeviOXiov tt)v rrpdyT-qv 1 ^ rjpuepav 
KaXovaw, a%s ddXwv /cat rrovoiv pueydXojv dpxqv 

1 ctVo? added by Hense (before irdvriav). 

2 Tr. : €(tt<h. 8 Tr. : Xoyi^ofjuevois. 
4 A : Sotjovm. 5 Bernardakis : hiavotiodai. 

6 rot? added by Wyttenbach, who proposed ho£ovoi ra avra 
hiavoeiadai rots. 

7 Meineke : onov A nov S. 

8 Valckenaer : fiiyvvvai. 

9 Bernardakis : o. 10 Wyttenbach : ei KdfjLwrjs* 
11 Koenius : ££airrciv, 12 Valckenaer : avaOctvai. 

314 



FRAGMENTS : OTHER NAMED WORKS 

how (we may object) can the dread of death be the 
oldest of all fears, if indeed it has not engendered 
in us all our other fears ? a Certainly it is no novel, 
modern custom to wail over a dead man, or that 
those sinister words of lamentation, * poor fellow/ 
1 wretched fellow/ should be used of him." 

" To argue like that," replied Timon, " is to take 
the view that the imperishable shares in the dissolu- 
tion of that which perishes. Now it is clear enough 
that to say that the dead man has * passed away,' 
4 departed,' or ' left us ' carries no suggestion of any- 
thing that is in itself unpleasant, b only one of some 
change or transition. But where does this transition 
take those who pass away, and is the change for the 
better or for the worse ? Let us consider the matter 
from the evidence of the rest of our vocabulary. 
First of all the very word ' death ' (thanatos) seems to 
indicate that the departed does not go down below 
the earth but rises and races upwards (tkeon ano) ; 
hence it is reasonable to believe that the soul, when 
expired by the body, shoots forth and races upwards, 
as if at the release of a spring, and itself draws 
breath and is revivified. And observe that on the 
contrary the opposite of death, namely birth, ex- 
presses by its name {genesis) a downward trend and 
earthward inclination (epi gen neusis) d of that which at 
life's close races upward once again. Thus, too, men 
call their first their natal day (genethlio?i), a word sug- 
gesting the beginning of great trials and tribulations 

° The Epicurean view, Lucretius, iii. 38 ff. 

b Cf. Non Posse Suaviter, 1 104 c. 

c Cf. Moralia, 611 f and note. 

d Cf. Moralia, 566 a. 

18 Wyttenbach : r,. 14 np^v added by F. H. S. 

315 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

yevofxevrjv. jxaXXov S' locos d<f> 9 irepas ravro av^v- 
yias Karoi/jofxeOa kclI oacfreoTepov. diroXveoQ at yap 
tov cvttoQvt\okovt<x /cat ttjv reXevrrjv drroXvaiv kcl- 
Xovglv, dv 8e eprj, /cat tov 1 acofxaTOS. tovto yap 
oefjuas ovofJLaL,ovcnv, cos oeoejJLevrjs vrr avrov 
rfjs *l>v"xy)S ivravOa irapa cfrvow ovSev yap iv cp 
TT€<f)VK€v elvai Karex^rac jSt'a, /cat to 2 SeSioOai ttjv 
re ' j8tai> ' ravT7]v napayayovres cbvopbaaav * f5tov,' 
coarrep ot/xat ttjv * €G7T€pav ' "Opbrjpos ' eoirepov.' 
o9ev dvTLcf)Cjovov rod fiiov ovofia yiyove to avairave- 
oOai tov dvrfOKOVTa, jJbeydXrjs /cat irapd cf>voiv dvay- 
ktjs aTraXAaTTOiievov." 

178 
Stobaeus, iv. 52. 49 (v, p. 1089 Hense). 
'Ev TaVTCp* 

" Ovtco /cara ttjv els to SXov p,€TafioXf)v /cat 
jLtera/coa/XTycrtv 3 SXcoXevai ttjv ibvyvv Xiyopuev c/cct 
yevofievrjv*' ivTavda 8' dyvoei, 6 ttXtjv otov iv tco 
TeXevTav rj8r) yivryrai* tot€ 6 Se irduyei TrdOos otov 
oi TeXeTals pbeydXats KaTopyia^o/JLevoc. oto /cat to 
prjfjba tco prjfjbaTt /cat to epyov tco epyco tov TeXevTav 
/cat TeXeiadai TrpooioiK*. irXdvai ra irpcoTa /cat 

1 €pr) Ka.1 Prickard : eprjiiai. tov was added by Duebner, 
to fill a lacuna in S. These corrections are very uncertain. 

2 Gesner : too. 

3 Wyttenbach : KaraKoafirjciv S KaraaKOfjurjaiv A. 

4 S : yzyovivai A. yeyowtav Cobet. 

5 Gesner : ayvociv. 

6 Wyttenbach : to. 

a The view that the body is the prison of the soul is Orphic 
and Pythagorean. The etymology which connects Sefxas with 

316 



FRAGMENTS : OTHER NAMED WORKS 

{genesis athlon). And maybe we shall see the same 
thing better and even more clearly from another set 
of words : men say that the dying man ' is released ' 
and call his end ' a release/ and, if you ask them, 
they in fact mean thereby a release from the body, 
which they name the ' frame ' (demas), because the 
soul is unnaturally imprisoned (dedemenes) therein : 
for nothing is forcibly detained in a place where it is 
natural for it to be. To this forcible (bian) imprison- 
ment they have by a change of termination given the 
name of life (bion) ; a parallel, I believe, is Homer's 
use of the word hesperos for hespera (evening). 6 And 
so in contrast to the name ' life ' stands the phrase 
' going to his rest,' used of the dying man, as he 
escapes from the grievous and unnatural constraint of 
living." 

178 

In the same work : 

" Thus we say that the soul that has passed thither 
is dead (ololenai), having regard to its complete (eis to 
holon) change and conversion. In this world it is 
without knowledge, except when it is already at the 
point of death ; but when that time comes, it has an 
experience like that of men who are undergoing 
initiation into great mysteries c ; and so the verbs 
teleutdn (die) and teleisthai (be initiated), and the 
actions they denote, have a similarity. In the 

Seo) (bind, imprison), Sea/zo's (fetter), etc. is found, Eusta- 
thius, 1476. 52. 

b e.g. Odyssey, i. 423, «ri tempos ^Xde. Homer does not 
use iorrepa at all. 

c G. E. Mylonas, Eleusis and the Eleusinian Mysteries, 
pp. 264 if., argues that the following passage throws no light 
on what happened at Eleusis. 

317 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

TrepiSpofJial KOTTtoheis /cat Sta. okotovs rives 1 vttotttqi 
-nopeiai /cat are'Aearot, ctra 77700 rod reAovs avrov 
rd Setva Travra, <f>piK7] /cat rpofjLQS /cat ISpws /cat 
Odp,fios m €K Se rovrov <f>(hs rt 6avp,doiov amy\VTr\oev 
/cat 2 T07TOC KaOapol /cat Aet/xcDves 1 iSetjavro, <f>covas 
/cat ^opetas" /cat aefMvorrjras aKOvafidrajv Uptov /cat 
<f>aafJLdrcov dyicov e^ovres 9 ' iv at? o navTeXrjs rjSrj 
/cat fjLefJbvrjiJLevog iXevOepos yeyovtbs /cat d<f>€Tos 
nepuajv €OT€<f>avcx)}xlvos opytd^et, /cat aweartv oolois 
/cat Kadapols dvSpdot, tov dfjbvrjrov ivravda rtov 
£(i>VTO)v /cat 4 aKadaprov i<f)op6jv o^Xov cV fSopfiopco 
7roAAa> 5 /cat SfxixArj 7rarovfi€Vov v<f> y iavrov /cat 
avveXavvofJievov, <£dj8a> Sc davdrov rols /ca/cots" aVt- 
arta raw e/cet aya#a>i> ififievovra. cVet to ye wapd 

<j>VOlV TT)V TTpOS TO OajfJLCL TTJ faxy CFVfJb7TXoK7jV etvOLl 

/cat ovvep^iv eKeldev av ovvlSois." 
Ylodev; " €(f>rj 6 HaTpoKXeas. 

" "QtI TCOV 7T€pl rjlJbds TTOlOoJV 6 VTTVOS 7)8lOTOV 

€OTi. TTpojTa fJL€V yap alodrfoiv dXyrjSovos 7rdorjs 6 
ofSewvoi Sta ttjv rjSovrjv rroXXco Tip ot/ceta) Kepavvv- 
jjLevrjs 7 * €7T€tra tcov dXXcov eTTiOvpu&v KpaTec, kolv 
cSat o^oSpdrarat. /cat yap 777009 rjSovrjv oi <f>t,Xoaa)- 
jLtarot 8 Svaavaox^TOvotv, €ttiovtos avTols tov /ca#- 
evheiv, /cat TrepifSoXds ipojfievcov rrpotevTai /cara- 
8ap9dvovT€S . /cat rt Set raura Ae'yetv, onov 9 /cat 
tt)v aVo tou p,avddvew /cat StaXeyeoOai /cat </>iXo- 
oo(/>€lv rjSovrjv KaTaXap,f5dva>v 6 vttvos diroKXeUt, 

1 Wyttenbach : rivos. 2 Duebner : 17. 

3 <f>covas Kat rwas 6tp€is ayicov <j>aofidTtov <€^o^t€s> Clement. 

4 Kal added by F. H. S. 

6 Tr. : TroAAa. 

6 Dobree : nam, 

7 K€pavvvfjL€vr]v Wyttenbach. 

318 



FRAGMENTS : OTHER NAMED WORKS 

beginning there is straying and wandering, the 
weariness of running this way and that, and nervous 
journeys through darkness that reach no goal, and 
then immediately before the consummation every 
possible terror, shivering and trembling and sweat- 
ing and amazement. But after this a marvellous 
light meets the wanderer, and open country and 
meadow lands welcome him ; and in that place 
there are voices and dancing and the solemn majesty 
of sacred music and holy visions. And amidst these, 
he walks at large in new freedom, now perfect and 
fully initiated, celebrating the sacred rites, a garland 
upon his head, and converses with pure and holy 
men ; he surveys the uninitiated, unpurified mob 
here on earth, the mob of living men who, herded 
together in mirk and deep mire, trample one another 
down and in their fear of death cling to their ills, 
since they disbelieve in the blessings of the other 
world. For the soul's entanglement with the body 
and confinement in it are against nature, as you may 
discern from this." 

"And what may that be ? " asked Patrocleas. 

" The fact that sleep is the most pleasant of our 
experiences. In the first place, by reason of the 
pleasure it brings, it extinguishes the consciousness 
of any pain, as that pain is diluted by a large element 
of what our constitution welcomes. Then it prevails 
over all other appetites, however violent they may 
be. Why, the sensual are impatient of pleasure when 
sleep approaches, and as they surrender to it cast off 
the embraces of those they love. But why should I 
mention this, seeing that when sleep lays hold on us 
it excludes even the pleasure of learning and discus- 

8 Valckenaer : ^lAofiouaoraToi. 9 Gesner : on ov. 

319 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

rrjs fox^s ooorrep drro pevfjuaros Xeiov /cat fiadeos 
viro<f)€po[j[,€V7)s ; rjSovr) Se Br) 1 rraoa p,ev locos ovoiav 
e^et /cat <f>voiv dXyrjSovos 2 aTraXXayrjv, avrrj Se /cat 
TravTOLTraoiv ovoevos yap eijcodev olov eTTirepTrovs 
/cat KivryviKov irpooiovros, rj86fi€0a KaraSapddvov- 

T€$. aAA' €TTLTTOVOV TIVOL /Cat KOTTCoSrj /Cat OKXrjpaV 

eot/cev itjaipcov 3 vttvos SidOeoiv rjSiorov elvai* avrrj 
S' iorlv ovx irepa rrjs rrpos ro crco/xa rrjv tpvx'rjv 
ovvSeovorjs . xcopi^erou yap 4 iv rep KadevBeiv dva- 
rpexovoa /cat ovXXeyofMevrj rrpos iavrrjv e/c rod 
Siarerdodat rrpos to ocop,a /cat Sieorrdpdai rats' 
aloOrjoeoi. kolLtoi Xeyovoi rives cos Karapbiyvvoi 
p,aXXov 6 vttvos irpos to ocojjlcl rrjv ipvxtfv, ovk 
opOtbs Xeyovres' avripbaprvpel yap rfj avaiodrjoia 
/cat ipvxporr]TL /cat j3a/>et /cat cbxporrjri to ocop,a 
Karrjyopovv rrjs ^vx^js e/cAeti/rtv p,ev orav reXevrrjorj 
jjuerdoraocv S' orav KaOevSrj. /cat rovr iorl to 
rrjv rjSovrjv rrocovv, arroXvois /cat aVdVai/Aa 5 rrjs 
l l JV Xys> coorrep dxOos Kararcdefjievrjs /cat 7rdXiv 
dvaXafjbpavovorjs /cat VTToSvopuevrjs . 6 <f)evyeiv yap 

€OLK€ KOJJblSfj TO OCOfia OvTjOKOVOa 8pa7T€T€V€LV Se 

KaraSapddvovoa. Sto dvrjoKovoi fiev eVtot fierd 
rrovcov KadevSovoc Se /xe#' rjSovrjs arravres' ottov 
jitev yap drr opprjy vvrai Travrdnaoiv 6 Seofios, ottov 
S' €v8l8cool /cat ^aAarat /cat yiyverai fiaXaKcorepos, 
olov dfipbdrcov d<f>i€fj,€vcov rcov 7 alodrjoecov napaXvo- 

1 8e Mj Wyttenbach : 8* 178c. 

2 T17V r^j dAyiySovos Clement. 
3 Wyttenbach : igaipcov. 

4 V faxv added by A. 
5 Wyttenbach : airoXavaiv kox avdrravXav. 

320 



FRAGMENTS : OTHER NAMED WORKS 

sion and philosophy, as its smooth deep current bears 
the soul away ? Again it may be true that every 
pleasure is in nature and essence relief from pain a ; 
it is certainly true of the pleasure of sleep. We find 
pleasure in falling asleep, although there is no access 
of any external pleasurable stimulus ; no, sleep is, 
it would seem, the height of pleasure because it re- 
moves an oppressive, wearisome, fatiguing condition, 
and that condition is no other than the one that binds 
the soul to the body. For in sleep the soul is dis- 
sociated, as it retires and concentrates upon itself, 
having previously been extended to fit the body and 
dispersed through the organs of sense. 6 There are, 
to be sure, those who claim that sleep causes the 
soul to be more fully commingled with the body, 
but they are mistaken. The body gives evidence to 
the contrary, witnessing by its lack of sensation, its 
coldness, its heaviness, and its pallor, that the soul 
leaves it temporarily in sleep just as it abandons it 
in death. This is what causes the pleasure of sleep — 
the soul's release and respite, when it lays down its 
burden, as it were, later to take it up and shoulder it 
again. For it would appear that, whereas in dying 
the soul escapes from the body altogether, in falling 
asleep it only plays truant. That is why death is 
sometimes accompanied by pains, but sleep invariably 
by pleasure. In the one case the bond is completely 
snapped ; in the other it gives and is slackened off 
and becomes easier, when the knots are, so to speak, 

° Timon accepts, at least for the sake of his argument, the 
Epicurean view of pleasure. 

6 C/. Aristotle, frag. 10 b Ross, Walzer, 60 Rose. 

8 Wyttenbach : aTrobvon&njs. 
7 Wyttenbach : ofjifLarajv d^at/LMiTcov. 

321 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

fl€VOJV KOLL 7TpOL€fl€VCOV TTJV 7T€pl TO GCOfJLa TTJS i/wYTfc 

evraoiv. 

" Etra noos," €i7T€V 6 HarpoKAeas, 2 " ou 8vo<f>o- 
podjjbev ov8 y dXyovpuev ey prjyo pores ; " 

HcDS' oe, e(prj o i ifjbcov , K€LpofJb€vajv (lev aioua- 
verai kov<J>6t7)tos rj K€(f>aXrj /cat paoTtbvrjs , KOfJLoov- 
tcov 8e fiapvTrjTos aiodrjoiv ov irdvv irapel^v ; /cat 
Xvdivres puev e/c SeofMcov tJ8ovtcu, SeSejjievoi S' ou/c 
dAyouat; /cat tocos' iiretoevexdev i£ai<f)vr)s ovfjL7rooicp 
rivl ovvrjp€(f)€L 3 Oopvfiov /cat Kporov v</S f]8ovrjs 
eTTOLTjoe, irporepov 8e to dXafJL7T€S eSd/cct /Lt^ evo^Aetv 
ftrySe Au7r€tv T17V oipiv; ev yap clLtiov, d> <£tA€, 4 tov- 
tojv dnavTCOv, otl to) 5 7rapa <f>voiv to /card jJUKpov 
ovvrjOrf /cat ovvTpo<f)ov inoUc ttjv aiodrjoLV, ooot€ 
fjurj ndvv 8vox€paiv€iv irdoxovoavy aTraWayeio'qs 8e 
/cat [jLeTa^aXovorjs €ts ttjv <f>voiv } (fyacveTCu 7rap€V- 
dvs 7 Tip ot/ceta) TaAAorptov /cat too rj8ojJb€vcp to 
Xvttovv otl 7rapfjv* fiapvvov. ovtoo 8r) /cat ttjv 
ifwyTjv Tjj irpos tcl dvrjTa Trddrj /cat p>€pr) /cat opyava 9 
Koivojvla to rrapa <j>voiv /cat dXkoTpiov ov ttolvv 
8ok€l niit^iv vtto /za/cp&V ovvqOeias' aladdverai 8e 
paoTcbvrjs /cat KovcfroTrjTos 11 /xe#' rj8ovfjs d<f)L€/Jbevr] 12 

TCOV 8id TOV OOJfJLCLTOS €V€py€lO)V €K€IVCLIS ydp 

ivoxXeiTai /cat irepl e/cctVas €/c7rovetrat /cat oV 
€K€ivcov lz oxoXfjs Setrat /cat dVa7rai;cr€a>S' * a S' clvtt) 
Ka6* avTTjv ivepyet /card <f>voiv t to oKoirelv dec ti 

1 Wyttenbach : iv ttololv. 

2 Duebner : narpoKXcvs. 

3 rtvi avvrjpefaZ added by F. H. S. from Clement ; see p. 306. 

4 Wyttenbach : aJ^eiAe. 

6 Wyttenbach : to. 6 Hartman : ovvydes. 

7 Duebner (or cvOvs) : yap €vdvs. 

8 Kai omitted by F. H. S. after 7raprjv. 

322 



FRAGMENTS : OTHER NAMED WORKS 

undone and the senses unfasten and throw off the 
strings that strain the soul to the body." 

" Then how is it," said Patrocleas, " that we feel 
no discomfort or pain when awake ? " 

"And how is it," retorted Timon, " that the head 
has a sense of lightness and relief when the hair is cut, 
but affords no sensation whatever of heaviness while it 
is long ? And why do men released from fetters feel 
pleasure,* but no pain when wearing them ? Why do 
lights suddenly brought into a shadowy banqueting 
hall give pleasure and cause a stir of applause, where- 
as the dimness did not previously seem to trouble 
or pain the eyes ? There is a single reason, my dear 
friend, for all these facts : gradual change accustomed 
and habituated the seat of sensation to an unnatural 
condition, so that it did not feel any actual discomfort 
at what it was enduring, but on its being freed and 
reverting to nature it immediately recognizes the pre- 
vious burdensome presence of what was alien along- 
side what was natural, and of painful feeling alongside 
pleasurable. Similarly, you see, with the soul : in 
its association with mortal limbs, organs, and affec- 
tions, that which is unnatural and alien to it seems, 
because of long familiarity, not to be at all oppressive ; 
yet it has a feeling of relief and lightness, accompanied 
by pleasure, on release from its bodily activities. It 
is by them that it is harassed, on them that it wears 
itself out, from them that it needs rest and relaxation. 
But where its own natural activities are concerned — 

° Cf. Plato, Phaedo, 60 b-c. 

* Kal Spy ava omitted by S. 

10 Gesner : p.iKpds. 

11 Gesner : pacrrcjvr) Kal kov^ottjti. 

12 Gesner : tyiciievrj. 13 Tr. : cWvt??. 

323 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

/cat Xoyi^cadat, /cat fMvrjfMOV€V€LV /cat decopelv, irpos 
ravra arpvros ion /cat d/cdpcaro?. /cat yap 6 
Kopos kottos iv r)8ovats eoiKev elvai rep puerd 1 
acofiaros n rr)v i/wxyv rracr^etv, inel 7Tpos ye ra? 
avrfjs 2 rjoovas ovk aTrayopevei. 3 GVnireirXeypuevr] 
8e, a>G7T€p elpryrai* rtp acjfjbart ravra ra> 'OovGGei 
TTenovdev <bs yap iiccwos rep ipivetp 7Tpoo<f>vs etxero 

Kal 7T€pi€7TrVGG€V OV 7TO0a)V OuS' dyaTTCJV €K€LVOV, 

dXXa SeSiobs vrroKeLpbevrjv rr)v XapujSStv, ovrcos 
€olk€v r) faxr) rov ocopiaros 5 ex^Gdav /cat Trepnre- 
irXix^ai oV evvoiav ouSe/xtav airov /cat x^P lv > dAA' 
oppcooovoa rod davdrov rrjv dSrjXorrjra* 

Kpvijjavres ydp <=x ovcTl Beol fiLov dvOpdyrroiGi 

Kara rov Gotf>6v 'HoioSov, ov GapKivois rtol ocGfiois 
irpos to Gwjxa rrjv ifwx^jv Kararelvavres, dAA' eva 
o€Gfj,dv avrfj /cat puiav <f>vXaKr)v p,rjxavrjGdp,€VOL /cat 
irepifiaXovres , rrjv dSrjXorrjra /cat drriGrlav rcov jLterd 
rrjv reXevrrjv inel rrjv ye TretGdeiGav, ocra dvOpd)- 
ttovs 7T€pip,eveL reXevrrjoavras /ca#' 'HpaKXeirov, 
ovoev av /caracr^ot. 



2TPQMATEI2 

It does Eusebius no credit that he was taken in by the 
ascription to Plutarch of a puerile compilation from which 
he quoted in order to discredit Greek philosophy. Its char- 

1 ? fl€T<Z rov. 

2 Wyttenbach : re ras avras. 

3 Wyttenbach : ov Karqyopovoi. 

4 eipicrrj Wyttenbach. 

5 rov adjfiaros added by Hense. 

6 Tr. : elScoXorrjra, 

324 



FRAGMENTS : OTHER NAMED WORKS 

always to be inquiring, reasoning, remembering, or 
contemplating — there it is indefatigable and insati- 
able. Satiety (koros) seems indeed to be nothing but 
a wearying (Jcopos) in pleasures, because the soul 
suffers when associated with the body. Where its 
own pleasures are concerned, the soul does not flag. 
But being entangled, as has been said, with the body, 
it is in the same case as Odysseus. Just as he clung 
tightly to the fig-tree, a clasping it, not out of any love 
or affection for it, but in fear of Charybdis that lay 
below him, so it would seem that the soul clings to 
the body and embraces it, not through any kindly 
feeling or goodwill towards it, but in horror of death's 
uncertainty. ' For the gods keep life concealed 
from human ken/ as that wise man Hesiod says. & 
They have not strained the soul tight to the body by 
any bonds of flesh : the one bond they have contrived 
for it, the one prison in which they have confined it, is 
our uncertainty about what follows death, and our 
unwillingness to believe. For if a soul were confident 
of all that, in Heraclitus's words, ' awaits men who 
have met their end,' e there is nothing that could 
hold it." d 



A PATCHWORK 

acter is not over-harshly described by Diels, Doxographi 
Graeci, 156 f The greater part of it he shows to be originally 
derived from Theophrastus 's <bvau<ai Adf at, and it preserves 

° Odyssey, xii. 432. The same comparison is found at Be 
Tranquillitate Animi, 476 b. 
b Works and Days, 42. 
c Diels-Kranz, Frag. d. Vorsokr. 22 b 27. 
d This may have been suggested by Plato, Cratylus, 403. 

325 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

in its garbled way some elements from that work not otherwise 
known, particularly concerning Anaooimander (cf. ibid., 132- 
144), Into this original stratum it inserts, after the para- 
graph on Democritus, brief accounts of Epicurus and Aris- 
tippus. No. 62 in the Lamprias Catalogue is Srpco/xarcts 
loTopiKol </cat> TTovr\TiKoL This may be identical with the 
book used by Eusebius, since that catalogue contains other 
spurious works. On the other hand, if there was a genuine 
work of this name, it may have suggested the ascription to 
Plutarch of this forgery. 

The title Srpw/xarets/or a Miscellany was known to Aulus 
Gellius (praef. 7), possibly from a work of that name com- 
posed in the time of Trajan by Caesellius Vindeoc. The word 
is otherwise known in the sense of" bed-coverings," and its 
use for a Miscellany is explained by supposing such coverings 
to have been of patchwork or otherwise variegated. 

K. Mras, Wiener Studien, locviii (1955), pp. 88 ff., who 
maintains that the miscellany comprised notes made by Plu- 

*179 

Eusebius, Praeparatio Evangelii, i. 7. 16. 

Tovrco 8 y av eiipois ovp,<f)U)vovs /cat tovs irXel- 
arovs twv Trap ''EAA^cti (^lXogo^ojv, cov iya) aoi 

TOLS 7T6/H apX&V 86£aS K(U TOLS TTpOS oXXrjXoVS Sta" 

ardoeis /cat 8ia(j>cjvias y €K aroxavpLcbv aAA' ovk diro 
KaTaXrjfacos 6pfJbrj0€iaas, air 6 tcjv UXovrdpxov 
TiTpajpuarecov IttX rod irapovros e/c^cro/xat. av 8e 
p/rj TTdpepyajs , vxoXfj 8e /cat puera Xoytapbov dea tcjv 
SrjXovpuevcov rrjv rrpos aAA^Aous" oidoraoiv . 

1. ©aA^ra irptorov rrdvrayv (f>aolv dpxty T & v 
oX(dv VTTOGT'qaaadaL to xiScop* i£ avrov yap etvai ra 
Travra /cat els avro ^a)petv (2) p,ed y ov 'Avaijl- 

° Of Chios (the Stoic) according to the mss., of Ceos (the 
326 



FRAGMENTS : OTHER NAMED WORKS 

tarch for his own use, argues that Eusebius also took from 
the same source without acknowledgement, contrary to his 
usual practice, a passage on Ariston, a P.E. xv. 62. 7-13. He 
bases his argument on the structure of Eusebius* work and 
on a quotation from Homer common to both places. He does 
not seem to me to establish more than a bare possibility, and 
as the passage does not resemble the acknowledged extracts 
in style, I do not think it justifiable to print it here. 

It need hardly be said that these extracts must be ap- 
proached with extreme caution. To consider what truth can 
be found in them would go beyond what is reasonable in this 
edition. The non-specialist reader may be referred for a 
general orientation to G. S. Kirk and J. E. Raven, The Pre- 
socratic Philosophers {Cambridge, 1957), or to W. K. C. 
Guthrie, History of Greek Philosophy {Cambridge, 1962). 
I have been chary of admitting into the text conjectural 
emendations, which may restore historical truth rather than 
the wording of the compiler. 

*179 

You would find most of the Greek philosophers 
agreeing with this {i.e., that the world is a product of 
chance). I will now set out, from the Patchwork of 
Plutarch, their opinions about the origins of things 
and their differences and disputes, which arose from 
guesswork and not from a grasp of truth. You must 
not take it lightly, but devote time and thought to 
observing the disagreement among them in the 
views here expounded. 

1. They say that Thales was the first man to sup- 
pose that the origin of all things is water, arguing 
that everything came from it and passed into it ; 
(2) h and that after him Anaximander, who had been 

Peripatetic) according to Mras ; perhaps a conflation of the 
two, who were confused by the 2nd century a.d. at latest. 
6 Diels-Kranz, Frag. d. Vorsokr. 12 a 10. 

327 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

fiavSpov, QdX-qros kraipov yevofievov, rd arreipov 
<f>dvai rr)v iraoav alriav tyeiv rrjs rov rravros yeve- 
G€0)s re Kal <f)0opas* e£ ov S77 cf>rjoi rovs re ovpavovs 

OLTTOKeKpLadaL, KCU KdOoAoV TOVS airCLVTCLS dlTeipOVS 

ovras Koopuovs. diree\>rp>aro 8e rrjv <f)6opav yiyve- 
crdat Kal ttoXv irporepov rrjv yeveoiv i£ aireipov 
alebvos dvaKVKXovpuevajv Trdvrojv 1 avrcov. 

'Ynapxecv he <f>y)oi rep fiev ox^clti rr)v yrjv 
KvXivhpoeihrj, eyeiv he. rooovrov fiddos ooov dv e'lrj 
rpirov TTpos to rrXdros* <f>rjol he to 2 €k rov dihiov 
yovifiov Oeppbov re Kal ifjvxpov 3 Kara rrjv yeveoiv 
rovhe rod Koofjuov aTTOKpidrjvai, Kal riva €K rovrov 
<f>Xoyos G<f)aipav TrepiepvrjvaL rep 7repl rrjv yrjv depi 
d)s rep hevhpcp <f>Xoi6v, r)s* drToppayeiorjs Kal els 
rtvas aTTOKXeiodeiorjs kvkXovs vrroorrjvai rov tjXlov 
Kal rrjv oeXrjvrjv Kal rovs dorepas. en cfrrjolv on 
Kar dpxds e£ dXXoeihcov £,tpojv 6 avBpamos eyev- 
vrjOrj, €K rov rd puev dXXa he* eavrwv ra^v vepueodai, 
puovov he rov dvdpojirov rroXvxpoviov helodai ndrj- 
vrjoeajs* hid Kal Kar 9 dpxds ovk dv rrore roiovrov 
ovra htaowOrjvai. ravra puev ovv 6 ' Ava£ Lpuavhpos. 

3. *Ava£ tpievrjv he <f>aoc rrjv rdv oXojv dpxty 
rov depa elrrelv, Kal rovrov etvai rep puev pbeyedet, 5 

1 ? irdvrajv tcDv, cf. Marcus Aurelius, ii. 14. 5, Txavra. ef dihiov 
6fjLO€i$T] dvaKVKXovjji€va. Heidel would omit ttovtwv. 

2 he rt Diels. 3 yovifiov depfiov re Kal tpvxpov Mullach. 
4 fjarivos other mss. 5 neyeOet Zeller : yevei. 

a The words ovpavos, " heaven," and koo/jlos, " world," are 
ambiguous. Probably the writer understood by kooilos any 
system like that in which he supposed himself to live, con- 
sisting of earth, air, and celestial bodies enclosed by an 
outer shell, the ovpavos, or " heaven." The problems of the 
44 innumerable worlds " are lucidly discussed by W. K. C. 
Guthrie, History of Greek Philosophy, i, pp. 106-115. 

328 



FRAGMENTS : OTHER NAMED WORKS 

his associate, said that " the Infinite " was solely 
responsible for the coming-to-be and the passing- away 
of the universe. Anaximander states that the various 
heavens have been secreted out of this Infinite, as 
more generally have been all the worlds, which are 
infinite in number. ° He declared that passing-away 
and (much earlier) coming-to-be take place as they b 
all repeat a cycle from infinite time. 

He says that the earth is cylindrical in shape, and 
has a depth such as to be a third of its breadth. He 
says that what is generative of hot and cold from the 
eternal was separated off c at the coming-to-be of 
this world, and that from this a sort of ball of flame 
grew round the air surrounding the earth, like the 
bark round a tree. When this had been torn off and 
shut up in certain rings, the sun, moon, and stars d 
came into existence. Further he says that originally 
man was born from animals of a different species, his 
reason being that whereas other animals quickly get 
their own food, man alone needs a long period of 
suckling. So that, if he was also originally so consti- 
tuted, he would not have survived. So much for 
Anaximander/ 

3/ They say that Anaximenes said that the origin 
of all things is the air, and that it is infinite in extent, 

6 As the text stands, " they " seems to mean the worlds ; 
but a very easy change would give the meaning " as all 
things recur identically in a cycle. 1 ' 

c A small and probable change gives " something genera- 
tive of hot and cold was separated off from the eternal." 

d Including the planets. 

e On whom see C. H. Kahn, Anaximander and the Origins 
of Greek Cosmology (1960), C. J. Classen, Hermes, xc (1962), 
p. 159, M. C. Stokes, Phronesis, viii (1963), p. 5 : references 
to earlier literature will be found there. 

/ Diels-Kranz, Frag. d. Vorsokr. 13 a 6. 

329 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

aireipov, rats 8e nepl avTov ttolottjolv (Lpiafjudvov 
yevvaoOai re iravra Kara riva ttvkvojoiv tovtov 
Kal irdXiv apaiuxjw. rrjv ye pur)v kivtjoiv i£ altbvos 

V7rdp)(€W 7TlXoVjJL€VOV 8e TOV CL€pOS, TTpCOTTJV yey€" 

vfjoBai Xeyei rrjv yrjv, 7rXaTelav fiaXa* 816 Kal Kara 
Xoyov avrrjv erroxeloBai rep depi. Kal tov rjXiov Ka 
Trjv oeXrjvrjv Kal tgl Xot7ra darpa ttjv ap\r)v T7 )$ 
yeveoeojs e/c yrjs eyeiv drro^alveTai yovv tov rjXiov 
yrjv, 8cd 8e ttjv o^elav Kivqoiv Kal pudX* LKavcas 1 
OepfiOTTjTa 2 Xafielv* 

4. lELevo<})dvris S* 6 KoXo<f>d)VLOS, I8iav rivd 686v 
7T€7rop€vp,dvos Kal TraprjXXaxvZav irdvras tovs rrpo- 
eiprjfievovs, ovTe yeveoiv ovre <f>6opdv drroXeiTTei, 
aAA' elvai Xeyei to ttolv del ojjloiov el yap ylyvovro 
tovto, <f)rjOLV, dvayKalov Trpo tovtov pur] elvai ' to 
fir) ov S' ovk dv yevoiTO ot5S' dv to pur) ov iroirjoai 
tl ovt€ vtto Tov pufj ovtos yevovr dv tl. drTO<j>ai- 
veTai 8e Kal Tas aloOrjoeis ifjev8els, Kal KadoXov 
ovv avTals Kal avTov tov Xoyov 8iaf$dX\ei. dno- 
<j>aiveTai 8e Kal ra> xpovco KaTa</>epopLevrjv ovvextbs 
Kal /car' oXiyov ttjv yrjv els ttjv OdXaooav yoypelv. 
</>rjol 8e Kal tov rjXiov eK pUKpwv Kal rrXeiovajv ttv- 
pi8la)v 4 ddpoli^eoOai. drro^aiveTai 8e Kal 7repl Oecov 
d)S ov8epuas rjyepbovias ev avTols ovorjs' ov yap 
oglov 8eG7Tot ) eodai Tiva twv 8ea>v, e7Ti8elo6ai T€ 
[jbrjSevos avTcov p,rj8eva p,rj8 y oXws* aKoveiv 8e Kal 

1 €ik6t<x)s Toup. 

2 depnoTTjTa or dcpfjLorrjTos one late MS. : BeppLorar^v the rest. 
d€pfif]v ravrr)v Diels. 

330 



FRAGMENTS : OTHER NAMED WORKS 

but definite in its qualities ; and that all things are 
generated by a kind of condensation, and contrary 
rarefaction, of this air. Change, however, existed 
from all time. And he says that when the air was 
compressed the earth came into being first ; it is very 
broad and accordingly rides upon the air ; and the 
sun and moon and other stars have the origin of their 
coming-to-be from earth. At any rate, he declares 
that the sun is earth, but that through its rapid 
motion it acquired heat quite adequately . a 

4. 6 Xenophanes of Colophon, having taken his own 
way, which was distinct from that of all the philo- 
sophers previously mentioned, does not admit either 
coming-to-be or passing-away, but says that the sum 
of things is always the same. For if it should come- 
to-be, he says, necessarily it would not exist previ- 
ously. But what does not exist would not come to 
be nor could it make anything, and nothing could 
come into existence as a result of it. He declares, 
too, that the senses are deceptive, and entirely im- 
pugns reason itself along with them. And he de- 
clares, too, that in the course of time the earth is 
continually and gradually carried down to join the 
sea. He says also that the sun is formed by the 
collection of a large number of small fires. And his 
account of the gods is that there is no supremacy 
among them, since religion forbids that any god 
should have a master, and none of them lacks any- 
thing in any way whatever. They hear and see as a 

a Anaximenes believed the heavenly bodies to be fiery. 
This sentence may be due to confusion with Anaxagoras, 
whom it fits. 6 Diels-Kranz, Frag, d. Vorsokr. 21 a 32. 

3 kIvtjgiv before Xafieiv omitted by Zeller : kolvolv Diels. 
4 Toup : 7Tvpla>v. 

331 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

opav KadoXov Kal [irj Kara pepos. dirotfyalverai 8e 
/cat rr/v yrjv arreipov etvai /cat Kara 1 rrav p,epo$ 2 psr] 
TrepUx^adai vtt* depos* ytyveadat 8* arravra €K yfjs* 
rov 8' ijXiov (f>rjai /cat ra dorpa e/c r&v vetfrtov 
ylyveoOai. 

5. Happev^s 8* 6 'EAeaT^s, eratpos Sevo^a- 
vovs, a/xa p,ev /cat rcov rovrov Soijcbv dvreiTOvr\aaro , 
ajLta Se /cat rrjv evavriav evexeiprjoe ardoiv. dlStov 
fji€v ydp to irav /cat aKivr^rov diro^aiverai /cara 3 
rrjv rcov Trpaypudrajv dXrjdeiav elvai yap avro 

pbovvov* fiovvoyeves re /cat drpepbeg r)8* dyevrjrov 

yeveoiv 8k rcov /ca#' viroXrufjiv xfjev8rj SoKOVvrcov 
elvac /cat ra? alodr]oeis e/cj8aAAet €/c r^s* dXrjdelas* 
(^at 8* ort, et rt 7rapa ro ov V7rdpx€t, rovro ovk 
ear iv ov, ro Se fir) ov iv rots 6'Aot? ovk eonv. ovrojs 
oSv ro ov dyevrjrov arroAetVet, Ae'yet Se rrjv yrjv 
rod 7tvkvov Karappvivros depos 5 yeyovevai. 

6. TLrjvwv S* o 'EAeaTTjs" tStov fiev ov8ev e^edero, 
8i7]7r6pr)G€ Se rrepl rovrcov errl 7rXelov. 

7. ArjjjLOKpiros 8' o 'AfiSrjplrrjs U7reaT7]craTO to 
7raV arreipov Sta to pbrjSafiajs vrro rivos avro 8e8rj- 
pLiovpyrjoOat,, eVt Se /cat dfJierdfiXrjrov avro Ae'yet • 
/cat KadoXov, olov ro irav eon, prjrcos eKriderai, 
p,rj8ep,Lav dpx?]v *X €tv T( * s> atTtas 1 toji> ruy ytyvo- 
fjbevojv, dvaidev 8' oAojs 1 e£ direipov xpovov rrpoKar- 
ex^odai rfj dvay/crj irdvff drrXws ra yeyovora /cat 

1 Kara] to /carta Diels. 

2 Brandis places /card irav fiipos after /X17 ; perhaps it be- 
longs after &4pos. 

3 Kal before /card deleted by Duebner. 

4 ovAov Parmenides. 

5 acpos deleted by Patin. 

332 



FRAGMENTS : OTHER NAMED WORKS 

whole and not with part of themselves. He declares, 
too, that the earth is without limits and is not sur- 
rounded by air on all sides, and that all things come 
from earth. But he says that the sun and the stars 
come from the clouds. 

5. a Parmenides of Elea, Xenophanes' associate, 
appropriated his doctrines but simultaneously main- 
tained the opposite position. On the one hand he 
declares the sum of things to be eternal and unchang- 
ing, if we keep to the truth of the facts ; for it is 

Alone, unique, unshaken, and unborn. b 

He says that coming-to-be belongs to the things 
that appear to exist through false supposition, and 
he expels the senses from reality. He says that if 
there is anything besides what exists, it is not exist- 
ent. But the non-existent has no place in the whole 
of things. So he concludes that what exists did not 
come to be. But he says that the earth came into 
being when the dense air was precipitated. 

6. Zeno of Elea put forward no views of his own, 
but argued further on these matters. 

7. c Democritus of Abdera supposed that the sum 
of things is infinite because it certainly has not been 
fashioned by anyone. Further he says that it is 
immutable. And in general he explicitly explains 
the nature of the sum of things. He says that the 
causes of present events have no beginning and 
that absolutely everything that was, is, and shall be 
is completely determined previously by necessity 

° Diels-Kranz, Frag. d. Vorsokr. 28 a 22. 
b A misquotation, also met in the parallel version of 
Agtius, of Parmenides b 8. 3-4 (Diels-Kranz). 
9 Diels-Kranz, Frag. d. Vorsokr. 68 a 39. 

333 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

iovra /cat iaofjueva. tjXlov Se /cat oeXi]vrjs yiveoiv 
(f)7)GL kolt tSt'av <j>ip€odai ravra jJL7]8€7rco to irapd- 

7T0LV €X OVTCL ^pfJ/fjV (j>VOLV fJLTjSe fJLTjV KddoAoV XoLfJL- 

Trporrjra, 1 tovvolvtiov 8* ifjajfJLOLOjpLevqv rfj nepl ttjv 
yr\v <f>v<J€C yeyovivai yap eKarepov tovtwv irporepov 
€rt /car* totai> VTTofioXrjv riva kogjjlov, varepov 8e, 
pbeyeOoTTOiovfievov rod irepl tov rjXiov kvkXov, iv- 
a7ToXrjcf>dfjvai 2 iv avrco to irvp. 

8. ^TTiKovpos Neo/cAeous" 'Adrjvcuos rov irepl 
Oecov rvcf)ov Treiparou /caraoreAAetv aAAa /cat ov8iv i 
cf>rjai, yiyverai e/c rod p/rf ovtos' on to tt&v act 
tolovtov rjv /cat carat toiovtov otl ov8ev £evov iv 
tu) iravTL aVoreAetTat irapd tov r\8t] yeyevrjpuevov 
Xpovov aTT€ipov otl irdv ioTL ocbp,a, /cat ov p*6vov 
ap,€Tdf$Xr]Tov dXXd /cat dneLpov otl tzXos tojv dya- 
da>v rj 3 rjSovrj, 

9. *ApioTi7TTTOS 6 K.vprjvaios TeXos dyadcov ttjv 
rj8ovr]V kclkwv 8e ttjv dXyr)86va' ttjv 8' dXXrjv <f>v- 
oioXoyiav irepiypdfeiy puovov dxfceXiptOv etvcu Xeycov 
to ^rjTelv 

OTTL TOt iv pb€ydpOLOL KCLKOV T dyadoV T€ T€- 
TVKTGLL. 

10. 'E/XTreSo/cA^? o ' AKpayavTtvos orot^cta t4o- 
oapa, 7rvp, v8a)p, aWipa, youav air lav* 8e tovtwv 

<f)lXlaV /Cat V€lKOS' €/C TTpOJTTjS <f>7)ol T7JS TWV OTOL- 

1 Diels : \a[nrpor6.Tt]v (retained by Kranz, Mras). 

2 ivairoX^i^d'fjvai mss., but corrected in some. 

3 17 added by Diels. 4 ? atria Kranz. 

Epicurus rejects the view that the heavenly bodies were 
formed separately from the world, Diogenes Laertius, x. 90. 

5 This suggests that the sun and moon were first formed 
334 



FRAGMENTS : OTHER NAMED WORKS 

from infinite time past. He affirms an independent 
birth of the sun and the moon. a They were borne 
along without yet possessing any heat whatsoever or 
indeed any brightness at all, but having on the con- 
trary a nature resembling that of the earth. For they 
had come into existence still earlier, each of them at 
an independent laying of the foundation for a world b ; 
later when the sun's orb increased, its fire was en- 
closed in it. 

8. Epicurus, son of Neocles, an Athenian, tries to 
suppress the nonsense talked about gods. Moreover 
nothing, he says, comes to be from what does not 
exist. He says that the sum of things always was 
and will be as it is ; that nothing strange is produced 
in the sum of things that has not occurred in the 
infinite time that has already been ; that everything 
is corporeal, and is not merely immutable, but also 
infinite ; that the supreme good is pleasure. 

9. c Aristippus of Cyrene says that the supreme 
good is pleasure, the supreme evil pain. He rejects 
all natural science, saying that there is no use in 
inquiring about anything but what 

Is fashioned good or bad within your halls. d 

10. e Empedocles of Acragas gives four elements, 
fire, water, air, and earth. Responsible for them are 
Love and Strife. He says that the air, separated off 

in abortive worlds and later taken up into ours. But if 
Koafiov has been misplaced, the original sense may have 
been that their " foundations " were laid before the beginning 
of our world, and that they were later built up in it to their 
present size. 

Fragments 159 a, 144 Mannebach, 1 b 19 Giannantoni. 

d Odyssey, iv. 392. Cited by Plutarch, Mor. 122 d, 1063 d, 
and in Eusebius, Praepar. Evang. xv. 62. 11. 

• Diels-Kranz, Frag. d. Vorsokr. 31 a 30. 

335 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

Xeiayv Kpdoeojs drroKpiOevra rov depa TrepixvOfjvai 
kvkXo)' fiera 8e rov depa to irvp eK8pap,6v teal ovk 
e\ov iripav x<*>pav avay eKTpexetv vtto 1 tov rrepl rov 
depa rrdyov. elvai 8e kvkXoj rrepl tt)v yrjv <f)epo- 
jxeva 8vo r)p,io<f>aipia, to fxev KadoXov rrvpos to 8e 
fiiKTov i£ depos kol dXiyov rrvpos, orrep (Herat tt)v 
vvKTa elvai. ttjv S' dpxfy ttjs Kivrjoeojs ovfM^rjvai 
and tov TeTVXf]Kevai /caTa 2 tov dOpoiapLov emfipi- 
aavTOS tov rrvpos. 3 6 S' rjXios t^v <f>voiv ovk eoTi 
rrvp aAAa tov rrvpos dvTavaKXaois opuola ttj d<f> 9 
iiharos yiyvop,€vr). oeXijvrjv 84 (fyrjoi avoTrjvai KaS* 
iavTTjv €K tov drroXei<j>devTos* depos vtto tov rrvpos* 
tovtov yap rrayrjvac Kaddrrep kol ttjv ^aAa^av to 

§€ <f)Ct>S aVTtjV €X €lv5 ^ L7TO ro ^ yXlOV. TO S' 7}y€[JbO- 

vikov ovr iv K€<f>aXrj ovr iv 0a>paKi dAA' iv 
atfiaTC odev Ka0* o tl av fiepos tov owpuaTOS TrXeiov 
77 rrapeoTrapfjLevov, olerat* fear' £k€lvo rrpoTepelv 
tovs dvdpdynovs. 

1 1 . Mr)Tp68a)pos 6 Xtos* dL8iov elvai <f>r)oi to rrav, 
oti, €L fjv yevrjTov, €/c tov [ir) ovtos av r\v arreipov 
e, oti atOLOv ov yap ex^tv apx^jv ouev ijpgaTO 
ovoe rrepas ovoe TeAevTrjv. aAA ovoe Kivrjoeojs 
jj,€T€X€W to rrav Kivelodai yap d8vvarov p,r) fiedi- 
OTajJuevov fxedtOTaoOai S' dvayKalov t\toi els TrXrjpes 
rj els K€v6v. TrvKvov/Jievov 8e tov depa rxoielv ve- 

1 Kranz suggests adding Karexoficvov before vtto. 

2 Kara] Kara ri Diels. 

8 impptoav ro rrvp Bernardakis. 

4 airo\€i<f>0€vros one important ms. (A) : aTroX^divros the 
rest. 5 €X €LV AH : ax*™ the rest. 

6 to rjyefiovLKov omitted by Bernardakis before oUrai, which 
Diels deletes as well. 

a Since mist was regarded as a form of air, air was thought 
SS6 



FRAGMENTS : OTHER NAMED WORKS 

from the original mixture of the elements, flowed 
around to encircle them ; and after the air the fire 
ran out, and finding no other place, ran out upwards, 
to a position below the crystallized mass of the air.° 
And there are two hemispheres, revolving round the 
earth, one entirely of fire, the other a mixture of air 
and a little fire : the latter he thinks to be night. 
The origin of their motion came about by a chance 
effect, when the fire weighed down heavily as a result 
of its concentration. The sun is not in reality fire, 
but a reflection of fire like that which comes about 
from water. The moon, he says, had its independent 
origin, by the action of fire, from the air that was left 
behind. For it was solidified, just as hail is. But the 
moon gets her light from the sun. The centre of 
command in the soul is not in the head nor the chest, 
but in the blood. Hence, in whatever part of the 
body it is diffused in greatest quantity, it is in that, 
he thinks, that men excel. 

II. 5 Metrodorus of Chios says that the sum of 
things is eternal, because if it had a birth, it would 
come from the non-existent, and that it is infinite 
because it is eternal, since it has no beginning from 
which it started, nor any limit or end. Nor does the 
sum of things have any movement ; it is impossible to 
move without change of place, and change of place 
must be either into what is occupied or into what is 
empty. When the air is condensed it forms clouds, 

to be capable of freezing, as mist does ; hail was evidence 
that air could become solid. 

6 Diels-Kranz, Frag, d. Vorsokr. 70 a 4. He was a pupil 
of Democritus. 

c Zeller, Philosophie der Griechen, i, p. 1186, marked a 
lacuna here ; at some stage there must have been a longer 
text, but not in Eusebius (so Mras) and perhaps not in Ps.- 
Plutarch. 

337 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

tj>eAas, etra vScup, o /cat /cartov inl tov rjAiov 
ojievvvvai, avrov /cat tto\iv apcuovfievov i£d7TT€G0cu' 
XP^vco 8c irtfyvvodai rco $rjp<p tov rjAiov /cat wotelv c/c 
tov Xafinpov vScltos doTepas, vvktcl re /cat rjfxepav 
€K Trjs ofSeveoJS /cat i£dn/j€a)s /cat KadoAov tols c/c- 
Aeti/jcis oLTTOTeXelv. 

12. Aioyevrjs 6 ' AttoXXcovlolttjs depa 1 v^tWarat 
(7Tot^€tov Kiveiadai Sk ra Trdvra drreipovs t etvai 

TOVS KOO/AOVS. /COajLtOTTOtet 8' OVTOJS' OTL TOV TTOLV- 
TOS KLVOV[M€VOV /Cat fj jLt€V dpOLLOV fj 8e TTVKVOV 

yiyvo/xevov, ottov ovveKvprjoe to ttvkvov, ovoTpo- 
<f>rjv 2 7roir}crai, /cat ovtqj tcl Aot7ra 3 /cara tov auTov 
Aoyov Ta Kov<f>oTaTa ttjv dvco Tatjiv Aa/JcWa tov 
i^fAtov dVoTcAccrat. 

1 acpa one MS. : aWipa. 



338 



FRAGMENTS : OTHER NAMED WORKS 

then rain, which descends on the sun and puts it out. 
When the air is rarefied again, it catches fire. In time 
the sun is solidified by the dry stuff (?) and makes stars 
out of the bright water, and causes night and day and, 
in general, eclipses by being put out and taking fire. 
12. a Diogenes of Apollonia supposes air to be the 
elemental substance. Everything is in motion, and 
the worlds are innumerable. His cosmology is as 
follows. He says that the whole was in motion and 
became rare in some places and dense in others, and 
where the dense came together it formed an aggre- 
gate, and thus the rest happened in the same way, 
while the lightest elements, taking a position up above, 
formed the sun. 

a Diels-Kranz, Frag. d. Vorsokr. 64 a 6. 

2 GVGTpo<f>7)v] ? (jvarpa<f>kv yr\v Diels : r^v yrjv avorpo(f>j} 
Kranz. 3 Xonrd- kqX Duebner. 



339 



OTHER FRAGMENTS 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 



180 

Aelian, frag. 108 (Suidas, s.vv. iyywvios, 'Ioprtos, MaiKrjvas). 

'Ev rep ovvheiiTVCQ 1 tco rod Mat Kiq va r/xx7T€^a 
iyycovios rjv vtto rfj /cAtata to fjueyedos fieyiarr] /cat 
/caAAos ajLta^os. /cat ota et/cos hrr\vovv dXXot dXXaj^ 
a\)TT]V* 6 Se 'Idprtos", 2 ovk eyoyv o tl Trap iavrov 
Teparevaacrdcu* aiyr]s yevojJLevqs, " €K€lvo Se ovk 
cWoetre, 4 c3 <£t'Aot GV[JL7r6raL y (1)9 orpoyyvXrj earl 
/cat ayav 7^€/^t^€/o^7S'• ,, inl roivvv rfj d/cpdVa) /coAa- 
K€ia, cos to cIkos, ytXcos Kareppdyr] . UXovrapxos. 

181 

Aulus Gellius, iii. 5. 

Plutarchus refert Arcesilaum philosophum vehe- 
menti verbo usum esse de quodam nimis delicato 
divite, qui incorruptus tamen et a stupro integer 
dicebatur. nam cum vocem eius infractam capil- 
lumque arte compositum et oculos. ludibundos atque 
illecebrae voluptatisque plenos videret, " nihil inte- 
rest,' ' inquit, " quibus membris cinaedi sitis, posteri- 
oribus an prioribus. ,, 

1 ? ovvhznTvitp. 2 ? 'Eoprios Dessau. 

3 TcpartvoaiTo ed. pr Suidae. 4 Bernardakis added efirev. 

a R. Hirzel, Der Dialog \ ii, p. 6, n. 1, suggests that the 
anecdote is derived from Maecenas' Symposium. 

b A unique, but not impossible name, R.E. ix. 2. 1929. 
c Plutarch is occasionally used by Aelian, who is, however, 

342 



OTHER FRAGMENTS 



180 

At Maecenas' banquet a there was a rectangular 
table alongside his couch, of the largest size and 
superb beauty ; as might be expected, the guests 
found various ways to praise it. Iortius b could not 
invent any original extravagance, so in an interval of 
silence he remarked, " But, my dear fellow-guests, 
there is something you have not noticed : it is round 
and exceedingly circular." Naturally there was a 
burst of laughter at this undiluted piece of flattery. 
Plutarch. 



181 

Plutarch records that the philosopher Arcesilaiis 
used a forcible expression about an over-effeminate 
rich man, who was said, however, to be no pervert, 
and to allow no acts of indecency towards himself. Ob- 
serving the man's mincing voice, carefully arranged 
hair, and mischievous eyes, full of alluring volup- 
tuousness, " It makes no difference/ ' he remarked, 
" which parts of your body you use for your lewd 
practices, the hind or the front." d 

not given to naming a source in this way. One can neither 
accept nor reject the fragment with confidence. 

d Cf. De Tuenda Sanitate, 126 a, Quaest. Conviv. 705 e. 
Perhaps Gellius, whose absolute veracity cannot be main- 
tained, took Arcesilaiis' mot from Quaest. Conviv. with which 
he was conversant, and invented for it this setting, which does 
not agree with that in De Tuenda Sanitate. 

343 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

182 

Damascius, Vita Isidori, 64 Westermann ( = Photius, Bibl. 
242 ; Migne, ciii. 1265). 

Tovrov (sc. Hefirjpov) 6 Ittttos . . . ifjrjxofievos 
cnTivdfjpas airo rod owp^aros noXXovs re /cat p,€ya- 
Xovs rj(f>L€i . . . dAAd /cat TtjSepta) ovos, <hs IIAot;- 
rapxos 6 XaipcDvevs (frrjow, ert jLtet/oa/cta> ovri /cat 
iv 'PdSa) €7rt Aoyots* prjropiKois SiarpifiovTi rr^v 
fiaaiXelav Sta rod avrov Tradrjp.arog 7rpo€[itfvvo€v. 



183 

Etymologicum Magnum, 184. 30. 

UAovrapxos Se aTro rou ottlgco to difj Aeyet etvat, 
rou o et9 a Tpovnivros /cat rot? 77 €t9 0. 



184 

Eunapius, Vitae Sophistarum, ii. 7. 

Aurt/ca ouv d OeoTrioios TlXovrapxos rov re 
eavrov jStov dvaypd(f>€i rot? jStjSAtots* evSieoTTap- 
fievcos /cat rov rou StSaa/cdAot;, /cat 6Vt ye 'A/x- 
IMxivios 'AOtfvrjoiv ereXevra, ov jSt'ov 7rpooei7Ta)v 
. . . dAAd to t'Stov /cat to 1 rov StSaa/cdAov /ca#' 
eKaorov rcov j8tj8Ata)v eyKareoTreipev wore et rts* 
6£v8opKolr) rrepl ravra 2 avixyevuiv /card to irpoo- 
TTiTTrov /cat <f>aiv6[M€vov, /cat ouxfrpovcvs ra Kara 
fj,epos avaXeyoiro, Svvaodat ra TrXelora rwv jSc- 
Plo)[M€Vojv avrols eiSevat. 
344 



OTHER FRAGMENTS 

182 

Severus' horse emitted many large sparks while 
being groomed. . . . But Tiberius, too, when still a 
young man living in Rhodes to study oratory, received 
a prediction of his future throne, as Plutarch of 
Chaeronea relates, from a donkey which exhibited 
the same phenomenon. a 



183 

Plutarch says that aps is derived from opiso, o 
having been converted into a and p into ps. h 



184 

For example that marvellous man Plutarch records 
his own life in scattered notices throughout his books, 
and also that of his teacher : and so doing, he writes 
that Ammonius " ended " at Athens, without adding 
the words " his life." . . . But he had the habit of 
inserting here and there in all his books what con- 
cerned himself and his master, so that if one has a 
keen eye for these things, following up obvious clues 
that present themselves, and carefully collects the 
details, one can learn most of the incidents of their 
lives. 

° Possibly, but not necessarily, in the lost Life of Tiberius. 
6 Both words mean back. 

1 to added by Cobet. 
2 kol after ravra deleted by Vollebregt. 

345 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

185 
Geoponica, xiii. 9. 
HAovrapxos AenroKapvov TTpooaTrrei rols kAivo- 

7TOOIV €1$ TO fJLTJ TTpOOl€Vai TOV OKOpTTlOV aVTOlS* 

<f>r)ol yap rco AenTOKapva) fir) rrpooievai rov 

OKOpTTlOV. 

186 

Isidorus of Pelusium, Letters, ii. 42. 

HAovrdpxq) 8e 8oK€i to oa<f>es Kal Aitov 1 yvr\oiov 
etvcu 'Attikio[i6v ovtoj yap, tprjoiv, iAdArjoav ol 
prjTOpes* Topyias S' 6 Aeovrlvos rrpcoros rrjv vooov 
ravr-qv €t? tovs 7toAitlkovs Aoyovs elorjyaye to 
vifjrjAov Kal tpottikov* do7raodfi€vos Kal rfj oa<j>r)veia 
Avfirjvdfievos. rjiparo re, tf>rjoiv, r) vooos avrrj Kal 
tov Oavfiaorov HAdrajvos. 



*187 

John of Antioch, Archaeologia (Anecdota Graeca, ii, p. 388 
Cramer). 

y lop8dvqs Aeyerai 6 rrorafios Store 8vo dfia fiiy- 
vvvrai 7rora[Moi, 9 lop re Kal Advrjs, Kal arroTeAovoiv 
avrov, cos <f>rjoi HAovrapxos. 



188 
Lydus, Be Mensibus, iv. 148. 

YilAeiOvia (8* iorlv r) r)cov tiktovolov €<f>(ppos, 
1 Ruhnken : Aeiov. 2 Bernardakis : tvttlkov. 
346 



OTHER FRAGMENTS 



185 



Plutarch attaches a filbert to the feet of a bedstead 
to keep scorpions away. For he says that the scorpion 
will not go near a filbert. 



186 

Plutarch thinks that a clear, simple style constitutes 
genuine Atticism. That, he explains, is how their 
public speakers talked. Gorgias from Leontini was 
the first to introduce this malady into political oratory, 
by showing a liking for elevated language and figures 
of speech and by doing violence to clarity. This dis- 
ease, as Plutarch says, attacked even that wonderful 
man Plato. a 



*187 

The river Jordan is so called because two rivers 
mingle to form it, the Jor and the Danes, as Plutarch 
says. b 

188 
Eileithyia is the guardian of women in childbirth 

° See E. Norden, Kunstprosa, i, p. 380. R. Hirzel, 
Plutarch, p. 80 7 , does not believe that Plutarch of Chaeronea 
is meant ; R. Volkmann, Leben, Schri/ten und Philosophie 
des Plutarch von Chaeronea, ii, VIII, thinks that the neo- 
Platonist is intended, but this is chronologically impossible 
if frag. 192 is to be associated, as seems likely, with this re- 
port. Plato's alleged Gorgianism is criticized by Dionysius 
of Halicarnassus, Bern. chap. 5, Ad Pomp. 2. 6. 

b It is most unlikely that Plutarch said anything of the 
sort. This does not even come from the spurious De Fluviis. 

347 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

o)7ro>(s to cv), a>s (f>r]GL UXovr^apxos, 6fi)oia)s 

iaVTTJ 1 8(V0 7Torfy(J€l,€. 2 



189 

John Malalas, Anecdota Graeca, ii, p. 232 Cramer. 
[Chronicon Anon. (Anecdota graeca, ii, p. 380 Cramer) and 
Tzetzes, Chiliades, iv. 385, probably derive from Malalas.] 

'0 8e HAovrapxos <f>rjaiv on a<f>atpa irvpos /car- 
evexOr) els rrjv KeXrtKrjv xd>pav find rov deov /cat 8 
/care/cavae tovs Tlyavras, /cat €tc rov 'HptSavoV 
7Torafi6v ivexO^taa rj a<f>aipa iafieadri. 



190 

John Malalas, Chronicon, col. 130 Migne, vol. xcvii ( =Ox.). 

An extract is to be found in Cramer's Anecdota graeca, ii 
( = An.). Malalas is adapted by Cedrenus, i. 82 (Migne, col. 
112) and mutilated in the Passio 8. Catkarinae and Passio S. 
Lucias (S. Costanza, Byz. Zeitschrift, lii [1959], p. 247). 

^Hcrav yap /cat avrot dyaXpLarcov 7rot7jrat /cat 
/jbVGTrjpiajv i^rjyrjral /cat reXeorai ($c Aegyptii, 
Babylonii, Phryges, etc.), d<p wv /xaAtora etc 
"EiXXrjvas rjx^V V a ^ T V dprjaKtla . . . "lawcc 8e 
oi €K rfjs 'Ia> tovtcjv apx^yol lyivovro . . . 
ovarwas /xe/x^d/xevoc o Xepov^crtoc 5 UXovrapxos 
rfj 7raAata ^tAoao^ta 6 7ra/o' "EAAtjox /cat fiapfidpois 
iiraivovfievrj 7 iijedero a>c 7rXdvr)v dyaXfidrcov rtvcc 
elcrdyovcriv. auToc 8 Se ^at roue /caT* ovpavov 
<f>a)<jTr}pas deoiroteiv eSo^cv, tov ^Atov /cat rrjv 
aeXtfvrjv 7rap€iodycov ws 17 ribv AlyvTrrtcov OeoXoyla 
ej£€t aurouc 9 rov av/MTravra Koafiov Stot/cetv rp€<f>ov- 
348 



OTHER FRAGMENTS 

so that she might make what is one two, as Plutarch 
says, similarly to herself. 



189 

Plutarch says that a ball of fire came down by an 
act of God into the land of the Celts and consumed the 
Giants, and plunging into the river Po was there 
quenched. 



190 

They also (sc. the Egyptians, Babylonians, Phry- 
gians, etc.) were makers of images and guides to 
mysteries and initiators into sacred rites, and indeed 
it was from them that this worship was brought to 
the Greeks. . . . the Ionians, the descendants of Io, 
were the leaders in this . . . Plutarch of the Cher- 
sonese, censuring them by the old philosophy that 
was approved among Greeks and foreign nations, 
declared that certain persons introduced " an impos- 
ture of images." He himself, thinking it right (he says) 
to make gods of the luminaries of heaven, brought 
forward the sun and moon, as the theology of the 
Egyptians understands them ; he says that they 
direct the whole world, nourishing and increasing all 

1 iavrrjv mss. 

2 Supplements due to Hase. 

3 Kal added by F. H. S. 

4 Cramer (and Tzetzes) : KprjSavov. 

5 This common error is probably that of Malalas. 

8 An. : 1} iraXaia <f>iXoGo<t>ta Ox. 

7 €7raivovfjL€vr] om. Ox. 

8 ? avrots". 

9 7T€pUx€i. avrovs yap Acyci Cedrenus. 

349 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

ras Kal av^dvovras rd ndvra rrj rpipLepel 1 Kivt\13€l 
rcov 7T€VT€ 7rXav7]rc7)v Kal rrjs Xonrrjs darpoOeaias 
Kara yiveaiv Kal faepa. 2 



191 

Philoponus, in Aristotelis Meteorologica, i, p. 82 (Comm. 
Arist. Graec. xiv, p. 26). 

[Atd rl fjurj avviararai vi<f>r) iv rep noXv rrjs yrjs 
V7Tepav€GT7]K6rL to7Tw; on yap ov avviararai, €K 
rrjs p,aKpas loTopias iarl SrjXov rd yap viprjXorara 
rcov 6pu>v VTT€pv€<f>rj t iarl Kal V7r€prjV€p,a.] *T€<£- 
pav yap eV riai tovtcov aTTodepuevoi rives r) Kal €K 
dvaicov rcov iv €K€ivois yivofA€va)v airoXeXonrores 
jLt€Ta TrXelorovs iviavrovs 7T€pi€pyaadpi€voi, K€l- 
pbivrjv evpov avrrjv ovrcos cbs edeaav. Kal iv KvA- 
Xrjvrj 8i c\>aaiv ('ApKaSias 8* opos icrrl rovro Xiav 
viffrjXov) Ovaavres rives iv rep imovn dipei irdXiv 
dvaai dveXOovres eVt rrjv recf>pav rcov iepeicov ovrco 
K€ip,evr)v evpov prfyre vn' opbfipcov KaraKXvaOeiaav 
jji-qre vtto irvevp^drcov 8i€OKe8aap,€vr}v* laropei 8e 
UXovrapxos Kal ypdp,p,ara /xetvai els iripav rcov 
iepicov dvdfiaaiv €/c rrjs irporipas iv rep 'OXvpLrrcp rep 
MaK€8oviKcp . 

1 Cedrenus : rplrj} /-tepi/aj An. : rpirrj Ox. 
2 dsrepas Cedrenus. 

The history of this idea is traced by W. Capelle, Pauly- 
Wissowa, R.E., suppl. vi, cols. 351-354. Contrast Lucretius, 
vi. 459 ff. 

b Arrian, fr. 4 Roos (=Stob. L 246. 19 Wachsmuth) re- 
cords that the ash of sacrifice remained undisturbed on Mt. 
Oeta. 
350 



OTHER FRAGMENTS 

things by the threefold motion of the five planets and 
the rest of the constellations, as things come into 
being and ... 

This unreliable fragment should perhaps be associated 
with frag. 213. It was a common confusion among late 
Greeks to ascribe Plutarch to the Chersonese instead of to 
Chaeronea. The phrase " imposture of images " comes 
from Sophocles, frag. 1025 Nauck, 1126 Pearson, quoted in 
full by Cedrenus, but it may of course have been quoted by 
Plutarch. 



191 

[Why do clouds not form in the region high above 
the earth ? That they do not, is clear from long 
observation. The highest mountains are above the 
clouds and above the winds. ] * Evidence of this is 
provided by the fact that persons who have deposited 
ash on certain summits, or left it there after sacrifices 
performed upon them, have discovered it lying as 
they had left it when they investigated many years 
later. 6 They say, too, that on Cyllene (a very high 
mountain in Arcadia) certain persons, who had sacri- 
ficed and ascended to sacrifice again the next sum- 
mer, found the ash from their sacrifice still lying 
there just as it had been, neither washed away by 
rains nor scattered by winds.* Plutarch c records 
that writings also remained on Olympus in Mace- 
donia from one ascent of the priests to the next. 

c Elsewhere Philoponus usually intends the neo-Platonist 
by UXovrapxos ; e.g., frequently in his commentary on Be 
Anima. But at De Aet. Mundi, vi. 27, the name denotes our 
Plutarch, who mentions the windlessness of high mountains 
at Moralia, 938 a-b, 951 b. 

351 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

192 

Philostratus, Epistula 73. 

YlelOe St) /cat gv, cS ^aatXeca, rov 0apaaXea)T€pov 
rod f JLX\rjviKov TlXovTapxov [mtj axOeoBai toZs ao- 
<f>ioTais fJbrjS 9 es Staj8oAa9 KadLoraoQai rov YopyLov. 

193 
Porphyry, De Abstlnentia, iii. 18. 
'Apxty Se, 609 /cat UXovrapxos <f>rjGiv, ovk errel 

SetTCU TLVCOV TjlJbCOV 7} <f>VOLS KOLI ^pOJjLte^a TOVTOLS, 
rjSr] €776 7T&V 7TpOCLKT€OV /Cat ITpOS TTaVTCL T7]V dSt/CtW. 

oi8o)(Ji p,ev yap /cat rrapexei tols dvayKaiois rrjv 
a^pt twos fiXdfirjv (et ye fiXdfirj to XapbfSdveiv tl 

TTapa TO)V (f>VTOJV, KCLITOI ^WVTCUV fLeVOVTCUv) • TO S' 

€/c irepiovolas /cat irpos rjSovrjv diroXXveiv 1 eTepa 
/cat <j>deipeiv ttjs iravTeXovs r\v dypioTrjTos /cat 
dot/cta9* /cat rj tovtoov aiTo^r) ouVe irpos to S^rjv 
ovt€ npos to ev tfiv rjjJL&s rjX&TTOv . et p,ev ydp (x)$ 
depos /cat vScltos <f)VTO)v re /cat Kapncbv, cbv dvev 
tfiv dSvvoLTOv eoTLVy ovto) <f>6vov t,cpojv /cat Ppcbaeojs 
aapKcbv €Tvyxdvofi€v Seofjuevoi npos top jSt'ov, aray- 
kcliclv rj envois GVfJLTrXoKrjv etx^v av 777)69 TavTiqv tt)v 
dSiKiav el 8e 7roAAot uev tepees 9ea>v rroXXol 8e 

1 Reiske : arroXav^iv. 

a Julia Domna ; that Plutarch was long dead would not de- 
ter Philostratus, as Norden noted, from this request. There 
is no need to invent some unknown Plutarch to account for 
this fragment and frag. 186. 

5 There is nothing to show what work of Plutarch was 
used by Porphyry : Bernays' guess (Theophrast iiber die 

352 



OTHER FRAGMENTS 

192 

So add your voice, my Empress , a to urge Plutarch, 
that most audacious representative of Greece, not 
to be vexed with the sophists or start slandering 
Gorgias. 



193 

There is absolutely no reason, as indeed Plutarch 
says, b why just because our nature requires certain 
things and we lay hands on these things, our wrong- 
doing should be carried to all lengths and extended 
to all creatures. Nature allows as a concession to the 
necessities of life the doing of a limited amount of 
damage — if to take some part of a plant or tree is 
to damage it, in spite of the fact that it remains 
alive — but, having other resources, to kill and destroy 
other beings for pleasure was an act of unmitigated 
savagery and wrong-doing. To abstain from animal 
foods used to make us no less able either to maintain 
life or to lead a good life. If it were really the case 
that we needed to slaughter animals and eat their 
flesh in order to live, in the way that we need air 
and water, plants and fruits, without which life is 
impossible, our nature would necessarily involve us 
in this wrong-doing. The fact is, however, that many 

Frommigkeit, p. 149) that it was a lost part of the second 
speech De Esu Carnium has nothing to recommend it. 

c The latter part of the fragment contains an open attack 
on the Stoics, who may be in mind from the beginning. They 
maintained that men could not wrong animals, which existed 
to be used by mankind ; the fact that animals were irrational 
meant that men had no fellow-feeling or obligations towards 
them. 

353 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

jSaatActS' fiapfidpcov dyveuovres drreipa 8k yhn\ £coa)v 
to rrapdrrav ov dvyydvovra rrjs TOiavrrjs rpo<f>rjs 
£a>ot /cat rvyxdvovoi rod Kara <f>vaiv reXovs, rrtbs 
oi)K €oriv aroiros 6 KeXevwv, el now dvayKa^ofMeda 1 
iToAefAelv, firjS 9 oh e^eonv elprjviKajs oyuXelv, dXX 
rj npos firjSev rfj 8iKaioovvrj xpcj/xevovs tfiv r) irpos 
rrdvra ^pcu/xeVous 1 p>r) tfiv; worrep ovv €tt* dvdpa)- 
ttojv 6 fJLev avrov 2 owrrjplas eVe/ca /cat 7ral8<ov /cat 3 
TrarpLhos rj xprjfiard rwuiv rrapaipovp,evos r) yoipav 
irnrpifSoov /cat ttoXw €^€t 4 irpooy?\p,a rrjs do t/ctas 
rr)v dvdyKTjv, oons 8e ravra Spa Sid rrXovrov r) 
Kopov r) rjSovas rpv<f>woas /cat aTrorrXripwoeis ovk 
avayKaiojv nopi^o/xevos erriOvputov, d/xt/cros etvai 
8ok€l /cat aKparrjs /cat rrovrjpos* ovto) rds fi€V els 
<f>vra fiXdfias /cat rrvpos /cat vapdnov dvaXwoeis 
Kovpds re rrpofidnjDV /cat ydAa j8oa>v r etjrjfjLepcooiv 
/cat Kard£,ev£w errl owrrjpia /cat 8iap,ovfj rols XP* ' 
p.evois 6 Beds 8l8cool ovyyvojfiajv 6 • £a>a S* vrrdyeiv 
o(f>ayals /cat fjuayeipeveiv dvamfirrXafievovs <f>6vov, 
fir) rpo<fnjs r) rrXrjpaxjews ydpw <*AA' r)8ovrjs, /cat 
Xaip,apylas rroiovfievovs reXos, V7Tep<f>vtbs* ojs dvo- 
uov /cat 8eivov. dpKei yap on pbr)8ev rroveZv Seo- 
p,evois x/oai/Z€0a rrpoKapivovoi /cat fioxdovow, 7 

Ittttojv ovojv r d^eta 7 /cat ravpaiv yovds, 

1 Nauck : dvayKa^olfMcOa, 

2 Hercher : avrov. rrjs avrov Fogerolles. 

3 Hercher : r). 4 Valentine : €X€u>. 

6 Duebner : ovyyvwfirjv. ? avyyvwfirjv c^oira. 

6 Abresch : vneptfrves. 

7 Reiske : poxdovs and o^ctW. 

354 



OTHER FRAGMENTS 

priests of the gods and many kings of foreign nations 
practise a ritual abstinence from flesh, and countless 
species of animals do not touch such food at all ; yet 
they keep alive and attain full realization of their 
nature. How, then, can it be anything but absurd 
to tell us that if we are forced to wage war on some 
creatures, we should not live at peace even with 
those with whom peace is possible, but that we must 
choose either to treat none justly and to live or to 
treat all justly and not to live ? a The man who, in 
dealing with human beings, takes other people's 
possessions or destroys their territory or their town 
for the sake of his own safety or that of his children 
or his country has necessity as a pretext for his wrong- 
doing, but anyone who perpetrates such acts in the 
pursuit of wealth, or in the arrogance of success, or 
to provide himself with luxurious pleasures and the 
satisfaction of unnecessary desires, is generally re- 
garded as savage, self-indulgent, and wicked. Simi- 
larly God indulgently grants us the damage we do to 
plants, the fire and running water we use up, the 
shearing of sheep and the milk they yield, the domesti- 
cation and yoking of cattle, as being for the preserva- 
tion and continuance of those who exploit them. But 
to bring animals to the slaughter, and to defile our- 
selves with murder by butchering them, not for the 
sake of food or the satisfaction of hunger, but in pur- 
suit of pleasure and making gluttony our aim in life, 
that is a monstrously unnatural and dreadful act. It 
is enough that we take beasts that have no need to 
work and employ them to toil and labour for us, sub- 
jugating and bringing to the yoke 

Jack-ass and stallion and the seed of bulls, 

° Cf. De Sollertia Animalium 964, a. 

355 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

<hs AlaxvXos (fyqoiv, 

avrlSovAa 1 /cat ttovojv c/cSe'/cropa 

X^ipojad/jLevoi /cat Kara^ev^avres . 

'0 S' atjitbv rjjMds oiftto pir) xPV a ^ ai P°$ /-"jSc 
7Tvev/JLa /cat £a)r)v otoAAtWas* /cat 8ia<f>deipovras 
rjSvGfjLara TTArjojJbovfjs /cat /caAAajma/xaTa TrpoTL0€- 
gOcll 2 rpaTre^rjs tlvos aVay/cat'ou TTpos acoTrjpLav r) 
kolAov irpos dperrjv d^atoetrai tov j8toi>; 

Ou p/r)v dAAd /cat rot? £ojots" tc\ <f>vrd 7rapaj8dAAeti> 
KOfJLLSij filaiov rd jLtev yap alodaveoOaL Tre<f)VK€ /cat 
dAyetv /cat <£oj8€to~0at /cat j8Aa7TT€CT0at, Sto /cat 
d8t/c€t<70ar rots' 8' ov8iv Iotiv aladrjTov, ovtws cV 
ov8e dXXorpLov ov8e kclkov ov8e fiAdfir) tls ov8 9 
dSt/cta' /cat yap ot/cetojaeojs' Trdorjs /cat dAAorptoj- 
oeajs dpx^J to aladdveodcLL, rr)v S' ot/c€ta>crti> dpxty 
rLdevTCLL SiKOLLoovvrjs ol diro TjTjVCjOVOS. ttcqs S' ovk 
dAoyov ttoAAovs tG>v dvdpcoTrcov Itt alodrjoeL fiovov 
£a>vTCLS opwvras vovv 8k /cat Aoyov ovk exovras, 
ttoAAovs 8k 7rdAtv (LfJborrjTL /cat dvpLa) /cat TrAeoveijlq, 
rd <f}o^€pcx)Tara toji> drjpicov virepfSefSAri kotcls, ttcli- 
8o<f>6vovs /cat rroLTpoKTovovs rvpdwovs /cat jSacrtAcaw 8 

VTTOVpyOVS, TTpOS fJ>€V TOVTOVS OL€odoLL St/CatoV Tt* 

etvat 17/xtv, ^pos" Se rov dporrjpa fiovv /cat rdi> 
ovvrpo(/)ov Kvva /cat Ta ydAa/crt jLtcv rp€(f>ovra 
Kovpa 8e Koojjbovvra dpefifiara pL7]8kv etvai, tt&s ov 
TrapaAoycorarov ion; 

'AAA' €K€LVO Vr) Ata TOV XpVOLTTTTOV TTlOcLVOV, 5 d)S 

1 964 f : av SoOAa. 2 Abresch : rrpooTldeadai or rLdtoOoL. 

3 paodvcov Wyttenbach. 4 hUaiov n added by Reiske. 

5 ij after mOavov deleted by Bernardakis. fjv Duebner. 

Frag. 194 Nauck, 336 Mette, from Prometheus Lyo- 
356 



OTHER FRAGMENTS 

as Aeschylus puts it, 

To serve for slaves and substitutes in toil. 

If a man requires that we should not use the ox as 
meat, nor destroy and make away with breath and 
life in order to serve up sauces for our satiety and 
make a show on our tables, does he rob our life of 
anything necessary to its preservation or of anything 
fine, that can contribute to its goodness ? 

However, to put plants and animals on a par is a 
fairly violent proceeding. Animals are so constituted 
as to have sense-perception, to feel pain and fear, to 
be injured, and therefore to be wronged ; but nothing 
is perceptible to plants, and so nothing is to them 
alien or bad, nor anything an injury or wrong. Sense- 
perception is, in fact, the origin of all feeling of 
affinity or aversion, 5 and Zeno's followers suppose 
that the feeling of affinity is the origin of justice. 
But when we see many men whose lives are guided by 
sense-perception alone, without use of mind or reason, 
and many again outdoing the most fearsome of beasts 
in cruelty, anger, and greed — despotic rulers who mur- 
der their children and kill their fathers, or crea- 
tures that kings use to serve their purposes — can it 
be anything but utterly unreasonable to imagine that 
with them we have something ir common, but nothing 
with the ox at the plough, or the dog that shares 
our home, or the sheep that feed us with their milk 
and clothe us with their fleeces ? d 

But really I must say that is a plausible view of 

menos. Cited also, De Fortuna, 98 c, De Sollertia Animalium, 
964 f. * Cf. De Esu Carnium, 997 e. 

c Stoic. Vet. Frag. i. 197. 

d Cf. Stoic. Vet. Frag. iii. 346. Although this paragraph 
may contain elements drawn from Plutarch, it seems to be 
of Porphyry's composition. 

357 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

rjixas avrcov 1 /cat aWrjXojv oi 6eol xdpw €7roLrjaavro, 
rjfjbcov Se rd £a>a, crt>/X77-oAe/xetv fxev Iitttovs /cat ovv- 
Orjpevew Kvvas, dvhpeias Se yvfAvdata irapSdXeis 
/cat dpKTovs /cat Xeovras' r) S' 5? (ivTavda yap ion 
rcov yapvTUiv to rjhiorov) ov St' aAAo tl 7tXt}v 6v€~ 
odai eyeyovei? /cat rfj aap/ct rrjv ifruxyv 6 deos olov 
dXas ive/M^ev, evotfjiav rjfuv fjLrjxcivcofJLevog' ottojs Se 
^cofjiov /cat TrapaSeiTTVicov d(f>8oviav e^a>jLtev, oarped 
re Travro8a7rd /cat a/caA^a? /cat yeViy 7TTr]vtx)v 
ttoikLXcl 7rap€(JK€vao€v, ovk aXXa^odev, aAA' 3 avrov* 
jjieya fiepos ivravda rpexjjas els yAv/cu^u/xta? 5 ra? 
rirdds U7re/0j8aAAdjLtevo9 /cat KarairvKvcjoas reus 
rjSovcus /cat aVoAauCTeo-t roV Treptyeiov rorrov. otco 
8rj ravra So/cet rt rou rndavov /cat 0e<£ Trpeirovros 

/J,€T€X €CP > VKO7T€LTC0 TL TTpOS €K€LVOV €p€L TOV X6yOV, 

ov KapvedSrjs eAeyei>, aW 8 eKaorov ra>v <f>voei ye- 
yovorcov, orav rod irpos o 7T€<f)VK€ /cat yeyove rvy- 
xdv?) reXovs, a><£eAetrar Koivorepov Se to 1 ttjs 
ax^eAeta?, rjv €VXP r ) arLav ovtol Xeyovaw, d/couoreov 
rj S' u? <f>vv€i yeyove 7Tpos to o<f>ayr\vai /cat Kara- 
f$pu)6r)vac' /cat rovro ndoxovaa rvyxdvei rod irpos 
o tt€<I>vk€ /cat ax^eAetrat. 

1 Hercher : avrcov. 

2 ? yeyove. 

3 F. H. S. : aAA' <!> s . 

4 Wyttenbach : clvtov. 

5 F. H. S. : yXvKvdvfjLias* 

6 <Ls added by F. H. S. 

7 to added by Abresch. 

• Cf. Cicero, iV^. Deorum, ii. 37 (&F.F. ii. 1153). 

6 A saying ascribed by Clement, Strom, vii. 6. 33 (S. V.F. 
i. 516) to Cleanthes ; Quaest. Conv. 685 c, and Cicero, Nat. 
Deorum, ii. 160 (S. V.F. ii. 1154), Fin. v. 38 (S. V.F. ii. 723), 
make the point clearer : the pig's " soul " (the word does 

358 



OTHER FRAGMENTS 

Chrysippus according to which the gods created us to 
serve their purposes and those of our fellow-men, 
animals, on the other hand, to serve ours,° horses to 
accompany us to the wars, dogs to the hunt, panthers, 
bears, and lions as a school for training in bravery. 
As for the pig — and here is the most delightful of all 
his charming ideas — it was brought into existence 
for no other purpose but to be sacrificed, and God 
impregnated its flesh with life as it were with salt, 5 
thereby contriving for us an abundant supply of meat. 
And in order that we should have plenty of soup and 
of side-dishes he provided all kinds of shell-fish, and 
sea-nettles, and the various species of birds, and this 
not from any extraneous source — no, he has converted 
a large part of his own self here on earth into sweet 
flavours and juices, in this outdoing any wet-nurse, 
and has contrived " a concentration of pleasures " e 
and sensual enjoyments in the terrestrial regions. 
Now if anyone thinks this is at all plausible or a 
fitting activity for God, he should consider what reply 
to make to the argument used by Carneades. When 
any creature attains the natural end for which it was 
created, it thereby derives an advantage. ("Advan- 
tage " must be understood in the wider sense of the 
word, what these Stoics call " utility.") d The pig 
has been created to be killed and eaten. When this 
happens to it, therefore, it attains its natural end 
and thereby derives an advantage ! 

not imply any rational or spiritual functions) was given it in 
order that its flesh should not go putrid. 

c An Epicurean term (Kvpta Aofa 12) maliciously attached 
to the Stoic pantheistic God. 

d The Stoics confined w^Aeia, " advantage,'* and related 
words to what aided morality ; evxpyoTia, " utility," was 
allowed to what was serviceable to meet natural needs. 

359 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

Kat fJL7]v el TTpos dvdpumojv xpfjaw 6 Oeos f^e/ir]- 
■yavy\rai tcl ta>a, ri xprjoofieda puvlacs, epLTrlai, 
vvKrepioiVy Kavdapois , OKopirLoiSy exl8vais, cbv rd 
/juev opdv elSexOyj kcli diyydveiv puapd /cat /car' 
68{ias Svaavdax^ra /cat (j>Oeyyerai 8eivdv /cat drep- 
7T€S, ra S' dvTiKpvs dXedpia rots rvyxdvovoiv ; x 
<f>aXaivas re 2 /cat TTpioreis /cat rd aAAa Krjrr], " a 
fjLvpca /36gk€lv" "Op,7)p6s <j>7]oiv " dydarovov 5 A/>t^t- 
rpiTqv," tl ovk i8c8a^ev r)[JLas 6 8y)puovpyos, 07777 
XpT)oip,a rfj cf)VG€L yeyove; el S' ov rravra <f>aolv 
rjjjiLV /cat TTpos r)p,as yeyovevai, TTpos rco ovyyyoiv 
e\eiv ttoXXtjv /cat dodc/yetav rov otoptoyxov oif8e 
€K(f)evyo[jLev to dSt/cetv, eTTiridepbeVoi /cat xp<x>\x,evoi 
pXafiepcDS tols ov hi 7) fids dAA' cboTrep r^iels Kara 
<f>vow yeyevrifievoLS. ea> Xeyeiv on rfj xpeta ro 
TTpos rjfJL&s opi^ovres ovk av (frddvoL/jbev eavrovs 
eW/ca tlov oXedpicordrojv ^ojojv, ota KpoKoheiXoi 
/cat (f)dXaivai /cat SpaKovres, yeyovevai ovyyuypovv- 
res. rjfjuv puev yap ovSev d'n eKeivcov virdpyei to 
Trapdirav dtcfyeXeloQ ai' rd 8e dpird^ovra /cat Sta- 
<f)deipovra rovs TrapaTT ltttovtols dvdpdmovs fiopq 
XpfJTCu, p,rj8ev r)iMa)v /card tovto 8pa>vra ^aAe7ra)- 
repov, ttXtjv ore rd fxev ev8eta /cat Xifios €Trl ravrrjv 
dyei rr)v dSt/ctW, rjfJLels 8' vf}pei /cat Tpv<f>rjs eveKa, 
/cat 3 Tral^ovres noXXaKts ev dedrpois /cat Kvvrjye- 
oiois, rd TrXeiora rcov ^ojojv (frovevofiev. 

1 ivTvyxavovaiv Reiske. 

2 Se Bernardakis. ? 8c yc. 

3 /cal added by F. H. S. 



sey, xii. 97. 
* C/. Celsus as quoted by Origen, Contra Celsum, v. 78. 

360 



OTHER FRAGMENTS 

Moreover, if God has contrived animals for the use 
of mankind, what use are we to make of flies, mosqui- 
toes, bats, dung-beetles, scorpions, and vipers, some 
of which are repulsive to look at, or disgusting to 
touch, or have an intolerable smell, or make alarm- 
ing or unpleasant sounds, while others are downright 
deadly to those that come upon them ? As for whales 
and sawfish and all the other monsters which, 
according to Homer, 

In thousands groaning AmphitritG feeds,* 

why has not the Artisan of the world explained the 
use for which Nature created them ? If on the other 
hand the Stoics admit exceptions to the rule that all 
creatures were created for us and for our benefit, not 
only is the dividing-line an extremely obscure and 
confused one, but since it follows that we attack and 
harmfully use animals that have not been created 
on our account but are products of nature on a par 
with ourselves, we do not even escape from the charge 
of doing wrong. I will refrain from observing that if 
we constitute usefulness the mark of what is created 
for our benefit, we might as well at once concede that 
we ourselves have been created for the sake of the 
most deadly animals, like crocodiles, whales, and 
snakes. b For whereas we derive absolutely no advan- 
tage from them, they carry off and kill the human 
beings that fall in their way, to feed upon them ; in 
this they act no more cruelly than we do ; except 
that need and hunger lead them to do us such wrong, 
whereas most of the animals that we kill, we murder 
wantonly and for the sake of our luxuries, often in- 
deed for sport in theatres and in the chase. c 



c Cf. De Sollertia Animalium, 965 a. 



361 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

194 

(a) Porphyry, Uepl dyaA/xarouv, frag. 8 Bidez (Eusebius, 
Praepar. Evang. ii. 23). 

Tod S* av TTVpOS TTJV SvVOLjJLlV 7TpOO€L7TOVT€S 

"Hcfxuarov dvOpajnoeiSes p,kv avrov to dyaXpua 
TT€7Toi , qKaaiv > ttlXov 8k rrepUdeoav Kvdveov ttjs 
ovpaviov ovjxfioAov 7T€pi<f>opas evOa rod irvpos to 
dpxoeiSes re /cat aKpaicfrveoTaTov to 8* els yrjv 
KCLTevexdev i£ ovpavov irvp drrovtoTepov y Seopuevov 
T€ oT7)piyiLaTos /cat fidaeojs ttjs €(j>* vXtjs' 816 
XcoXevet 1 vXrjs Seofxevov els V7repeiop,a. /cat rjXlov 
8e ttjv Toidv8e 8vvap.1v viroXafSovTes 'AnoXXajva 
TTpooelTrov aVo ttjs tcov aKTivcov CLVTOv TTaXoecos' 
evvea 8' eirdSovaLV 2 avTCp Mouaat, r) 9* VTrooeXrfVios 
o<f>aZpa /cat eiTTa TrXavrjTcov /cat jitta r) ttjs dirXavovs. 
irepUOeaav 8' avTCp ttjv 8d(f>vrjv, tovto puev ort 
TTVpos TrXrjpes to <J>vtov /cat 8 id tovto direxOes Sat- 
pioocv, tovto 8* otl XdXov Kaiop,evov els TTapdoTCLOW 

TOV 7TpO<f>7]T€V€lV TOV 0€OV. 

(b) Lydus, de Mensibus, iv. 86. 

f O Se yiaipcovevs <f>r)ow otl tov irvpos . . . d- 

Kpai<f)V€OTaTO v . 

(c) Lydus, ibid. iv. 4. Geoponica, xi. 2. 4. 

Trjv 8d<f>vrjv 8e oi ttclXcuol tco 'AttoXXcdvi /ca#t€- 

pOVOLV OTt TTVpOS TrXrjpeS TO <f>VTOV, COS <f>7JOLV 6 

UXovTapxos , 3 /cat 6 *Att6XXcov irvp* rjXtos ydp eoTiv. 
oOev /cat d7T€x0dv€TCu SatjLtoat tovto to (f>VTov, /cat 
evdev av etrj 8d<f>vrj €K7ro8cov Salpuoves, /cat iv Tats 

1 ? XO>A€U€tl>. 

2 F. H. S. : tnaZovocu. 

362 



OTHER FRAGMENTS 

194 

(a) Then again, giving to the power of fire the 
appellation of Hephaestus, they made his image in 
human shape and placed on his head a dark blue cap 
as a symbol of the revolving vault of heaven, where 
the archetypal and purest form of fire is to be found. 
The fire that is carried down to earth from the 
heavens is less tense and vigorous, and needs its 
material support and foundation. That is why it is 
" lame," as needing matter to support it. a Moreover, 
taking the power of the sun to be of this sort they 
called it Apollo from the vibration of its rays {a\ctino7t\ 
palsis). h And nine Muses sing to accompany him, 
the sublunary sphere and seven spheres of planets 
and the one sphere of the fixed stars. They made the 
bay-tree his attribute, for one thing because this 
plant is full of fire and therefore repugnant to demons, 
for another because when it is burnt it chatters, and 
so represents the prophetic activity of the god. 

(6) The sage of Chaeronea says that the power of 
fire . . . purest form of fire is to be found. 

(c) The ancients consecrate the bay-tree to Apollo 
because the plant is full of fire, as Plutarch says, and 
Apollo is fire. For he is the sun. Hence this plant 
is hated by demons, and they depart from any place 
where bay may be, and men think that when they 

a De Facie, 922 b, Cornutus, chap. 19, and Heraclitus, 
Alleg. Homer, chap. 26, who applies the word " lame " to 
fire itself, as is done here, instead of using it of the personifica- 
tion of Hephaestus. 

6 Cf. the derivation from olktIvcov jSoAa?, Vit. et Poes. Horn., 
chap. 202. 

3 o)s (frrjmv 6 UXovrapxos one ms. (S) only. 



PLUTARCITS MORALIA 

[Mavrelais Kaiovres ravrrjv ol dvOpojiroi Trapdoraow 

7TpO<f>r)T€LaS hoKOVGLV €Vp7)K€V0Ll. 



195 

Proclus, in Timaeum, i, p. 415 Diehl. 

Kat Set fjuefivrjadcu /cat cSi> 6 Xatpatvevs etne rrepi 
rod rrjs irpovoias ovofiaros, ojs HXdrujvos ovtojs 
rr)v deiav alriav KaXeoavros. 



196 
Proclus, in Euclidem, ii, p. 35. 

HoGOTrjra Se Xeyovoiv avrrjv (sc, rrjv yoivlav) 
Scot, <f>aal to 7rptoTov hidorrjp,a vtto to orjfjuelov 
etvat rrjv yojviav <Lv /cat YlXovrap^os ivriv, els 
rrjv avrrjv 86£av ovvwdcov /cat rov ' A.iroX\d)viov . 
" Set yap elvai n," <j>rjoi, " Stdarrjiia irptorov vtto 
rrjv kXololv ra>v TTepLexovcrwv ypafJLfJLOJV r) km- 
(/>av€ia)v." 

*197 

Prolegomenon in Hermogenis tr€pl ardacwv Appendices 
(p. 217 Rabe). 

'E/c rtov UXovrdpxov els rov UXdrajvos YopyLav 

"Opos prjToptKrjs Kara. Topycdv prjropiKrj eari 

T€)(Vr] 7T€pl X6yOVS TO KVpOS e^OVOa, 7T€L0OVS Srj/JLI," 

a ? Timaeus, 30 b, 44 c. 

6 P. ver Eecke, Proclus de Lycie, 1948, p. 114, thinks the 
neo-Platonist is meant. 

364 



OTHER FRAGMENTS 

burn it as they seek oracular responses, they have 
found a representation of prophecy. 

Fragment discovered by E. Bickel, Diatribe in Senecae 
philosophi fragmenta, i. 103. But J. Bidez, Vie de Porphyre, 
p. 147, supports the view of F. Bortzler, Porphyrios' Schrift 
von den Gottesbildern, p. 61, that the reference to Plutarch 
in Lydus is an error. 



195 

One must also remember what the philosopher of 
Chaeronea said about the name Providence, as being 
that by which Plato called the Divine Cause . a 

196 

The angle is treated as a quantity by all those who 
say that an angle is " the first distance under the 
point.' ' Plutarch b belongs to their number, and 
attempts to foist the same view on Apollonius. c 
There must, he says, be some first distance under the 
deflection of the enclosing lines or surfaces . d 



*197 
From Plutarch's Commentary on Plato's Gorgias e : 

Definition of rhetoric according to Gorgias. Rhe- 
toric is an art authoritative in the field of discourse, a 

c Apollonius of Perg£, c. 265-170 b.c, famous for his work 
on conic sections. 

* What follows is Proclus' refutation of Plutarch (M. Steck, 
Proklus, Kommentar zum ersten Buch von Euklids Elementa). 
For an account of the controversy see T. L. Heath, The 
Thirteen Books of Euclid's Elements, i, pp. 176-177. 

• There is nothing to show which Plutarch is intended ; 

S65 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

ovpyos €v TToXiriKols \6yois nepl ttovtos rod irpo- 
redevros 7TioT€VTLKrjs /cat ov StSacr/caAi/ajs" etvai oe 
avrrjg ttjv npayfiareiav tSt'av /xaAtara nepl St/cata 
/cat aSt/ca dyadd re /cat /ca/ca /caAa re /cat at- 
crxpa. 

*198 

Scholia in Platonis Gorgiam, 462 e (307. 12 Hermann). 

'loreov on 8ia<f>€p€i iTnrrjSevfJba /cat en-m^S everts* 
avrrj p,€V yap ivepyecav SrjXot, e/cetvo Se olov ovolav, 
cos cf>rj(jL UXovrapxos. 

*199 

Ibid. 495 d (318. 26 Hermann). 

*Ii oo<f)a)TaT€ ov- /car' elpcoveiav vtto KaAAt/cAe'oi*? 
eiprjrai, a>s (j>7]oi UXovrapxog. 



200 

This fragment and the following are ascribed in Stobaeus 
to Porphyry, that is to say, the preceding fragment is intro- 
duced by the word Tiopfvplov and they by the words rod avrov. 
They were claimed for Plutarch by Bernardakis, probably 
rightly. The style, vocabulary and rhythm all suggest that 
he is the author : they are definitely not those of Porphyry. 
The quotations contained in them are all such as he might 
have made. With Empedocles he was familiar and actually 

but observe frags. 186, 192. R. Beutler, R.E. xxi. 969, 
inclines to ascribe this fragment and the two following ones 
to the neo-Platonist. It summarizes Plato, Gorgias* 450 b — 
456 c. 
S66 



OTHER FRAGMENTS 

worker of persuasion in political speeches on any sub- 
ject proposed, a persuasion that creates belief with- 
out giving instruction. He says that its proper 
business has particular reference to what is just and 
unjust, good and bad, honourable and disgraceful. 



*198 a 

One must know that epitedeuma (a pursuit) differs 
from epitedeusis (the practice of a pursuit). As Plu- 
tarch says, the latter indicates an activity, the former 
a quasi-substance. 



* 



199 



" How wise you are ! " Said ironically by Callicles, 
as Plutarch says. 



200 

quotes the same line elsewhere ; Odyssey, iv. 563 is given the 
same interpretation in De Facie, 942 f, 944 o ; and he seems 
to have had an interest in Timotheils, whom he quotes in 
twelve other places. On the other hand Porphyry gave, at 
one time at least, a different interpretation of Odyssey, x. 
190-191 (see WachsmutKs note). 

If Stobaeus (or his mss.) are mistaken in their ascription, 
the mistake may have come about in various ways. The most 
likely are (1) that before these two fragments there once stood 
an extract, now fallen out, that was ascribed to Plutarch, 
(2) that the fragments were indeed taken from a work by 

a This fragment and the next are ascribed by C. F. Her- 
mann to the neo-Platonist. The only other time a Plutarch 
is mentioned in the old scholia to Plato (Alcibiades, 122 b), 
the reference is to ours. 

367 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

Porphyry, but that he had included in it passages from Plu- 
tarch ; he might have done so without acknowledgement, 

Stobaeus, i. 44. 60 (i, p. 445 Wachsmuth). 

Tov avrov ($c. Tlop(f)vpiov)' 

Ta 8e Trap 'O/x^ooj 1 nepl rrjs YLipKrjs Xeyofxeva 
OavjJbaGTrjv e^et rrjv 2 irepl ifivxyv decoplav. Xeyerai 
yap ovtqjs, 

ol Se avtov p,kv eyov K€<f>aXds (/xjovtjv re Tot^a^ re 
/cat Sepias* avrap vovs rjv epLneSos cos to wdpos 
ire p. 

eon roiwv 6 jjlvOos aiviy\ia tcov nepl ipvx^s vno 
re UvOayopov Xeyofievcov teal HXdrcovos, cos a<f)6ap- 
ros ovoa rrjv (f>vcriv /cat atStos", ov tl firjv a7radr)s 
ov8* dpberd^XrjTos , £v rals Xeyopuevacs <f>dopais /cat 
reXevrals p,€TafSoXr)v tercet /cat [leraKoop^aiv els 
eVepa acofiaTCov e'lSrj, /ca#' rjSovrjv SuoKovaa to 
irp6o(j)opov /cat ot/cetov 6[ioi6tt\ti /cat avvrjO eia jStou 
Latrrjs' evua or) to pueya naioeias e/caara) /cat 
<f)iXooo^)ias 6<f>eXos, dv fJLvrjpLovevovoa rcov KaXcov r) 
i/jvx'tj /cat Svox^paivovoa rds aloxpds /cat irapavo- 
fJbovs rjSovas Svvrjrai Kparetv /cat rrpooex^v avrfj* 
/cat (f>vXdrr€LV pur) Xddrj drjpiov yevofievrj /cat crrep- 
£aaa ocofxaros ovk evefrvovs 5 ovSe KaOapov rrpos 
dperfjv cf>voiv dpiovoov /cat dXoyov /cat to emdvpbovv 
/cat 6 dv/JLovpievov pbdXXov r) to (fypovipiov av^dvovTos 1 
/cat Tpe(f>ovTos. 

1 'Ofirjpa) P : 'Oiirjpov F. 

2 t^v] -7W Heeren. 

3 Bernardakis : pera. Cf. Plato, Phaedo, 107 d. 

4 Heeren : avrrjs. 

368 



OTHER FRAGMENTS 

just as he copied, with minor changes, extensive passages 
from De Sollertia Animalium in the third book of his De 
Abstinentia. 

From the same author : 

Homer's account of Circe contains an admirable 
interpretation of the soul's condition. The words are 
as follows : 

They had the heads of swine, the voice, the hair, 
The shape ; yet still unchanged their former mind.° 

The story is a riddling version of what Plato and 
Pythagoras said about the soul, how although im- 
perishable of nature and eternal, it is in no way 
impassible or immutable, but at the times of its so- 
called death and destruction it experiences an altera- 
tion and recasting which bring a change of outward 
bodily shape ; it then follows its own tastes by look- 
ing for a shape that suits it and is appropriate by 
reason of a familiar similarity in its way of life. b And 
there, they say, is the great benefit that each indi- 
vidual derives from education and philosophy, should 
his soul remember all that is fine and beautiful and 
feel distaste for ugly, illicit pleasures ; then it will 
be able to retain control and look to itself and guard 
against the danger that, before it knows what has 
happened, it may become a beast, having taken a 
liking to a body that is naturally gross and irrational, 
one unclean and without innate disposition to good- 
ness, one that strengthens and feeds in it the source 
of appetite and anger rather than that of intelligence. 

« Odyssey, x. 239-240. b Plato, Phaedo, 81 e. 

5 Heeren : a<f>vovs. 6 Wachsmuth : rj. 

7 F. H. S. : av£avros, altered in P to av£ovros» 

369 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

Avrrjs yap rrjs jjbeTaKoafjir]a€OJs elfxapfxevr] /cat 
<f>vois vtto ^pLrrehoKXeovs Sat/zaw dvr\yopevrai 
aapKeov dXXoyvayri rrepioreXXovoa xirchvi 

Kdl jJL€TCL[JL7rLO)(OV(Ja TOLS lfjV)(ds, "OfJLTJpOS 8e TY]V 

ev kvkXco 7T€pio8ov /cat Trepi<f>opdv 7raXcyyeveaLas 
K.LpK7)v tt poorly 6 pevKev, 'HAt'ou 7ral8a rod iraoav 
(f>6opdv yeveoei /cat yeveoiv av ndXcv cj>8opa orvvdrr- 
rovros del /cat ovveipovros . Alatrj 8e vrjaos rj 8e- 
XOfJbevrj tov diroOvrjOKovra fj,oZpa /cat X^P a ro ^ 
TTepieyovros , els fjv ep,ireoovoai nptorov at i/ar^at 
TrXavcovrac /cat ^evoTradovoi /cat oXo^vpovrai /cat 
ovk loaoiv 07777 l^6(f)OS 

ov8* 07777 rjeXcos (fxieotfJiPpOTOS eta 9 vtto yalav, 

TTodovaai 8e /ca#' r)8ovds rrjv avvrjOr] /cat cruvrpocfrov 
ev aapKi /cat fierd oapKos Suairav epjirinTOVOiv 1 
avOis els tov KVKecova, rrjs yeveoeojs fJLiyvuorjs els 
ravro /cat kvkcootjs <I)S 2 dXrj9u>s dtota /cat dvrjrd /cat 
<f>p6vcfJLa /cat 7radrjTa /cat dAu/Z77ta /cat yrjyevfj, 
deXyofievac /cat ^aAacrad/xerat 3 rats dyovoais au#ts" 
enl rr)v yeveoiv r)8ovats, ev a> 8r) fidXiara iroXXfjs 
/xev evTVxicLS at t/fu^at Seovrat noXXfjs 8e aaxfrpo- 

GVVTjSy OTTOJS {IT} TOLS /Ca/CtWot? eiTlOTJ '6 fJL€VCU* KOLI 

crvvevSovcFOU fiepeocv r) rrddeoiv avra>v /ca/cooat'uwa 
/cat 6rjptCL)8r] fiiov dpieixjjojoiv. r) yap Xeyofxevrj /cat 

1 Canter : e/xTrtWouaa. 2 Canter : la>s. 

3 Meineke : fleAyo/xem kcu /iaAacrcro/xeva. 

4 Canter : eVtor7T6o/xevat. 

a Frag, b 126, quoted also, Be Esu Carnium, 998 c. 

6 KipKos (or more commonly KpUos) means "ring." 
Parallels for the symbolical interpretations that follow may 
be found in an article by E. Kaiser, Mus. Helv. xxi (1964), 
p. 205. 

370 



OTHER FRAGMENTS 

Now Fate and Nature, the causes of the actual re- 
fashioning, are designated by Empedocles the Power 
"that wraps in unfamiliar shirt of flesh/' a that is, 
gives the souls their new dress, but Homer has called 
the cyclical revolution and recurrence of rebirth by the 
name of Circe, 6 child of the Sun, since the Sun forever 
joins every death to birth and birth again to death 
in unending succession/ The island of Aeaea d is that 
appointed region of space which receives every man 
when he dies, where the souls wander on their first 
arrival, feeling themselves strangers and lamenting 
their fate and not knowing in what direction lies the 
West 

Nor where the Sun that gives its light to men 
Descends beneath the Earth. e 

Longing, according to their tastes, for their ac- 
customed and familiar way of life in the flesh and 
with the flesh, they fall once again into that brew 
(kukeon)/ where birth commingles and literally stirs 
together (leukoses) what is eternal and what is mortal, 
thought and emotion, the heavenly and the earth- 
born ; they are bewitched and enfeebled by the 
pleasures that draw them back to birth. Then in- 
deed souls stand in need of great good fortune and 
great self-control if they are not to follow, and give 
way to, their worst parts or passions, and so pass into 
a miserable and bestial way of life. Here, it seems, 

c That the sun is the cause of sublunary change, including 
birth and death, is a commonplace : Plato, Rep. 509 b, Aris- 
totle, Met. A 1071 a 15, Gen. et Corr. B 338 b 3. 

d Associated with aiai, a cry of lamentation, cf. De Vita et 
Poesi Homeri, 126. 

6 Odyssey, x. 190-191. 

1 A reference to the posset with which Circ£ turned her 
victims into animals, Odyssey ', x. 234 ff. 

371 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

vopu^opbevrj rcov iv "AiSov rpioSos ivravdd ttov 

T€TCLKTat, TTCpl TOL TTJS ^XV 9 CT^t^OjLteV^ 1 /X€/07y, TO 

XoyiGTiKov /cat dvpioeihes /cat IttiQv\L7)tu<.6v \ &v 
ckolotov apxty i£ avrov /cat po7rrjv irrl rov ot/cetov 
fttov cVSt'Sojcrt. /cat ovkIti ravra puvdos ouSe 7tolt]- 
gls dAA' dA^eta /cat <J>voik6s Xoyos. cSv puev yap 
iv rfj p,€Tafio\rj /cat yevioei to i7TidvpLrjTiKdv i£av~ 
dovv €7rt/c/oar€t /cat Svvaorevei, tovtols els 6v<x)8r) 
/cat vcbhrf acojjbara /cat filovs OoXepovs /cat aKaddp- 
rovs V7to <f>iXr)8ovias /cat yaoTpip,apyias <f>r)ol yive- 
adac 3 rrjv pLerafioXrjv . orav 8e <f>iXoveiKiais aKXrj- 
pais /cat (f>oviKCUS* (hpLorrjCLV €/c rtvos 1 8ta<f)opds r) 
8vop,eveias i^rjyptcofjLevov exovaa Travrdv acrtv rj 
$vxh to dvp,oei8es els 8evrepav yeveoiv d<f>LKr]r ai , 
7rXrjpr)s ovaa irpoa^drov iriKplas /cat fiapvc/tpOGVvrjs 6 
eppixfjev eavrrjv els Xvkov <f>vaiv rj Xeovros, cborrep 
opyavov dpLwrtKov to aaj/jua rep Kparovvri irpooie- 
fievrf nddet /cat rrepiappbooaoa. 816 Set 7 fidXtara 
irepl rov ddvarov ayoirep iv reXerfj KaOapevovra 

TTOLVTOS a7T€X€lV TrddoVS <j)CLvXoV 8 TTjV ^xty KCLl 

iraoav eiTidvixLav x a ^ €7T V v Kotfirjaavra /cat <f>66vovs 
/cat SvGfievelas /cat opyas d7rcjordroj rtdepievov rov 
(/>povovvros €/cj8atVctv rov acbpLaros. ovtos 6 XP V ~ 

1 Heeren : ax^ofieva. 

2 ovcjStj Canter, vcbfy added by Wachshiuth : els vcodij kcu 
F Icrovcodrj Kal P. els vwdij Heeren. 

3 Bernardakis : yevdaOcu. 4 Meineke : <}>oivu«us. 
5 Heeren : papv<f>povr]s. 6 F. H. S. : wpoteiievr). 
7 Canter : 817. 8 P 2 : </>a^\r}v FP 1 . 

a Plato, Phaedo, 108 a, Gorgias, 524> a. 

b Plato, Phaedo, 81 e. Although Homer's Circe" perhaps 

372 



OTHER FRAGMENTS 

is the right interpretation of that belief in the under- 
world crossroads ° of which men tell : the parting of 
the ways refers to the parts of the soul, the reasoning, 
the spirited, and the appetitive, each of which gives 
an impulse and inclination towards the manner of 
life appropriate to itself. And with this we pass from 
mythology and poetic invention to truth and the 
laws of nature. The men whose appetitive element 
erupts to prevail and dominate at this time of change 
and birth suffer a transmutation by reason of their 
sensuality and gluttony, so Homer means, into the 
bodies of donkeys b and swine, to lead their lives in 
mud and uncleanliness. In another soul the spirited 
element has grown utterly savage through stubborn 
rivalries and murderous cruelties, that sprang from 
some quarrel or enmity ; when such a one comes to 
his second birth, full of fresh bitterness and indigna- 
tion, he throws himself into the shape of a wolf c or 
lion, welcoming this body and fastening it to himself 
as an organ of retaliation that will serve his dominant 
passion , d So one should never keep oneself so pure 
as at the time of one's death, as if taking part in a 
rite of initiation ; one should restrain the soul from 
all evil passions, put all troublesome appetites to 
sleep, keep feelings of envy, ill-will, and anger as 
far from the seat of reason as possible, and thus 
withdraw from the body. " Hermes with his golden 

turned men into swine only, she is often represented as giving 
them other animal forms : donkeys, e.g. Coniug. Praec. 
139 a ; wolves, e.g. Virgil, Aen. vii. 18. 

c Plato, PhaedOj 82 a. The wolves and lions of Odyssey, 
x. 213, may have been genuine wild animals, not bewitched 
human beings ; Eustathius, 1656. 38, regards their status as 
not determinable. 

d There are points of contact between these two sentences 
and De Sera Numinis Vindicta, 565 d. 

373 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

ooppaiTis 'Epfirjs dXrjd&s 6 Xoyos ivrvyxdvcuv koX 
Sclkvvcjv ivapycos to kclXov r) iravromaaiv eipyei 
/cat dW^et 1 rod kvkccovos, r) movaav* iv dvdpumLvto 
pio) koll rfdei 8ia<f)vAdao€i ttXgiotov \povov, <hs 

OLVVGTOV ian. 

201 
Stobaeus, i. 49. 61 (i, p. 448 Wachsmuth). 
Tov avrov* 

HdXlV alviTTO/JL€VOS OTL TCUS TCtiV €VO€^(x)S jSejStOJ- 

kotcov ifivxcus [Jberd rrjv reXevrrjv oIk€los ecrrt tottos 
6 7T€pl rr)v aeXrjvrjv, imeSriXaxjev €L7tcx)V, 

dXXd a is r)Xvoiov ireSiov kcli nelpara yairjs 
dddvaroi* 7T€[jafjovaLV, 60 1 £av66s *Pa8dfjLav6vs, 

TjXvGlOV fJU€V TTchloV €t/COTO>9 7rpO<J€L7T<bv TTjV T7JS CT€- 

Xrjvrjs €7Ti<f)dv€iav v<f>* r)Xiov KaraXapu7TOiJL€vrjv , " or 
deijercu* dXiov 5 avyals," <Z>S (frrjcrt, TtfAodeos, irepara 
Se yrjs rd dtcpa vvktos- fjv oKidv rrjs yrjs etvou 
Xiyovaiv oi fJbaOrjjJiaTLKol rroXXaKis eimjjavovoav rrjs 
acXrjvrjs, cos tovto rrjs yrjs rrepas ixovarjs, od rfj 

UKld [ACLKpOTepOV OVK €£lKV€LTOLl. 

*202 

Stobaeus, iii. i. 199 (iii, p. 150 Hense). 

JJvdayopiKa' 

Kat fir)v ovSev ioriv ovrco rrjs HvdayoptKrjs 

1 a7T€X€t> F : dvex^i P. 2 Canter : iroiovoav. 

8 P 2 , Homer : aOdvarov. 4 Meineke : aufcrcu. 

5 Meineke : yXlov F : fcXlov P. 

° Odyssey, x. 277. 
6 Heraclitus, Horn. Alleg., chap. 72, Eustathius, 1658. 26. 

374 



OTHER FRAGMENTS 

wand " ° is this faculty of reason, 6 which in very 
truth converses with the soul and shows it clearly 
what is its good, and either bars and restrains it en- 
tirely from drinking of the posset, or preserves it, if 
it does drink, in a human life and character for so 
long as is feasible. 

201 

From the same author : 

Again wishing to hint that after death the souls of 
those who have lived righteous lives have for their 
own the regions around the moon, he suggested this 
by saying : 

Thee to the Elysian plain and earth's extremes 
The Gods shall send, where Rhadamanthys dwells, 
The golden-haired. d 

He aptly gave the name of " Elysian plain " to the 
surface of the moon that is illuminated by the sun, e 
when, in the words of Timotheus/ " the sun's rays 
bless it " ; and by " Earth's extremities " he means 
the limit of night. Astronomers say that night is the 
Earth's shadow, which often touches the moon ; ?nd 
so he means that the earth has as its extremity the 
point beyond which its shadow does not reach. g 

*202 

Pythagorean Views : 

Moreover nothing is so characteristic of the Pytha- 

c C/. Plato, Phaedo, 82 b, 114 c ; the best of philosophers 
escape reincarnation. 

d Odyssey, iv. 563, quoted also, Be Facie, 942 f, 944 c. 

* The etymology is Elysium from Helios. 

f Frag. 13 Diehl. ° Cf. Be Facie, 942 f. 

375 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(f>i\ooo<f>Las i&iov, <I)S to ovjjl^oXlkov, olov iv reXerfj 
fAefJuyiievov <f)covrj /cat aicoTrfj StSaa/caAtW yevos* 
ware fir) Ae'yetv 

deiaco ^vverolai, Ovpas 8' irrideode jSe/J^Aot, 

aXX avrodev eyeiv $**)$ Kai X a P aKry )P a T °^ GVV " 
rjdeot, to (fypa^ofievov, TV<f>\6v he /cat dorjfiov etvat 

TOLS 0L7T€ip0L£. <1)S ydp 6 CLVa£ 6 €V AcA^OtS" OVT€ 

Aeyet ovre KpviTTei aAAa orjfiatvec Kara rov 'Hpa- 
k\€ltov, ovtco tcjv TlvdayopiKcov OVflf56Aa)V KCLL TO 
(f>pd^eadat Sokovv Kpv7Tr6[JL€v6v eon /cat to Kpv- 
rrreoO ai voovfievov. 



*203 

Stobaeus, iii. 13. 68 (iii, p. 468 Hense). 

QepuoTLOv 1 rrepl ^JV\r)s' 

Et fiev ovv 6p0a>s inl HXdrcjvos etVre Aioyevrjs, 

tl oat ocpeAos r)fiiv avopos os ttoAvv rjorj %povov 

<f)i\ooo<})(x)v ovheva XeXv7rrjK€v; " erepot Kpivovoiv. 2 

lows yap (bs to fieXi 3 Set /cat rov Adyov rou <£tAo- 

a6(f)ov to yXvKV Stjktlkov eye iv raw rjXKOjfievcov, 

1 &€fuarlov omitted by L. 

2 Second hand in Par. 1985 : Kptvovaiv. 

3 Wyttenbach : /xcv. 

Kern, Orphicorum Fragmenta, 334. The first two words 
are quoted by Plutarch, Quaest. Conv. 636 d. 

376 



OTHER FRAGMENTS 

gorean philosophy as its use of symbols, a kind of 
instruction compounded of speech and of silence, as 
in a mystic ritual : as a result they do not say : 

To those with understanding I shall sing ; 
But close your doors, all ye who are profane, 

but what they signify is immediately lucid and clear 
of feature for those to whom it is familiar, but dark 
and meaningless to the ignorant. Just as the Lord 
who is at Delphi " neither affirms nor conceals but 
indicates, " to quote Heraclitus, b so with the Pytha- 
gorean symbols what seems to be made known is 
really being concealed, and what seems to be con- 
cealed is discerned by the mind. 

Ascribed to Plutarch by Wyttenbach on grounds of 
matter and style. This, although more likely than Meineke's 
ascription to Aristoxenus' livdayopiKal y Ano<l>dcr€t,s 9 the other 
fragments of which are quite different in style, is yet far from 
certain. 



*203 c 

Themistius, On the Soul : 

I leave it to others to decide whether Diogenes 
was right in his comment on Plato : " What use to 
us," he asked, " is a man who has practised philosophy 
so long without causing anyone pain ? " d It may well 
be that the talk of a philosopher should have a 
sweetness that stings ulcers in the mind, as honey 
stings bodily sores. * 

6 Diels-Kranz, Fragments der Vorsokratiker, 22 b 93 ; 
also quoted, De Pyth. Orac. 404 d. 

c On the reasons for and against attributing frags. 203- 
206 to Plutarch see p. 307. ^ d Cf Moralia, 452 d. 

e Cf Moralid) 59 d, Life of Phocion, chap. 2. 

377 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

*204 

Stobaeus, iv. 22. 89 (iv, p. 530 Hense). 

®€fJLLOTLOV €K TOV 7T€pl ifjVX^JS' 

? AAA' oSv 1 fMaXcara Sa/jcbv dnedave rrjs yvvaiKos, 
eptbv ipo)G7js a7roAet7rdjLt€j/os'. 2 . . . ovdev tlireZv 
ovre TTOifjaai rrpos avrrjv Irapbov iroXfirjaav , 8 dAA' 
ovtojs iveKapreprjaav djJb<f>6r€poi rep TrpenovrL, 
cboirep dirohei^aodai OeXovres on TrXetorov alSovs 
epajTi Sikcllo) jMerearcv. o9ev epuoiye irXeZorov avrfj 
(f>atv€Tai xpovov dvrjp (JvpLpefiLcoKevaL- ndvra yap 
SloXov tov SeKaerrj xpovov 6p,aXtbs ovvefiiwaev. al 

S' aAAat 4 GVVOIKOVOIV OV (JVfJL^LOVOLV, OTCLV Xwt<jl)oi 

tovs 5 dvSpas rj tjiXorvirojaiv 7} hia<f>epcovrai rrepl 
XprjfJidrojv rj /ca/ccu? Xeyaxjiv r) <j>€vya>oi Opvirro- 
fievai ras <f>iXo<f>poovvas kcu ovvSiairrjcreLS' toor 
dv tovtov i^cupfjs* tov xpovov iv cS tclvtol Trpdrrov- 
env, a7roAei7r€TCu fipaxvs ZKelvos 1 6 rrjs cru/xj8to6 crews. 

*205 
Stobaeus, iv. 50. 29 (v, p. 1032 Hense). 
'Ek tov @€[ugtlov irepl ipvxfjs' 
Kairot irepi ye rtov yepovrcov 6 So^o/cAt/? eiprjKe 
XCLpievrcos, 

opuKpd -rraXaid crwfjbar evvd^ei poirrj- 

Karaycoyfj yap eoLKev 6 yepovrtKos ddvaros, €K^oXi) 

1 Meineke : aAAou M : aAA* ov A. 

2 Meineke : a7roAt7ro/x€vos. Lacuna marked by Hense. 

3 MXfjLrjcrev Meineke. 4 Meineke : aAAcus. 

5 \ikv after tovs omitted following Gesner. 

6 Bernardakis : cgaipQs* 7 ckci'voi? Meineke. 

378 



OTHER FRAGMENTS 

*204 a 

Themistius, from his On the Soul : 

But in reality the chief cause of his death was 
longing for the wife he had lost : he loved her as she 
loved him. . . . They did not dare to treat her with 
any roughness of word or deed, 6 but both main- 
tained such a decorum that it would seem they wished 
to demonstrate that an honourable love is associated 
with the deepest feelings of respect. So he seems to 
me to have shared his life with her as her husband 
for a very great length of time, for he shared it 
equably through the whole of those ten years. Other 
women share a house with their husbands, but not 
their lives, at times when they give them pain or 
are jealous of them or quarrel over money -matters 
or abuse them or put on airs and avoid all affection 
and companionship. So that if you subtract the time 
in which they behave in this manner, that in which 
they share their life is but a brief remainder. 

*205 

Themistius, from his On the Soul : 

Yet Sophocles has written a charming line about 
old men : 

A small weight in life's scales brings old folk sleep. d 
Death in old age is like reaching a harbour, but the 

° Bernardakis suggested that this fragment comes from 
the Amatorius, having been lost in the lacuna at 766 d. This 
is improbable. If the fragment is Plutarchean at all, it is 
likely to come from the same book as frags. 172-178, 203, 
205-206. 

b The text is uncertain. Perhaps " he did not dare, etc." 
c Cf. Praecepta Coniugalia, 142 f. d O.T. 961. 

379 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

Se koll vavayiov ioTiv 6 rtov vewv €K7tittt€i yap rj 

l/jVXTJ j8ta GVVTpl/3oiJL€VOV TOV (JCOfACLTOS. 

*206 
Stobaeus iv. 52. 45 (v, p. 1086 Hense). 

®€fU(JTLOV €K TOV 7T6/H ifjVX^S' 

"OlTOV TOV OL7TO TTfS TiTO&S <f>lXoOO(f)OV ' * KvTlTTOSTpOV 

arroOvrjOKovTa Xeyovoiv iv €vtvx^(^tos puipei 8ta- 
voeioOcu 1 Kal ttjv €k RiAita'a? avTto yevofJLevrjv els 
'Adrjvas evrrXoiav. 

*207 
Stobaeus, iii. 33. 16 (iii, p. 681 Hense). 
HAovTapxov 

rie/H T7]S Kdd* "OfJLrjpOV €^€jLtU0ca? StOL TOVTtDV 

oa<f>(bs SeLKWTOu- Xeyec yap, 

QepoiT aKpiTOjjivOe, Xiyvs vrep icbv ayoprjTTjs 
tcr^eo, jJLrjS' e#eA' olos ipi(J.\i€vai fiaoiXfji. 2 

Kal tov TrjXefJbdxov zIttovtos, 

fj jitaAa tls detov* evSov, ot ovpavov evpvv ex ovaiv > 

1 Post : hiaK€lod(u. ficplbt OcvOat, Patzig after Meineke (/LieptSt 
Ktiodai). 

2 pacnXevaiv Homer. 

3 0€os Homer. 

° Cf. Life of Marius, chap. 46, T>e Tranquillitate Animi, 
469 d ; Stoic. Vet. Frag, iii, p. 246. 

b Wyttenbach guessed this fragment to come from 
Homeric Studies (see p. 238). Diels, Doxographi Graeci, 

380 



OTHER FRAGMENTS 

death of young men is shipwreck and jettison : the 
soul is swept overboard, as the body is violently 
shattered. 

*206 

Themistius, from his On the Soul : 

In this connexion the story is told that the Stoic 
philosopher Antipater on his death-bed counted 
among his pieces of good fortune even his prosperous 
voyage from Cilicia to Athens. 



*207 b 
Plutarch : 

Homer's approval of " holding the tongue " c is 
clearly shown by the following lines : he writes, 

Thersites, unconsidered are your words ; 
Keep quiet, ready speaker though you be, 
Nor wish alone to wrangle with the king.* 

And when Telemachus said, 

Some god's within, a dweller in wide heaven,* 

pp. 97-99, argues that it is a fragment of a pseudo-Plutarchean 
work, perhaps of the second cent, a.d., used in De Vita et 
Poesi Homeric chap. 149. F. della Corte, Riv. Fil., N.S. 
xvi (1938), p. 40, thinks that it is taken from a recension of 
a work by Plutarch, of which other versions are to be found 
in Pap. Lond. 734 and De Vita et Poesi Homeri. 

c Often spoken of as a Pythagorean practice. On Pytha- 
gorean interpretation of Homer see M. D6tienne, Homer e, 
Hesiode et Pythagore (Coll. Latomus lvii). 

d Iliad, ii. 246-247. 

• Odyssey, xix. 40 ; the first half of the line is correctly 
cited at Moralia, 762 e. 

381 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

imAafjLpavoiJLevos 6 rrarrjp €<f>rj, 

aiya /cat /caret gov voov loyave (JL-qS* epeetve- 

aVTTj TOL SlKTJ €GtI deCOV OL "OXvfJLTTOV e^OVGL. 

rovro iKGiyrjGiv 1 ol YYvQayopiKoi KaXovvres ovSev 
aTTtKpLvovTO roZs 77epi decov 6 rt 2 rv^oiev tra/xaj? 

/Cat €VX€p6>S ipOJTCOGl. 

*208 

Stobaeus, iv. 36. 23 (v, p. 873 Hense). 

Ylop(/>vpLOV €K rod 7T€pl Hrvyos* 

'H re trca avrrj top Kaprrov aVojSaAAet rrplv €K- 
dpeipcu- Sto " (hXeGLKapnov " 3 avrfjv 6 iroaqr^s ovo- 
/xa£et. /cat fievroi loToprjTou ws /xera olvov Sodels 
6 ravTiqs KCLprros ayovovs 770tet rou9 TTiovras /cat 
Karaoftevvvoi to OTrepfia /cat /xapatVet TTyv yovifiov 

OpfJLTjV. 

209 
Stobaeus, iv. 41. 57 (v, p. 944 Hense). 
'E/c rcov Ylop<f>vpLov nepl ^Irvyos 
"H re yap aiyeipos, cos (f>acnv aAAot re /cat 
HAovrapxos, (f>iAo7T€vdr]s /cat aTeArjs 4, npos Kapiro- 

1 iiyyqow mss., corrected by Gomperz from Eustathius, in 
Odyss. xxiv. 485, €Kaly7jms TlvdayopiKOiS rj aKpa oiyrj. 

2 Wyttenbach : otc. 

382 



OTHER FRAGMENTS 

his father restrained him with the words, 

Silence ! Repress your thought and ask no questions : 
The dwellers in Olympus have this right. 

The Pythagoreans called this " firm silence," and 
gave no answer to those who, recklessly and without 
qualms, put indiscriminate questions about the gods. 



*208* 

Porphyry, from the work On the Styx : 

This willow also drops its seed before ripening it, so 
that the poet calls it " seed-losing/ ' c It is indeed also 
recorded that, if given in wine, the seed of this tree 
makes those who drink it infertile, drying up the 
semen and withering their impulse to procreation. d 

209 
From Porphyry's On the Styx : 

The black poplar, as Plutarch and others say, is a 
sorrowful tree and unsuccessful in setting seed. 6 

a Odyssey, xix. 42-43. 

6 Claimed as Plutarchean by Bernardakis ; if in Porphyry 
it originally followed frag. 209 (note re . . . t*), there is a 
good chance that he was right. 

c Odyssey, x. 510 ; cited also by Theophrastus, Hist. 
Plant, iii. 1. 3. 

d Cf. Geoponica, xi. 13. 

* Its resinous discharge was supposed to be tears ; for its 
infertility cf. Theophrastus, Hist. Plant, iii. 4. 2, Arist. 
Oen. Animalium 726 a 7 : the fact is that the great majority 
of these trees are male. 

3 Gesner : oXccriKapiTov. 4 aTehrjs M : cvtcXtjs A. 

383 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

yovlav. 8lo kcu So^o/cAtJ? ev rioi 1 <f>rjOLV, 

ov xprj ttot dvdpcoTTiov 2 fieyav oAftov 0,770- 
fiXei/tar ravv(j>Aoiov yap loap,epios 
cf>vAAois rt? 3 alyeipov fiiorav a7roj8aAAei. 

210 
Stobaeus, iv. 50. 19 (v, p. 1024 Hense). 
YLAovrdpxov 
Ncots Se ^rjAcoreov rovs yepovras, Kara Htfiajvi- 

ddrjAos ltttto) ttcdAos cos dfjua Tptyeiv 

Kaddirep (frrjolv 6 UAdrcov irtl rod fjnyvvfjievov irpos 
vScop aKpdrov fiatvofievov deov irepco dea) vr]cf>ovri 
ooj<f>povi feudal . 

211 
Syncellus, Chronographia, i. 625 Dindorf. 

OvTOS KCLL TOV 'lovAiOV KdVoV / €VCL TWV UtOJLKOJV 

(f)cAocr6(f)a>v , dvelAe* irepl ov napdSo^ov "RAAtjolv, ojs 
Soklo, 7T€7rAaaTaL. dirayopbevos yap irpos to 9a- 
velv drapdxtos Aeyerai tlvl tcov iraipa>v 'Avrto^o) 
rovvofia, HeAevKet, ovveiro fievoj TTpoznreZv? ojs iv- 
rev^erai avrco Kara ttjv avrrjv vvKra fierd rrjv 

1 iv Trjpet Nauck, but see CI. Quart, ii, p. 216. 

2 dvdpajTTov Gleditsch. 

3 <£uAAois tls Pearson, adapting Gleditsch and Bergk : Sons. 

4 'Lrjfj wvlStjv Wilamowitz. 

5 Bernardakis : kovov (and kclvos below). 

6 Wyttenbach : Ttpoaenrelv. 

384 



OTHER FRAGMENTS 

Hence Sophocles in certain verses says : 

Never admire men's great prosperity ; 

A man's days are like the slender poplar's leaves, 

As quickly his life is gone." 



210 
From Plutarch : 

Young men should be ardent followers of the old — 
in Simonides' b words, 

Run like the just- weaned foal beside its dam. 

Similarly Plato, speaking of the mixture of wine with 
water, says that one god is chastened by another, a 
mad god by a sober. 

211 

He d also executed one of the Stoic philosophers, 
Julius Canus, about whom the Greeks have invented 
(or so I think) an extraordinary story. It is said that 
as he was being led away to his death he calmly 
prophesied to a friend who was accompanying him, 
Antiochus by name/ from Seleucia, that on the very 
night after his passing he would meet hirn and discuss 

° Frag. 535 Nauck (593 Pearson), probably from T-qpcvs. 
The meaning of ravv(f>\oLos is obscure, cf. Gow on Theocr. 
xxv. 250. 

b Really Semonides, frag. 5 Diehl, cited also at Moralia* 
84 n, 136 a, 446 e, 790 f, 997 d. 

c Laws, 773 d, cited also at Moralia, 15 e, 791 b. The frag- 
ment is either carelessly written or has suffered abbreviation. 
If the latter is the case, the source may be An Seni Sit 
Oerenda Res Publica, 790 f — 791 b. Stobaeus has other 
extracts from that work, some abbreviated (iii. 29. 85, p. 653 
Hense, iv. 4. 20, p. 189 Hense, iv. 13. 43, p. 363 Hense). 

d The emperor Gaius. * Not otherwise known. 

385 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

e£ohov Kal SiOLTroprjcFei tl tcov O7rov8fjs dtjicov, Kal 
on fxerd rpels rj/juepas 'PeKros, eh tcov eraipcov y 
V7t6 Yatov cfiovevOrjoeraL. a Kal yeyovev, rod puev 
dvatpeOevros rpiraiov, rod S' J Avtloxov r'qv err- 
oipiav elnovrog rfjs vvktos, otl travels 'IovAto? 
KaVo9 ra Trepl hiapbovrjs rrjs ipvxfjs Kal Kadapco- 
repov 1 </>cotos /xera rrjv e£o&ov Sirjyrjoaro. ravra 
UXovrapxos 6 Xatpcovevs loropel. 

212 

Theodoretus, Cur. Graec. Affect, i. 468 a. 

"Ore 8e Kal rcov Alovvolcov Kal rcov TlavaOrj- 
vaicov Kal p,evTot rcov Qeofjuocpopicov Kal tcov 'EAeu- 
oivlcov rds reXeras 'Op<j>evs, dvrjp 'OSpvorjs, els rds 
Adrjvas eKopaoe, Kal els AtyvTrrov dcfuKopievos ra 
rrjs "laiSos Kal rod 'OolpiSos els ra rfjs Arjovs Kal 
rod Alovuoov fieraredetKev opyia, oihaoKei jjiev 
UXovrapxos 6 eK Xaipcoveias rrjs Houorias. . . . 

213 
Theodoretus, Cur. Graec, Affect, i. 510 b. 
Upcorovs Oeovs evopaoav Kal AlyvTrrioi Kal Oot- 
viKes Kal fxevroi Kal "1iLXXr)ves tJXlov Kal creXrjvrjv 
Kal ovpavov Kal yrjv Kal raXXa oroixeta* rovro yap 
8rj Kal 6 UXdrcov Kal 6 HiKeXicbrr)s AioScopos /cat 
6 Xatpcovevs eoiha^e UXovrapxos. 
1 Goar : Kadapcordpas, 
386 



OTHER FRAGMENTS 

an important subject, and that Rectus, 6 one of his 
friends, would be murdered by Gaius in three days' 
time. These things did in fact happen. Rectus was 
executed three days later, and Antiochus told of a 
nocturnal vision, in which Julius Canus appeared and 
informed him of the survival of the soul and the purer 
light that succeeds its passing. This story is recorded 
by Plutarch of Chaeronea. c 

212 

Plutarch of Chaeronea in Boeotia informs us that 
the rites of the Dionysia and of the Panathenaic 
festival, and indeed those of the Thesmophoria and 
of the Eleusinian mysteries, were imported into 
Attica by Orpheus, an Odrysian, and that after 
visiting Egypt he transplanted the ritual of Isis and 
Osiris into the ceremonies of Deo and Dionysus . d 

213 

Both the Egyptians and the Phoenicians, and in- 
deed the Greeks too, thought that the first gods 
were the sun and moon and heavens and the earth 
and the rest of the elements. Plato, 6 Diodorus 
Siculus/ and Plutarch of Chaeronea have informed 
us of this. 

° Seneca. De Tranquillitate Animi, 14. 4-9, recounts the 
death of Julius Canus and how he promised to return to tell 
his friends " quis esset animarum status." 

b Not otherwise known. 

c Patzig suggests with some plausibility that the source is 
the work On the Soul ; compare fragments 173, 176. 

d Cf. Herodotus, ii. 81, Diodorus Siculus, i. 11, 13, Or- 
phica, frag. 237 Kern. 

• ? Laws, 887 e. ' i. 96. 

387 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

*21i 
Tzetzes, Chiliades, i. 812-820. 
Hepl rod Ijiariov ' AvricrOevovs HvfSaptrov 

ToLOVTOV TO LjJbOLTLOV V7T7J PX €V * AvTloOtVOVS ' 

rjv govgov 1 dXovpyes TTevreKatSeKaTrrjxvalov , 

%X ov ^ v ^ oa KaL Qeovs /cat HepotKa /cat Soucra, 2 

fjuapydpoLS rjoKrjjjbeva re /cat XlOols rt/xaA^eat, 

X€ipi8i 8e darepa puev et^e rov 9 AvTLG0evrjv 

ev 8e darepa J^vftapiv, rrjv ttoXiv * Avriodevovs . 

tovto 8e AioinjGtos 6 rrporepos /cpai rjGag 

ct9 eKarov /cat clkogl rdXavra vofjaGpLarcov 

Kapx^ooviOLS ep,7ToXel. UXovrapxos otjitat ypd(f)€L. 

EX TON TOT XAIPQNEQZ 

These notes are found in a number of mss., all descending 
from Marc. gr. 196 ofiocjoc cent., which contains matter from 
two sources, one providing a number of commentaries on 
Platonic dialogues by Olympiodorus, the other a collection of 
notes, of mixed origin, on the Phaedo. Among this collection 
are three sets of matter which claim to be derived from 
Plutarch ; unfortunately the ms., although indicating the 
beginning, does not indicate the end of the second set. Wytten- 
bach, who first discovered it (in a later ms.), certainly in- 
cluded too much, and later editors of Plutarch have followed 
him. I agree with Finckh and Norvin, the editors of 
Olympiodorus, that only the first five notes b in this set are of 
Plutarchean origin : what follows has a different, less indi- 
vidual, scholastic character. The third set of matter has the 
same ultimate origin as the other two, with which it has 

1 ty o y avro fiev Ps.-Arist. (see note a). Tzetzes' motives 
and meaning in writing govgov are obscure. 

2 Cf. Ps.-Arist., dvcouev fiev Zovoois (perhaps read Unvdais) 
Karajdzv he UcpGais. 

388 






OTHER FRAGMENTS 

*214 

On the cloak of Antisthenes of Sybaris : 

The manner of Antisthenes' cloak was like this. 
It was lovely as a lily (?), dyed purple, and fifteen 
cubits long, with animals upon it and gods and 
Persian scenes and Susa, all these tricked out with 
pearls and precious stones. On one sleeve was repre- 
sented Antisthenes himself, on the other Sybaris, 
his native city. This cloak was sold by Dionysius the 
First, after he had got possession of it, to the Cartha- 
ginians for one hundred and twenty talents in cash. 
Plutarch, I think, a tells the story. 

EXTRACTS FROM THE CHAERONEAN 

many coincidences, but has been further abbreviated and 
modified inform. It is impossible to say what was the title 
or titles of the work or works thus laid under contribution. 
Possible candidates from the Lamprias Catalogue are nos. 
48, 177, 209, and 226. 

Ziegler, R.E. xxi. 7-53, is doubtful whether the fragments 
have anything to do with Plutarch, thinking that they are at 
best notes found among his papers. The coincidence between 
frag. 215 (k) and Moralia, 537 a, however, supports the ascrip- 
tion. Zeller, Phil. d. Griechen, Hi. 2. 808 3 , supposed the 
extracts to be taken from the neo-Platonist Plutarch ; this 
view is rejected by W. Norvin, Olympiodorus fra Alexandria, 
p. 124, and R. Beutler, R.E. xxi. 970, s.v. " Plutarchos von 
Athen." 

a No trust should be put in what Tzetzes thought or pre- 
tended to think. He derived the story from Ps.-Aristotle, Mi- 
rab. Auscult. c. 96, cf. Athenaeus, xii. 541 a, where the owner 
of the cloak is called Alcisthenes ( Alcimenes in some mss.). 

b Doubt is possible about the sixth and seventh, which I 
have therefore included, but marked as uncertain. 

389 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 
215 

(a) "On ov to €ttigt7]t6v airiov rrjs eTTLOTrnxrjs, 
<hs 'A/o/cecrt'Aaos" ovtoj yap /cat dv€7noTrnjLoovvr] rrjs 
€7TLGTrjijLr]9 atrta (fxiveiTai. 

(b) "Otl oz>x rj ^xh ^pcrrce iavTrjv els ttjv tcov 
rrpayfidrajv KaraX-qifjiv /cat aTrdr-qv Kara, tovs and 
rrjs Uroas. 77609 yap alria iavrfj yvwoews rj ipv\r] 
/cat ayyota?, p,f)iru) avrds e^ovoa dpyrp>; 

(c) "On p,6va) rep UXdrajvL pqorov anohovvai 
tov Xoyov, et? Xrjdrjv /cat avd/JLvrjacv ava<f>epovn ttjv 
yvcjGiv /cat ttjv dyvoiav. 

(d) "On €V€icriv fjiev at iTTiarrjjxai, Kprjirrovrai S' 

V7TO TOJV dXXoJV €7T€lOOolo)V OfJLOlOJS Tjj V7TO A^jLta- 

pdrov TTepb^Oeiurj SeXrco. 

(e) "On /cat to t^rjTelv /cat to evploKeiv StjXol ttjv 
dvdfJLvrjow ovre yap t^rrjoeiev dv ns ov eanv 
av€vv6r)TOS ovt dv evpoi Sta ye ^-qriqoeojs' Ae'yerat 
yap evploKtiv /cat o /cara nepiTTTOJOiv. 

{f) "On dnopov ovtojs €l olov re ^rjretv /cat 

€VpLOK€LV, d)S €V M.€VO)VL 7TpO^€^XrjraL' OVT€ yap d 

iofjuev, fJLaraiov yap' ovre a (jltj tcr/xev, /caV yap nepL- 
Treaojpbev avrols, dyvoovpuev, ws rot? Tvypvoiv. oi 
fiev yap HeptTrarrjnKOL tov hvvdjxei vovv €7T€v6rjoav 
rjfieZs S' r)7TOpoviJL€V and tov ivepyeiq etSeVat /cat 
jjLrj eioevac. €otoj yap etvat tov Svvdpbet vovv, dAA' 
ert drropia rj avTrj' ttcos yap ovtos voet; 7} yap a 



Herodotus, vii. 239. b 81 d. 

c Aristotle, de Anima^ 429 a 15. 



390 



OTHER FRAGMENTS 

215 

(a) That it is untrue that that which can be known 
is the cause of knowledge, as Arcesilaus maintained, 
since if this is so lack of knowledge will turn out to 
be a cause of knowledge. 

(6) That it is untrue that the soul turns itself to the 
apprehension of facts and to error, as the Stoics 
maintain. For how can the soul be the cause of its 
own knowing or its own ignorance, if it does not 
already possess these things to begin with ? 

(c) That a very easy explanation is open to Plato 
and to him alone, when he traces knowing and igno- 
rance to forgetting and recollection. 

(d) That various items of knowledge exist in us but 
are hidden under other supervening things, as with 
the tablet dispatched by Demaratus. a 

(e) That both search and discovery prove the exist- 
ence of recollection, since no-one could search for a 
thing of which he had no conception nor could he 
discover it — at least not by searching. We do also 
say, of course, that a man who comes across a thing 
makes a discovery. 

(f) That the problem advanced in the Meno, b 
namely whether search and discovery are possible, 
leads to a real impasse. For we do not, on the one 
hand, try to find out things we know — a futile pro- 
ceeding — nor, on the other, things we do not know, 
since even if we come across them we do not recog- 
nize them : they might be anything. The Peripa- 
tetics introduced the conception of " potential intui- 
tion " c ; but the origin of our difficulty was actual 
knowing and not knowing. Even if we grant the 
existence of potential intuition, the difficulty remains 
unchanged. How does this intuition operate ? It 

391 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

oioev 7] a ovk oioev. ol o arro ttjs Zjtocls tols 
<j)voiKas evvoias alricovrai' el jxev 8rj Swdfiei, ravro 
epov^iev. el S' evepyeia, Std rt ^rjrovfJLev a LGfiev; 
el 8' 0,770 tovtcdv dXXa ayvoovjievay ttcos direp ovk 
lafxev; ol YLmKovpeioi ras tt poXrjifje is ' a? el p,ev 
hir)p6ptx)iievas (f)aoi, rrepiTTr) rj ^rjTrjcris' el S' dSiap- 
dpOJTOVSy 77609 dXXo TL TTCLpCL ras 7rpoXrjipeLS ern^r)- 
rovfjbev, 6 ye ovSe TrpoeiXri^apLev ; 

(g) "Otl koll r) dXrjdeia to oVo/za SrjAol Xrjdrjs 
eKpoArjv eivai tt]v eTnoTfjfjirjv, 6 eoTiv dvapLvrjais . 

{h) "Oti /ecu ol jJLTjTepa tlov Mouoojv tt)v M.Vr][JLO- 
ovvrjv elrrovTes avTO tovt evoeiKVWTai' at p,ev yap 
Movoai to ^rjTelv napeypvTai, rj 8e M.vrj[jboovvrj to 
evpiGKeiv. 

(i) "On koll ol ttoAAol to dyvoeiv eTriXeXyjodai 
XeyovTes tco olvto) fiapTvpovGi' Xavddveiv yap rjjJL&s 
(frafiev direp dyvoovfiev, Kal Aadpala Trpdyp.ara /ca- 
Aovfjuev ra dyvoov\ieva. 

U) 'Otl Kal TrpofiiOTfjs dvafJLvrjaeis iGTopovvTai, 
ola Kal r) tov Mvpojvos. 

(k) "On Kal ogol yaXrjv <f>ofiovvTai rj oavpov r) 
XeXwprjv, ovs elhevai avTos' Kal 6 Tifiepiov dSeA- 
(f>i8ovs dpKTovs drjpcov Kal XeovTas, SfJbOJS dXeKTpv- 

a Stoicorum Veterum Fragmenta, ii. 104. 

6 Usener, Epicurea, p. 188. 25. 

c Plato, Theaetetus, 191 d ; [Plutarch], Be Liberis Edu- 
candis, 9 d ; Plutarch, Mor. 744 b ; Cornutus, chap. 14, 
KaXovvrat 8e Mouctcu oltto rfjs ficouecos, tovtzotl ^rjTijaeajs. 

d In Greek the three words all contain the root lath- 9 
" escape notice." 

e The experience was that of Myron's boy-minion, who 
remembered that in a previous existence he had driven a 
lover, whom he had refused, to drown himself; Aeneas of 
Gaza, Theophrastus, p. 19 Boissonade, Migne, lxxxv. 904. 

392 



OTHER FRAGMENTS 

must be either on what it knows or on what it does 
not know. The Stoics make the " natural concep- 
tions " responsible. a If these are potential, we shall 
use the same argument as against the Peripatetics ; 
and if they are actual, why do we search for what we 
know ? And if we use them as a starting-point for a 
search for other things that we do not know, how do 
we search for what we do not know ? The Epicureans 
introduce " preconceptions " ; if they mean these to 
be " articulated," search is unnecessary ; if un- 
articulated," how do we extend our search beyond 
our preconceptions, to look for something of which 
we do not possess even a preconception ? b 

(g) That the word aletheia (truth) also proves know- 
ledge to be a casting-out of lethe (forgetting), and 
this is recollection. 

(h) That they also indicate the same thing by 
calling the Mother of the Muses Mnemosyne (Me- 
mory), since the Muses are the cause of search and 
memory the cause of discovery. 

(i) That ordinary men too give evidence of the 
same thing when they call not knowing something 
being " oblivious of it." We say that what we do 
not know " escapes us," and we call things that are 
unknown " secrets." d 

(j) That there are also recorded stories of the 
recollection of a previous existence, like for example 
the experience of Myron. 65 

(k) That (similar evidence is) also (given by) all 
those who are frightened of weasels, or lizards, or 
tortoises : he says that he personally knew such indi- 
viduals. And Tiberius 's nephew f used to hunt bears 
and lions, but could not abide even the sight of a 

f Germanicus, cf. De Invidia et Odio, 537 a. 

393 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

ova ot)S' tSetv rjSvvaro' (f)app,aK07Ta)Xr]v Se riva 
etSe'rat vtto jiev SpaKovrajv /cat doTTihojv fJbrjSev ttcl- 
oyeiVy fJbvcoTra Se <f>evyeiv /xe'^pt fiofjs /cat e/coracreojs' . 
@€fJLLaa)v S' 6 larpos ra puev aAAa 7rddrj iravra 
fierex^^pi^ero, rov S' vSpocfroflav et ns /cat aVd/xaae 
fjbovov, irapdrrero /cat o/xota eVacr^e rots' U7r' aOrot; 
/care^o/xeVots" c5v alriav elvai rrjv dvdfJLvrjoLV rrjg 
7T porr ad eias. 

(I) "Otl at Ttbv TTpOTTaOeicov a^oSporepat rv- 
ttovgl rds [JLvrjiJLas et? 8vo yeveoevs' olov to IIoAe- 
fidpxov /cat Tcbv iv KootV#oj vtto tlq /xeyaAa> oeiop,a) 
/cat to iv 'A/xopya* rou ArjfjLr^rpLov iyyeypapLfxivov 
rep rd(/)Cx). 

(m) "Ort o/xota ndoxovoi /cat ot irorapLovs fJL&X- 
Xov 7} OdXarrav SeSoiKores /cat ot 77009 ra {^77 
raparrd/xevot. 



216 

Ilapa rod avrov ovordoeis erepar 

(«) "Ort ra veoyevrj rratSia dpLeiSrj ion /cat 
dypiov /JAeVet p-e'^pt rpicov a^eSdv ejSSo/xaSojv, U77- 
vcoTrovra rov irXeioj xpovov aAA' ojjlojs 7707-e /ca#' 
vttvovs /cat TToAAa/cts' yeAa /cat Sta^etTat. TtVa ouv 
rpoTTOv aAAoy tovto ot>p,j8atVet, 77 7-779 ipvxfjs Tore 
diro rrjs Stvrjs rov l^cpov dvacfrepovorjs /cat /cara ra? 
iavrrjs TrpoiradeLas KivovjAevrjs ; 

On the meaning of 8pa/ca>v, when not a generic term 
for " snake," see Gow's note on Nicander, Theriaca, 438. 

394 



OTHER FRAGMENTS 

cock. He says, too, that he knew an apothecary who 
was unaffected by pythons and cobras, but would run 
away from a gadfly, actually shrieking and becoming 
quite distracted. The physician Themison b would 
handle any disease except hydrophobia : if that were 
even mentioned, he would be disturbed and suffer 
symptoms like those of patients in the grip of that 
disease. These phenomena, he says, are all caused 
by recollecting an experience in a previous life. 

(I) That the more violent previous experiences 
make an imprint on the memory for two reincarna- 
tions, for example the case of Polemarchus and the 
events in Corinth due to the great earthquake, and 
the inscription on the tomb of Demetrius at Amorgos. d 

(m) That those who are more frightened of rivers 
than the sea and those who are upset by heights are 
similarly affected by a previous experience. 



216 

Further proofs from the same source : 

(a) That new-born babies do not smile but have a 
fierce look for about three weeks, sleeping most of 
the time. But all the same at times in their sleep they 
often laugh and relax. Now how else can this come 
about, unless the soul then withdraws from the vortex 
of animal life and its motions depend upon its own 
previous experiences ? 

6 Founder of the " methodic " school of medicine, prac- 
tised in Italy in the early first cent. a.d. 

c Or possibly " and of those who were in Corinth at the 
time of the earthquake." 

d No other reference to these stories has been found. 

395 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(b) "On /cat at 7rpos rdSe r) rd8e eixfrvtcu tovtov 

aTTOpCLLVOVGl TOV TpOTTOV. 

(c) "Otl to jxev XeyeLV ovtco rre^vKevaL irayy re 

KoX ISlOOTLKOV Kol dpKOVV 77009 TTaOCLV OSTTOKpiOlV. 

dXX olov to TT€(f>VK€vai tpf]Tr\T€ov ofjucos' dXXo yap 
dXXov, obs ttjs XoyiKrjs ipvxrjs to diro tcov irpoeyvoo- 
opLevoov tol TrapovTGL dvayvoopi^eLV . 

(d) "Oti eocodev eK(f>epofJLev Tag tcov tpr\Tr\\LdTC0V 
eTTLOTTj^as, SrjXol to irpos tt)v evpeoLV gvvt€lvo- 
puevovs elooo pXeneiv. 

(e) "Otl /cat r) evcfypoovvr) rj eiri toZs euor^tacrt 
SrjXol tov dvayvcopiOfiov ttjs otl /xaAiora ot/ceta? 
rjfilv dXrjdeias ev too pLeooo xpovoo olov drToXo[LevrjS . 

*(f) 'Otl Btojv rjnopei rrepl tov ipevSovs, el /cat 
avTo kot dvdfjbvrjoiv obs tovvolvtlov ye, r) oil' /cat 
tl rj dXoyia. rj prjTeov obs /cat tovto yiyveTai /cara 
to etSooXov tov dXrjdovs ; to S' eiSooXov etvau tovto, 
oirep dXrjdes ovk dv tl? vopuioeLev, el prq rrrj elSeLij 
to dXrjOes ; 

*{g) "Otl YiTpaTOov rjiropeL, el eoTLV dvdpLvrjoLS, 
iroos dvev drroheL^eoov ov yLyvopueOa eTTLOTrjpLoves* 
ttcos S' ovSels avXrjTrjs r) KL0apLOTrjs yeyovev dvev 
/jbeXeTTjs. r) jxdXLOTa puev yeyovaoi TLves auroSt- 
Sa/CTOt* 'Hoa/cAetTO?, 6 AlyvnTLOS yeoopyos, O77- 
fJLios 6 'OfJifjpov, 'AydOapxos 6 ypa<f)evs. efra /cat 
at iftvxal 7roXXcp too Kapoo Kareyop>€vaL Trjs yeveoeoos 
TToXXrjs rrpos dvapivrjoLV SeovTCLL ttjs /xo^Aeta?* 8lo 
/cat tcov alodrjTcov XPT}^>° VCJIV '• 

a The inventor of agriculture. 
6 Odyssey, xxii. 347. 

396 



OTHER FRAGMENTS 

(6) That natural abilities, too, for this or for that, 
come about in the same way. 

(c) That to say " that's its nature " is a clumsy 
amateurish phrase, that will serve as a reply to any- 
thing. It does not avoid the necessity of inquiring 
what sort of a thing this " nature " is. The nature 
of one thing differs from that of another ; thus the 
nature of the rational soul is to recognize what is be- 
fore it from what was previously known. 

(d) That we educe our understanding of problems 
from inside ourselves is shown by the fact that when 
we are concentrating on a discovery we look inwards. 

(e) That our delight in our discoveries shows us to 
be recognizing truth that was absolutely our own 
but had been lost, as it were, in the meantime. 

*(f) That Bion raised a difficulty about false belief, 
whether like its opposite it, too, arises by way of 
recollection, or not. He also asked what irrationality 
is. Should we say that false belief arises by way of 
an image of the truth ? And that this image is a thing 
one would not suppose to be true, unless one had 
some sort of knowledge of the truth ? 

*(g) That Strato raised this difficulty : if" remem- 
bering is a fact, how is it that we do not become 
possessed of knowledge without demonstrative proof ? 
And how is it that no-one has become a flute-player 
or a harp-player without practice ? Or have there in 
fact been some self-taught men — Heraclitus, the 
Egyptian farmer, a Homer's Phemius, 6 the painter 
Agatharchus ? c Then souls are overcome by much 
drowsiness at birth and need much therapeutic exer- 
cise if they are to recollect. And this is why they 
require sense-objects. 

c An Athenian painter of the first half of the fifth cent. B.C. 

397 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

217 

^KTnx^iprjfJbdrcov 8ia<f>6pojv avvaycoyrj SetKvvvrajv 
ava^vrjoeis elvai ras puaOrjoreiS €K rcov rod Xatpoo- 
vetos UXovrdpxov 

(a) Et a</>' irepov erepov ivvoovfiev. ovk av et 

flTj TTpOeyVCDGTO. TO llTiyeip^a HXaTOJViKOV. 

(b) Et TrpouriOepbev to iAAelirov rots alcrOrjTOLS' 
kcll avro HXarCOVLKOV. 

(c) Et TraZSes evpuadeorepOL, ws iyylovs rfjs irpo- 
pLorfjs, iv fj 1 rj p>vrjp,rj iocp^ero. emrroAaios 6 Aoyos. 

(d) El d'AAot Trpos aAAo p,ddr)fjLa iTTLTrjSeiorepoi. 

(e) Et 7toAAol avTo8l8aKTOL oAtov reyvdv. 

(f) Et 7roAAa 7ratSta vttvcottovtcl yeAa, virap S' 
ovnoj' 7roXAd 8e kcll ovap 2 €(/)6€y£aTO y dAAoJS OV7TOJ 
c/yOeyyofJLeva. 

(g) Et €vioi /cat av8peloi ovres opucos (faofiovvTCu 
<f>avX drra, olov yaArjv 7} dAeKrpvova, air* ovSepu&s 
<f>avepas curias . 

(h) Et purj eonv aAAcos 1 evpioKeiv. oiire yap a 
iafiev tpTjrrioeiev av ns, ovre a pLrjSapbcos tcrpbev rrpo- 
repov, aAA' ouS' av evpoipuev a pur] tofiev. 

(i) Et rj aArjdeia Kar d(j>aipeoiv rijs Arjdrjs eV- 
t€v£ls tov ovros iari. AoyiKrj rj €7ri)(€ipr]Gis . 

(j) Et rj p>r)T7]p rcov Movoa>v MvrjpLoovvrj, ojs rj 
d8idp9pa)TOS pbvripbr) rcov tpfyrr^oeojv atria. 

1 & $] $s Duebner. 2 ovap F. H. S. : vnap. 

a Phaedo, 73 d. 
6 Phaedo, 74 d. 

c See O. Luschnat, "Autodidaktos," Theologia Viatorum, 
viii (1962), p. 167. 

398 



OTHER FRAGMENTS 

217 

A collection of various arguments to show that 
acts of learning are acts of remembering, from Plu- 
tarch of Chaeronea : 

(a) Whether we think of one thing from another. 
We should not unless it had been known previously. 
The argument is Platonic. 

(6) Whether we mentally add to percepts that by 
which they are deficient. This too is Platonic. b 

(c) Whether children are quicker to learn, as being 
nearer to the previous existence, in which memory 
was retained. The argument is an obvious one. 

(d) Whether men differ in their capacity for differ- 
ent kinds of learning. 

(e) Whether many men have taught themselves 
complete skills. 

(f) Whether many babies laugh in their sleep, 
though they do not yet do so when awake ; and 
many have spoken in their sleep, at a time when they 
still did not do so otherwise. 

(g) Whether some men, although brave, are yet 
afraid of some ordinary things, such as a weasel or a 
cock, for no obvious reason. 

(h) Whether discovery is otherwise impossible ; 
for none of us would search for what we know, nor 
for what we do not know at all previously, but we 
could not even find what we do not know. 

(i) Whether truth (aletheia) is to have converse 
with reality, by way of removal of oblivion (lethe). 
The argument is a verbal one. 

(j) Whether the mother of the Muses is Mnemo- 
syne (Memory), since inarticulate memory is the 
cause of our inquiries. 

399 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(k) Et, airep dSvvarov yiyvojoKeiv, ovhe tpqrov- 
fj,€V. dXXd to eTTiy€ipv)iLa rrdXiv <xtt6 rfjs evpeoeajs. 

(1) Ei rod ovros rj ev peats ttolvtcos, on koI 
deajprjfjLdrajv koll ttov ovv ovtcjv; tj SrjXov on ev 



400 



OTHER FRAGMENTS 

(k) Whether we do not even look for what it is 
impossible to know. But this argument once again 
starts from the fact of discovery. 

(/) Whether discovery is necessarily of what exists, 
since it is of objects of mental vision. And where then 
do these exist ? Is it not clear that it is in the soul ? 



401 



APPENDIX A 

OTHER PSEUDEPIGRAPHA 

Tradition as much as logic dictates the choice of 
spurious works to be printed in an edition of Plutarch. 
I give here a brief account of such as have found no 
place in the Loeb Classical Library. 

1. John of Salisbury's Policraticus (xii cent.) con- 
tains extracts in Latin from an alleged letter of Plu- 
tarch to the emperor Trajan (Bernardakis vii, pp. 
182-193). S. Desideri, La " Institutio Traiani," Ge- 
nova, 1958, concludes that there never was a Greek 
version, and that the forgery originated in the fourth 
or fifth century a.d. 

2. De Vita et Poesi Homeri (Bernardakis vii, pp. 
329-462) was included by Planudes in his Corpus 
Plutarcheum but, unlike such other spuria as he 
accepted, has been banished by more recent editors 
to an appendix. In its present form a it cannot be 
by Plutarch, but some scholars have held that it in- 
corporates material from some lost Plutarchean work. 6 
Coincidences between it and genuine works are, 

a Or forms : there are two differing versions, and extracts 
from a third in Stobaeus, who does not ascribe them to any 
author. 

b B. Baedorf, De Plutarchi quae fertur Vita Homeri, 
Miinster, 1891 ; A. Ludwich, Rh. Mus. lxxii (1917-1918), 
pp. 537 ff., an important article ; Bernardakis, vii, pp. xi ff. 

403 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

however, plausibly to be explained as due to common 
sources in the wealth of ancient Homeric exegesis. a 

3. De Metris (Bernardakis vii, pp. 465-472) is an 
elementary manual, ascribed to various authors in 
different manuscripts. 

4. De Fluviis (Bernardakis vii, pp. 282-328), pre- 
served in Pal. gr. 398 only, contains mythological 
material and stories about plants and stones, laced 
with references to authors who are largely fictitious. 
It seems to be a fairly early forgery (see p. 2), per- 
haps by the same man who concocted the Parallela 
Minora (see L.C.L., Plutarch's Moralia, vol. iv, p. 254). 

5. The third book of Zenobius' collection of pro- 
verbs has the subscription UXovrapxov 7rapoi/ncu afs 
'A\e£av8peis k\pQ>vTo. This was shown by O. Crusius, 
Plutarchi de proverbiis Alexandrinorum, Leipzig, 1887, 
to be a misplaced heading for a succeeding set of 
proverbs, which he there first published, claiming 
that it is a genuine work by Plutarch, entered in the 
Lamprias Catalogue as no. 142. Wilamowitz, in a 
Gottingen programme of 1888, replied that it was a 
mere compilation from Seleucus (an author who lived 
in the first half of the first century a.d.), and had been 
fathered on Plutarch to make it sell. 6 This seems to 
me to be highly probable : it is noteworthy that none 
of the material used in explanation of the proverbs is 
alluded to in any of the genuine works, whereas one 
or two of the proverbs are differently explained. 
Crusius, however, continued to maintain that the 
collection, although based on Seleucus, either con- 
tains c or may contain d additional material supplied 

° So Ziegler, R.E. xxi. 878. 

6 Cf. his Commentariolus Grammaticus, iii (1880), p. xxiv. 
c Ad Plutarchi de proverbiis Alexandrinorum commen- 
tarius (1895). * Sitz. Bericht. Miinchen, 1910, p. 109. 

404 



APPENDIX A 

by Plutarch ; and K. Rupprecht, R.E. xviii. 1763- 
1764, s.v. " Paroemiographi, ,, accepts the view that 
we have a Plutarchean version of Seleucus. Since 
the style is basically not one we associate with Plu- 
tarch, and since it is impossible to identify any specific 
elements as Plutarchean, it seems reasonable to ex- 
clude the work from this collection of fragments , a 

6. Leutsch-Schneidewin, Paroemiographi graeci, i 
343, print from Vat. gr. 16 a small collection of pro- 
verbs headed YLXovrdp^ov eKXoyrj irepl twv dSwartov. 
Although this is reprinted by Bernardakis, vii, pp 
463-464, the ascription to Plutarch is worthless. h 

7. De Nobilitate (Bernardakis vii, pp. 194-281) is a 
forgery made by someone with an imperfect know- 
ledge of Greek, who passed off his work as Plutarch's 
In it he embedded fragments from various authors 
that he found in Stobaeus, including frags. 139-141 
of this edition. The whereabouts of the original, if 
it still exists, are unknown, but an abbreviated version 
is found in a ms. of the Hamburg Stadtsbibliothek, 
Philol. gr. ii. 4 C, which also contains transcripts of 
the same text made by J. Grammius and J. L. 
Mosheim ; these are the origins of the texts pub- 
lished by Fabricius in his Bibliotkeca Graeca, xii (1724) 
and J. C. Wolf in his Anecdota Graeca, iv (1724), pp. 
173 ff. A longer text is known from a Latin version 
published by Arnoldus Ferronus (Arnoul le Ferron, 
1515-1563) at Lyon in 1556. All this was established 
by M. Treu, Zur Geschichte der Vberlieferung von Plu- 
tarchs Moralia, iii, Breslau, 1884. His guess, however, 

° Cf. Bernardakis' rejection of it, vii, pp. xliv-xlivi. Cru- 
sius' text has been reprinted in Corpus Paroem. graec, Sup- 
plementurn (1961). 

5 No. 29 should be corrected to read 'AAiet dporpov (for 
dvrpov) TTapi\€iS. 

405 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

that the original Greek was to be found in the 
Phillips ms. 4326 was wrong ; that ms., acquired in 
1892 by the Deutsche Staatsbibliothek, Berlin, and 
now Lat. oct. 160, Plutarchus de nobilitate, is in Latin ; 
in 1962 it was at Marburg in the care of the West- 
deutsche Bibliothek, having been sent away for safety 
during the war of 1939-1945 and never recovered. 

Ferronus' version was reprinted, with minor changes, 
by J. C. Wolf, he. cit., and later editors, including 
Bernardakis. In his dedicatory epistle he says 
nothing of a Greek original, merely " offerimus Plu- 
tarchi Chaeronensis libellum magna cura conscrip- 
tum. ,, His Latin, however, contains errors only 
explicable as translations of a corrupt Greek text. 

a An unexplained fact is that a manuscript note in the 
catalogue at Berlin, written by Valentin Rose, ascribes the 
text of Lat. oct. 160 to Johannes Bonacursius de Montemagno 
(G. Buonaccorsi, d. 1429) with the title " de nobilitate ad 
Carolum de Malatestis." Another ms. of the Berlin collec- 
tion, said also to be currently at Marburg, Lat. quart. 451, 
contains " Bonacursius de nobilitate." I owe this informa- 
tion to the kindness of Dr Ursula Altmann of the Deutsche 
Staatsbibliothek ; I have been unable to learn more from 
Marburg. 



406 



APPENDIX B 

Fragmenta incerta 8-130 of Bernardakis' edition are 
taken from various gnomologia and anthologies : 
none of them deserves a place in an edition of Plu- 
tarch's fragments, although the majority may be 
derived from a collection of sentences fathered on 
him in antiquity. The extremely involved story of 
these " fragments " was unravelled by A. Elter in 
his Gnomica Homoeomata, Bonn, 1900-1904. Most of 
them come from the Eclogae ascribed to Maximus the 
Confessor (7th cent, a.d.), but probably of a later date, 
and from other anthologies which derived from this. 
Wyttenbach began their assembly, using the Melissa 
of Antonius and a gnomologium appended to John 
of Damascus in Laur. 8. 22, as well as Maximus him- 
self. a For Maximus he had recourse to Gesner's 
popular edition of 1581, which omits many lemmata 
and alters others. He was not content, however, 
merely to collect sentences ascribed in Gesner's text 
to Plutarch ; he included some others in which he 
thought he detected Plutarchean colour. At one 
place, nevertheless, he expresses scepticism about 
the Plutarchean origin of all this material, which con- 
stitutes his fragmenta incerta f to rra. These were 
reprinted almost without change by Hutten (whence 

° For the sake of simplicity I write Maximus, not " Maxi- 
mus." 

407 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

some 35 found their way to Orelli's Opuscula Graecorum 
veterum sententiosa et moralia and so to Mullach's Frag- 
mented Philosophorum Graecorum) and by Duebner. 
Bernardakis reproduced Wyttenbaeh's f'-of, 077'- 
irof as 8-78, 80-83, a and then added as 79, 84-100 
material which he found for the most part in manu- 
scripts of Maximus or in the editio princeps of that 
author or in the derivative Melissa of Antonius. He 
again was not guided solely by the lemmata : for 
example his 79 has in Maximus the lemma 2o>k/xitoi>s. 
Neither his motives nor his exact sources are always 
obvious : a few passages are taken from Stobaeus ; 
this he records, but does not add that Stobaeus does 
not ascribe them to Plutarch. Among the effects of 
his procedure is the inclusion of three passages from 
Isocrates or pseudo-Isocrates, one from Clement of 
Alexandria, and one from Dio Chrysostom. b 

The larger part of the material drawn from Maxi- 
mus consists of similes or of quasi-similes in the form 
of antitheses, Elter's " homoeomata. ,, Many of these 
are found in other places, ascribed to Socrates, Pytha- 
goras, Demophilus, Demonax, etc., while Stobaeus 
attributes some to the Tomaria of Aristonymus. 
Elter showed that these ascriptions are names for a 
number of overlapping selections from a great primary 
collection of such similitudes. In some gnomologia 
groups of these homoeomata bear the name of Plu- 
tarch, and allow the reconstruction of a selection that 
was fathered on him : 232 items can be assigned to 
it, perhaps fewer than the original total. Elter 

For Wyttenbaeh's /c8', which is to be found in Moralia, 
523 e, he followed Duebner in substituting 25, itself also an 
unrecognized extract, discovered in the Violetum of Arsenius, 
from a surviving work, Moralia, 780 b. 

6 L. Friichtel, Philologische Wochenschrift, 1936, col. 1439. 

408 



APPENDIX B 

guesses that this " Plutarch " may have been formed 
in the second century, a time when other works were 
falsely ascribed to him. The true Plutarch was very 
fond of similes, but the collection does not seem to 
have drawn on him ; only one or two of those it 
contains can be found, and then not verbatim, in his 
surviving works. Another selection of these homoeo- 
mata contributed to a gnomologium reconstructed by 
C. Wachsmuth, Griechische Gnomologien, pp. 162 ff., 
which was apparently entitled Ik tmv Aij/xoKpcrov 
'lo-oKpoLTovs 3 E7TLKTr)Tov. a This had an infusion of 
ethical yv&fiai, not in the form of similitudes. 

To return to Maximus, he used a version of " Plu- 
tarch " preserved for us in Paris, gr. 1168, redistribut- 
ing the material to suit his own chapter-headings. 
This ms. reproduces a corpus of gnomologia, Elter's 
Corpus Parisinum, which contained homoeomata 
drawn from other selections besides " Plutarch," in- 
cluding that just mentioned ; some of these, too, 
were incorporated by Maximus, along with associated 
yviofiat ; thus he provided a happy hunting-ground 
for Bernardakis and others who were prepared not 
only to accept his attributions to Plutarch, but also 
to include adjacent yvoj/iat, and to " emend " other 
ascriptions. 

At first sight there is some hope of finding new 
fragments of Plutarch in Maximus, since he in fact 
gives a number of extracts drawn from surviving 
works. These are confined, however, to the Lives 
and the popular collection of 'HOikul which Planudes 
later put in the forefront of his edition (Plan. 1-21) ; 
there is no reason to suppose that Maximus was able 

° This explains why there is some overlap between the 
fragmenta incerta of Plutarch (Bernardakis), Isocrates (Ben- 
seler-Blass), and Epictetus (Schweighauser). 

409 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

to draw from any works now lost, except through 
Stobaeus as an intermediary. Neither Maximus nor 
any of the gnomologia, with their shifting ascriptions, 
provide a source for genuine new fragments. I have 
therefore omitted Bernardakis' fragments 8-130. He 
gives no reason for including 132, nor has Patzig any 
ground for claiming 139 as Plutarchean. 143 and 
144 refer to the neo-platonist. 151 was, as Bernard- 
akis himself notes, correctly rejected by Wyttenbach. 
The origin of 152 is the gnomologium of Georgidas 
(Boissonade, Anecdota graeca, i. 94). 

The ms. in which Bernardakis found 149 is an an- 
thology, and the ascription to Plutarch of these 
twenty-two notes, mostly concerned with physiology, 
must be suspect. If it were correct, one would expect 
to find some of their matter repeated elsewhere in 
his writings. As this seems not to be the case, I have 
excluded the fragment along with those mentioned 
above. 



410 



INDEX OF NAMES 



[The letter L. before a number refers to that number in 
the Lamprias Catalogue, pp. 8-29.] 



Abdera, 333 

Academic, L. 64, L. 71, L. 131, 

L. 134 
Academy, L. 63 
Acarnanians, 141 
Achilles, L. 187, 57 
Acragas, 335 
Adrasteia, 99 
Aeaea, 371 

Aemilius (Paullus), L. 11 
Aeschylus, 245, 357 
Aetolians, 141 
Agamedes, 247 
Agamemnon, 121 
Agatharchus, 397 
Agesilaiis, L. 21, 75 
Agis, L. 9 
Ajax, 121 
Alalcomeneus, 293 
Alcaeus, 177 
Alcibiades, L. 6, 253 
Alcidamas, L. 69 
Alexander, L. 22, L. 176, L. 186, 

207 
Alexandrians, L. 142 
Amasis, 193 
Ammonius, L. 84, 345 
Amorgos, 395 
Amphiaraiis, 231 
Amphidamas, 185 
Amphitrite, 361 
Anaximander, 327 
Anaximenes, 329 
Andania, a town in Messenia, 85 
Antiochus, 385-387 
Antipater, 381 

Antisthenes, the philosopher, 253 
Antisthenes, of Sybaris, 387 
Antony, L. 25 



Antyllus, 311 

Apollo, 213, 229-231, 247, 269, 
291 ; etymology of, 295 ; 
wooden statue in honour of, 
363 ; etymology of, 377 

Apollonia, 339 

Apollonius, of Perga, 365 

Aratus, author of Phaenomena, 
L. 40, L. 119, 89 ff. 

Aratus, L. 24 

Arcadia, 175, 189, 351 

Arcesilaus, 279, 343, 371 

Archilochus, 125 

Archytas, 247, 273 

Ares, 291 

Arethusa, 181 

Argos, temple of Hera at, 297 

Aristeides, L. 13, 263, 305 

Aristippus, 129, 335 

Aristomenes, L. 39, 85 

Aristophanes, L. 121 

Aristotle, L. 44 note, L. 56, 36-37 
note, 41 note b, 53 note c, 
61 note, 65, 69 note a, 129 
note b, 141 note e, 145, 149 
note a, 169, 183, 195 note b, 
237 note a, 239, 313 note b, 
321 note b, 371 note c, 391 
note 

Artaxerxes, L. 24 

Artemis, 291 

Asclepiades, L. Ill (L. 214) 

Asclepius, L. 214 textual note 

Ascra, 183 

Asiatic 229 

Asphaleus, a title of Poseidon, see 
Lord of Security 

AthenS, 121, 297 ; cf. Bronze 
House 

411 



INDEX OF NAMES 



Athenians, L. 197, 167, 189, 209, 
213, 217, 267, 297, 305, 335 
Athens, 287, 345, 381, 387 
Attica, 103 
Augustus, L. 26 

Bestia, L. 157 textual note 
Bion, 397 
Bithynus, 83 
Biton, 249 
Boedromion, 267 
Boeotia, 293, 295 
Boeotians, 119, 159, 167 
Bosporos, 141 
Bronze House, 243 
Brutus, L. 20 
Bucatios, 167 
Byzantium, 141 

Caesar, Julius, L. 22 

Callicles, 367 

Callimachus, 297 

Callithyia, 297 

Camillus, L. 3 

Canus, Julius, 385-387 

Carneades, 359 

Carthaginians, 389 

Cato, L. 8, L. 13, 141, 143 

Celeiis, 103 

Celts, 349 

Chabrias, 267 

Chalcedon, 141 

Chalcis, 181, 185 

Charybdis, 325 

Chilon, 309 

Chios, 337 

Chrysippus, L. 59, 145 note a, 

241, 359 
Cicero, L. 23 
Cilicia, 381 
Cimon, L. 19 
Circe, 369 ff. 
Cithaeron, 289, 293 
Claudius (Caesar), L. 29 
Cleobis, 249 
Cleomenes, L. 9 
Colophon, 331 
Colotes, L. 81 
Corinth, 395 
Coriolanus, L. 6 
Corope, 231 
Crassus, L. 18 
Crates, L. 37, 83 
Cretan, 229 
Cyclops, 239 

412 



Cydippe, 249 

Cyllene, 351 

Cynegirus, 263 

Cynoscephali, a Theban village, 

83 
Cyrenaic, L. 188 textual note 
CyrenS, 335 

DaidalS, 293 
Daiphantus, L. 38, 83 
Danatis, 297 
Danes, 347 
Delos, 297 

Delphi, L. 117, 247, 377 
Demaratus, 391 
Demeter, 103, 163 
Demetrius, 395 
Demetrius, " the Pale," 229 
Demetrius, Poliorcetes, L. 25 
Democritus, 41, 333 
Demosthenes, L. 23 
Deo, 387 

Dio, L. 204, L. 227 
Diodorus Siculus, 387 
Diodotus, 49 

Diogenes, of Apollonia, 339 
Diogenes, the Cynic, 377 
Dion, of Syracuse, L. 20 
Dionysia, 387 

Dionysius, of Syracuse, 389 
Dionysius, of Thrace, 175 
Dionysus, 103, 243-245, 285-287, 
387 

Earth (Ge), Hera identified with, 

285 
Earth-shaker (Enosichthon), a 

title of Poseidon, 219 
Egypt, 153, 387 
Egyptian, 211, 213, 227, 287, 349, 

387, 397 
Eileithyia, 291, 347 
Elea, 333 
Eleusis, religious ceremonies at, 

103, 153, 387 
Elysian plain, 375 
Empedocles, L. 24, 103, 335, 371 
Enosichthon, see Earth-shaker 
Epaminondas, L. 7, 75 
Ephesians, 165 
Epicureans, L. 129, L. 143, 315 

note a, 321 note a, 359 note 

c, 393 
Epicurus, L. 80, L. 82, L. 133, 

L. 155, L. 159, 239, 241, 335 



INDEX OF NAMES 



Epimenides, 111 
Eratosthenes, 247 
Eretrians, 185 
Eridanus, the Po, 349 
Erysichthon, 295 
Euboea, 231, 289 
Eumenes, L. 12 

Euripides, L. 224, 245, 257 note, 
259 note 

Fabius Maximus, L. 5 
Favorinus, L. 132 
Flaccus, 141 
Fulvius, 77, 79 

Gaius (Caesar). L. 31, 385-387 

Galba, L. 32 

Gamelidn, 167 

Gamelios, a title of Hera, 289 

Germanicus, 393 note 

Giants, 349 

God, 267, 349, 355, 361 

Gorgias, 205, 347, 365-367 

Gracchus, Tiberius, L. 10, 77 

Gracchus, Gaius, L. 10, 77, 79 

Great Goddess (Megale), 103 

Greece (Hellas), 81 

Greek (Hellenic), L. 128, 265, 309, 

327 
Greeks, the (Hellenes), L.166, 121, 

285, 349, 385, 387 

Hannibal, 77 

Harmonides, 225 

Helen, a painting of by Zeuxis, 
253 

Helicon, 183, 185 

Helios, the sun. 291 

Hephaestus, 363 

Hera, 117, 249 ; contrasted with 
Dionysus, 285 ff. 297 ; cf. 
Zeus, Leto, Peiras, Alal- 
comeneus 

Heracleon, 311 

Heracles, L. 34, 79-81, 111, 237 

Heraclides, 47, 141 note e 

Heraclitus, L. 205, 207, 245, 325, 
375 

Heraclitus, the founder of agri- 
culture, 397 

Hermafos, 167 note 

Hermes, 373 

Hermes, title of a work by Era- 
tosthenes, 247 

Hermippus, 109 



Herodorus, 109 

Herodotus, L. 122, 85 

Hesiod, L. 35 ; material for life 

of, 81 ; commentary on 

Works and Days, 105-227, 

295, 325 
Hestia, 139 

Hikesios, a title of Zeus, 133 
Hippias, 281, 283 
Ilipponax, 125 
Homer, passages from quoted or 

referred to : 
II. i. 165, 55; Od.i. 47, 77; II. 

x. 192-193, 99-101 ; II. viii. 

198, 117 ; Od. xvii. 347, II. 

xxiv. 45, 133 ; II. ix. 220, 

135 ; Od. x. 362, 201 note 

c ; II. v. 60, 225 , II. xi. 256, 

243 note b ; Od. xxi. 35, 

245; Od. ii. 271, 265; Od. 

ix. 27, 279 note b ; II. xvi. 

187, 291; Od. i. 423, 317; 

Od. xii. 432, 325 ; Od. iv. 

392, 335; Od. xii. 97, 361; 

Od. x. 239-240, 369 ; Od. x. 

190-191, 371 ; Od. iv. 563, 

375 ; Od. x. 277, 375 note a ; 

II. ii. 246-247, 381 ; Od. xix. 

40, 381 ; Od. xix. 42-43. Od. 

x. 510, 383 ; Od. xxii. 347, 

397 
see also 175-177, 187 note a, 

239, 291 note a 
Homeric Studies, title of a work 

by Plutarch, L. 42, 239-243 
Homognios, a title of Zeus, 133 
Horus, 51 
Hyampolis, 85 

Iliad, L. 123 

Io, 349 

Ionians, 167, 349 

Iortius, 343 

iris, the rainbow, 257 

]sis. L, 118, 387, notes to 50-51 

Ithaca, 279 

Jor, 347 

Jordan, river, 347 
Julia Domna, 352 note a 
Julius Canus, see Canus 

Lampis, 153 

Lelantine plain, 185, 187 note a 

LOuaion, 167 

413 



INDEX OF NAMES 



Leontini, 347 

Leto, 285 ; titles of, 289 ; identi- 
fied with Hera, 289-291 

Iindus, 297 

Lord of Security, Asphaleios, a 
title of Poseidon, 219 

Lucullus, L. 19 

Lycurgus, L. 2, 135, 151, 157, 
189 note c 

Lysander, L. 15 

Macedonia, 351 

Macris, nurse of Hera, 289 

Maecenas, 343 

Maiden, the, 103 

Marcellus, L. 14 

Marcus Coriolanus, see Coriola- 

nus 
Marius, L. 16 
MegalS, see Great Goddess 
Meliai, nymphs, 115 
Menander, L. 121, 249-253 
Meno, title of Plato's dialogue, 391 
Messenian (wars), 85 
Metrodorus, the Epicurean, 125 
Metrodorus, of Chios, 337 
Midas, 263 
Miletus, 311 
Mnemosyne, 393, 399 
Muse(s), 269, 363, 393, 399 
Museion, the Temple of the 

Muses, 183 
Mychia, a title of Leto, 289 
Myron, 393 

Naxos, 267 

Neocles, 304 textual note 6, 335 

Nero, L. 30 

Nestor, 99-101 

Nicandas, 313 

Nicander, L. 120 ; his Theriaca, 

227 ff. 
Nicias, L. 18 
Nicomachus, 251 
Numa, L. 2, 135 
Numantia, 77 
Nychia, a title of Leto, 289 
Nymphidius Sabinus, 79 
Nymphs, 115, 269, 293 

Odrysian, 387 
Odysseus, 237, 265, 325 
Oeta, 81 

Olympia, L. 24 ; running track 
at, 81 

414 



Olympian (Zeus), 81 

Olympus, 351, 383 

Orchomenos, 183 

OropS, 231 

Orpheus, 209, 387 

Orphism, 103 ; Orphic poems, 

287, 316 note, 377 note a 
Osiris, 51 note, 227, 387 
Otho, L. 32 

Pamphos, 157 

Pan, 269 

Panaetius, 189 

Panathenaic festival, 387 

Parmenides, 333 

Patrocleas, opposes the immor- 
tality of the soul, 313 ff. 

Paullus Aemilius, see Aemilius 

Pausanias, 243 

Peiras, 297 

Pelopidas, L. 14 

Pelusium, 211 

Pepromene (Destiny), 99 

Pergamum, L. 214 

Pericles, L. 5 

Peripatetics, 391 

Persephone, 183-185 

Phemius, 397 

Phestia, textual note to L. 157 

Philopoemen, L. 17 

Philoxenus, 253 

Phlius, in Attica, 103 

Phocians, 85 

Phocion, L. 8 

Phocis, 83 

Phoenicians, 387 

Phrygians, 287 

Pindar ,L. 36 ; material for life of, 
83 

Pisa, 81 

Pithoigia, 147 

Pithos, 157 

Pittacus, 193 

Platea, festival of images at, L. 
201, 283 ff., 293 

Plato, the comic poet, 115 

Plato, L. 63, L. 65, L. 66, L. 70, 
L. 136, L. 221 
passages quoted or referred to : 
Rep. 440 A, 41 ; Phaed. 99 B, 
49 note d ; Phaed. 82 a ; 
Rep. 430 c, 69 note ; Phileb. 
39 A, 103 ; Laws 677 D-E, 
111 ; Phaedr. 247 a, 117 ; 
Laws 931 A, 133 note b, 189 



INDEX OF NAMES 



note a ; Laws 728 c, 135 
note a ; Laws 923, 151 ; 
Laws 746 E, 155 ; Laws 730 c, 
191 ; Laws 789 B-E, 203 note 
a ; Laws 650 a, 245 ; Laws 
854 b, 255 ; Rep. 528 c, 273 ; 
Laws 775 b-d, 287 ; Gorg. 
462 e, 495 D, 367 and note ; 
Phaed. 81 E, 369 ; Laws 
773 r>, 385 ; Meno' 81 D, 
391 ; Phaed. 73 D, 74 D, 399 
see also 187, 205, 267 note a, 
269 note a, 275 note a, 289 
note d, 323 note a, 365 notes 

a, e, 371 note c, 373 notes a, 

b, c, 375 note c, 377, 387 note 
e, 391, 393 note c 

cf. Socrates, 117, 253 
Pleiads, 153 
Po, a river in N. Italy, see Eri- 

danus 
Polemarchus, 395 
Polias, 297 
Pompey, L. 21 
Poplicolas, L. 4 
Poseidon, 217-219 
Posidonius, 47 
Prometheus, 111 
Protagoras, L. 141 
Prothoiis, 75 
Pyrrho, L. 158 
Pyrrhonians, L. 64 
Pyrrhus, L. 16, 77 
Pythagoras, 81, 369 
Pythagoreans, 189, 199, 209 note 

a, 239, 316 note, 375-377, 

383 
Pythia, title of Apollo's priestess 

at Delphi, L. 116 



Rectus, 387 

Rhadamanthys, 375 

Rhianus, 85 

Rhodes, 345 

Roman, L. 128, L. 138 

Romans, L. 175, 77, 135 

Romulus, L. 1 



Sabinus, 79 
Salamis, 267 
Samians, 297 
Sarapis, L. 118 
Sardanapallus, 263 
Scelmis, 297 



Scipio, L. 7, 77 

Scipio, Africanus, L. 28, 77-79 

Seleucia, 385 

Sertorius, L. 12 

Severus, 345 

Sicily, 163 

Simonides, 385 

Sirius, 177 

Socrates, L. 69, L. 189, L. 190, 
117, 127, 163, 253, 265, 279 
note a, 305 

Solon, L. 4 

Sophocles, 245, 259 note d, 379, 
385 

Sosicles, L. 57, note to 311 

Sositles, 311 note b 

Sparta, 189, 195 

Spartan, L. 169, L. 213, 75, 85, 
119-121, 135, 161, 189, 241 

Sphinx, 257 

Stoics, L. 76, L. 77, L. 78, L. 79, 
L. 148, L. 149, L. 154, 39 
note a, 41 note a, 55 notes, 
99 note b, 103 note c, 249 
note b, 295 note a, 353 note c, 
381, 385, 391 ff. 

Strato, 43-47, 397 

Sulla, L. 15 

Susa, 389 

Sybaris, 389 

Teleios, a title of Hera, 289 

Telemachus, 265, 381 

Thales, 327 

Theban, 83 

Themison, 395 

Themistocles, L. 3, 143, 304 tex- 
tual note 6 

Theogamia, 217 

Theon, 229 

Iheophrastus, L. 53, 43, 95 

Thersites, 381 

Theseus, L. 1 

Thesmophoria, 387 

Thespians, 183 

Thessaly, 231, 241 

Tiberius (Caesar), L. 27, 345, 393 

Tiberius Gracchus, see Gracchus 

Tigellinus, 79 

Timocrates, 125 

Timoleon, L. 11 

Timon, argues for the immor- 
tality of the soul, 313 ff. 

Timotheus, 375 

Tiryns, 297 

415 



INDEX OF NAMES 



Titus, L. 17 
Triptolemus, 103 
Triton, 293 
Trophonius, L. 181 
Trophonius, 247 
Typhon, 219 

Vitellius, L. 33 

Xenios, a title of Zeus, 133 
Xenocrates, 151, 187, 207 
Xenophanes, 127, 331 



Xenonphon, 259 ote d, 261 
Xerxes, 263 

Zeno, of Elea, 333 
Zeno, the Stoic, 127, 357 
Zephyr, the West wind, 179 
Zeus, temple of at Olympia, 81, 
109, 123 ; titles of, 133 ; 
fatherhood of, 133, cf. 189, 
151 note e, 161-163, 285, 289, 
293-295 ; cf. Alalcomeneus 
Zeuxis, his portrait of Helen, 251 



416 



INDEX OF SUBJECTS 1 



[the more important references and subjects] 



" actual " and " potential," 63 ff. 

affections, 35-39 

almond, 229 

anger, see rage 

angle, 365 

animals, man's treatment of, 

353 ff. 
arts, the, 273 
Atticism, a feature of style, 347 

bay- tree, connected with Hephae- 
stus, 363 

BEAUTY, 269-273; cf. "the 
beautiful (people)," 261 

bronze, 113-115 

CALUMNY, 281-283 
cuttle-fish, 169 

dawn, 175-177 ; cf. mist 

death, 239, 313 ff., 369 ff., 379- 

381 ; cf. Miletus 
demons, effect of bay tree on, 363 
DESIRE, 39 ff. 
destiny, see fate 
Divine Cause, 365 
drink, watering of, 179-181, 385 

education, 299, 369 
elephant, 237 
envy, see calumny 
etymology : P. explains the fol- 
lowing (i) proper names : 

Adrasteia, 99 

Aeaea, 371 

Apollo, 291, 363 

Ares, 291 

Circe, 371 



Elysium, 375 
Hikesios, 133 
Homognios, 133 
Jordan, 347 
Leto, 289 
Mychia, 289 
Nychia, 289 
Peprdmene, 99 
Pithos, 157 
Xenios, 133 

and (ii) words : 
ainein, 183 
aletheia, 393 
aps, 345 
bios, 317 
demas, 317 
genesis, 315 
genethlion, 315 
kotos, 325 
ololenai, 317 
teleisthai, 325 
televtdn, 325 
thanatos, 315 

fate, 99-101, 371 

fear, as an indication of our pre- 
vious life, 393-395 

filbert, 347 

fire, 93 ; beauty's likeness to it, 
261 ; wickedness compared 
to it, 263, 281 ; Hephaestus 
as god of, 363 ; Apollo 
identified with, 363 

foreknowledge, 97-103, 129 

forge tfulness, 245, 391 

fortune, 131 

FRIENDLINESS, 299 ff. 

friends, 139, 189-191, 309 



1 An entry entirely in capitals denotes a title or part of a title. 



417 



INDEX OF SUBJECTS 



gifts, 143-145, 299 
God, 267, 349, 355, 361 
gold, 297 

GOOD BIRTH, 261-265 
goodwill, 301 
GRIEF, 39 ff. 

hearth, 197 

heroes, 209 

" house-bearer," the snail, 175 

hydrometer (?), 181 note 

images, 283 ff., 295-297, 349 ; 
fathers as images of the gods, 
189 ; cf. Hephaestus 

infinite, the, see Anaximander 

irrationality, 397 

ivory, 297 

justice, 117-119, 123, 124 

knife, 199, 247 
knowledge, 391 ff. 

lies 191 

LOVE, 249-261 ; contrasted witli 

strife, 335 
luck, 131 

marriage, 303, 379 
memory, 103, 393, 399 
mist, 171 

mixing-bowl, as a symbol, 199 
moon, 209-211, 213 ff., 223-225, 
375, 387 

nature, 237, 371, 397 ; i.e. na- 
tural endowment, 307 

necessity, 273 ; a factor in the 
views of Democritus, 333 

nobility, see GOOD BIRTH 

opposites, 63-68 

parsnip, 229 

pig, a unique animal, 359 
PLEASURE, 231 ff, 273, 321, 
335 



poplar, black, 383 
" potential," and " actual," 63 ff. 
poverty, 191-193, 279, 305 
PROPHECY, 273 ; cf. bay-tree 
providence, 123, 125, 365 
punishment, 303 

QUIETUDE, 267 

RAGE, 275, 281 

rain, in the springtime, 163 

rainbow, see Iris 

recollection, and forgetting, 391 ff. 

repute, 205 

rhetoric, as defined by Gorgias, 

365-367 
rook, 199 

sacrifice, 135-137, 201 

scorpion, 347 

silver, 113, 297 

sleep, its power, 319 ff.\ 395 

snail, 175 

SOUL, 307 ff., 369 ff, 387, 391, 

395 ff. 
spurious works, discussion of, 

403 ff. ; cf. 32 ff. 
stealing, 145 ; columny as a form 

of, 283 
STRENGTH, 237 
sun, 89-93 ; movement of plants 

in conjunction with, 209 ; 

likened to fire, 363, 371; 

regarded as an early god, 

387 
swallow, 199 

trickery, 301 

usefulness, 359, 361 

virtue, a product of wealth, 279 ; 
preferable to wealth, 305 

water, 181 

WEALTH, 111, 277-279, 303-305 

willow, 383 

wood, see images 



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R.M.Geer. Vol. XI. F.Walton. Vol. XII. F.Walton. General 

Index. R. M. Geer. 
Diogenes Laertius. R. D. Hicks. 2 Vols. New Introduction by H. S. 

Long. 
Dionysius of Halicarnassus: Roman Antiquities. Spelman's trans- 
lation revised by E. Cary. 7 Vols. 



Dionysius of Halicarnassus: Critical Essays. S. Usher. 2 Vols. 

Epictetus. W. A. Oldfather. 2 Vols. 

Euripides. A. S. Way. 4 Vols. Verse trans. 

Eusebius: Ecclesiastical History. Kirsopp Lake and J. E. L. 
Oulton. 2 Vols. 

Galen: On the Natural Faculties. A. J. Brock. 

Greek Anthology. W. R. Paton. 5 Vols. 

Greek Bucolic Poets (Theocritus, Bion, Moschus). J. M. Edmonds. 

Greek Elegy and Iambus with the Anacreontea. J. M. Edmonds. 2 
Vols. 

Greek Lyric. D. A. Campbell. 4 Vols. Vols. I. and II. 

Greek Mathematical Works. Ivor Thomas. 2 Vols. 

Herodes. Cf. Theophrastus: Characters. 

Herodian. C. R. Whittaker. 2 Vols. 

Herodotus. A. D. Godley. 4 Vols. 

Hesiod and The Homeric Hymns. H. G. Evelyn White. 

Hippocrates and the Fragments of Heracleitus. W. H. S. Jones and 
E. T. Withington. 5 Vols. Vols. I.-IV. 

Homer: Iliad. A. T. Murray. 2 Vols. 

Homer: Odyssey. A. T. Murray. 2 Vols. 

Isaeus. E. W. Forster. 

Isocrates. George Norlin and LaRue Van Hook. 3 Vols. 

[St. John Damascene]: Barlaam and Ioasaph. Rev. G. R. Wood- 
ward, Harold Mattingly and D. M. Lang. 

Josephus. 10 Vols. Vols. I.-IV. H. Thackeray. Vol. V. H. 
Thackeray and R. Marcus. Vols. VI. -VII. R. Marcus. Vol. 
VIII. R. Marcus and Allen Wikgren. Vols. IX.-X. L. H. 
Feldman. 

Julian. Wilmer Cave Wright. 3 Vols. 

Libanius. A.F.Norman. 2 Vols.. 

Lucian. 8 Vols. Vols. I.-V. A.M.Harmon. Vol. VI. K. Kilburn. 
Vols. VII.-VIII. M. D. Macleod. 

Lycophron. Cf. Callimachus. 

Lyra Graeca, III. J. M. Edmonds. (Vols. Land II. have been re- 
placed by Greek Lyric I. and II.) 

Lysias. W. R. M. Lamb. 

Manetho. W. G. Waddell. 

Marcus Aurelius. C. R. Haines. 

Menander. W. G. Arnott. 3 Vols. Vol. I. 

Minor Attic Orators (Antiphon, Andocides, Lycurgus, Demades, 
Din archus , H yperides) . K.J. Maidment and J . O . Burtt . 2 Vols . 

Musaeus: Hero and Leander. Cf. Callimachus. 

Nonnos: Dionysiaca. W. H. D. Rouse. 3 Vols. 

Oppian, Colluthus, Tryphiodorus. A. W. Mair. 

Papyri. Non-Literary Selections. A. S. Hunt and C. C. Edgar. 2 
Vols. Literary Selections (Poetry). D. L. Page. 



Parthenius. Cf. Daphnis and Chloe. 

Pausanias: Descriffion of Greece. W. H. S. Jones. 4 Vols, and 

Companion Vol. arranged by R. E. Wycherley. 
Philo. 10 Vols. Vols. I.-V. F. H. Colson and Rev. G. H. Whitaker. 

Vols. VI.-IX. F. H. Colson. Vol. X. F. H. Colson and the Rev. 

J. W. Earp. 
Philo: two supplementary Vols. (Translation only.) Ralph Marcus. 
Philostratus: The Life of Apollonius of Tyana. F. C. Conybeare. 

2 Vols. 
Philostratus: Imagines; Callistratus: Descriptions. A. Fairbanks. 
Philostratus and Eunapius: Lives of the Sophists. Wilmer Cave 

Wright. 
Pindar. Sir J. E. Sandys. 
Plato: Charmides, Alcibiades, Hipparchus, The Lovers, Theages, 

Minos and Epinomis. W. R. M. Lamb. 
Plato: Cratylus, Parmenides, Greater Hippias, Lesser Hippias. H. 

N. Fowler. 
Plato: Euthyphro, Apology, Crito, Phaedo, Phaedrus. H. N. 

Fowler. 
Plato: Laches, Protagoras, Meno, Euthydemus. W. R. M. Lamb. 
Plato: Laws. Rev. R. G. Bury. 2 Vols. 
Plato: Lysis, Symposium, Gorgias. W. R. M. Lamb. 
Plato: Republic. Paul Shorey. 2 Vols. 

Plato: Statesman, Philebus. H. N. Fowler; Ion. W. R. M. Lamb. 
Plato: Theaetetus and Sophist. H. N. Fowler. 
Plato: Timaeus, Critias, Clitopho, Menexenus, Epistulae. Rev. R. 

G. Bury. 
Plotinus: A. H. Armstrong. 7 Vols. 
Plutarch: Morali a. 16 Vols. Vols. I.-V. F. C. Babbitt. Vol. VI. 

W. C. Helmbold. Vols. VII. and XIV. P. H. De Lacy and B. 

Einarson. Vol. VIII. P. A. Clement and H. B. Hoffleit. Vol. 

IX. E. L. Minar, Jr., F. H. Sandbach, W. C. Helmbold. Vol. X. 

H. N. Fowler. Vol. XL L. Pearson and F. H. Sandbach. Vol. 

XII. H. Cherniss and W. C. Helmbold. Vol. XIII. 1-2. H. Cher- 

niss. Vol. XV. F. H. Sandbach. 
Plutarch: The Parallel Lives. B. Perrin. 11 Vols. 
Polybius. W. R. Paton. 6 Vols. 
Procopius. H. B. Dewing. 7 Vols. 
Ptolemy: Tetrabiblos. F. E. Robbins. 
Quintus Smyrnaeus. A. S. Way. Verse trans. 
Sextus Empiricus. Rev. R. G. Bury. 4 Vols. 
Sophocles. F. Storr. 2 Vols. Verse trans. 
Strabo: Geography. Horace L. Jones. 8 Vols. 
Theocritus. Cf. Greek Bucolic Poets. 
Theophrastus: Characters. J. M. Edmonds. Herodes, etc. A. D. 

Knox. 



Theophrastus: Enquiry into Plants. Sir Arthur Hort, Bart. 2 Vols. 

Theophrastus: De Causis Plantarum. G. K. K. Link and B. Einar- 
son. 3 Vols. Vol. I. 

Thucydides. C. F. Smith. 4 Vols. 

Tryphiodorus. Cf. Oppian. 

Xenophon: Cyropaedia. Walter Miller. 2 Vols. 

Xenophon: Hellencia. C. L. Brownson. 2 Vols. 

Xenophon: Anabasis. C. L. Brownson. 

Xenophon: Memorabilia and Oeconomicus. E. C. Marchant. Sym- 
posium and Apology. O. J. Todd. 

Xenophon: Scripta Minora. E. C. Marchant. Constitution of the 
Athenians. G. W. Bowersock. 



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